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Chapter I Descriptive 7 

II While the Indian was Here 27 

III The European Forefathers 34 

IV America in 1745 46 

V Colonial Virginia 50 

VI Exploration Beyond the Mountains 57 

VII Early Days of Settlement 67 

VIII The Time of Indian Peril 74 

IX Highland Under the British Crown 86 

X The Dunmore War and the Revolution 100 

XI Under Pendleton and Bath 107 

XII The New County 114 

XIII Highland in the War of 1861 118 

XIV Churches and Fraternities 142 

XV Schools and the Professions 150 

XVI Towns, Villages, and Hamlets 158 

XVII Land Ownership 163 

XVIII Civil Officers 180 

XIX Highland Militia 184 

XX Highland Soldiers 189 

XXI The Negro in Highland 211 

XXII The Highlander Abroad 216 

XXIII Biographic Paragraphs 221 

XXIV The Highland of To-day and To-morrow 227 


Section I Given Names and Surnames 236 

II Classification of Highland Families 241 

III Explanatory 245 

IV Outline Sketch of Pioneer Families 250 

V Adjunct Families 254 

VI Pioneer and Sub-Pioneer Families 256 

VII Border Families 353 

VIII Recent Families 373 

IX Extinct Families 377 



A Population in Different Years 390 

B The Settlers of 150 Years Ago 391 

C Tithables in 1822 391 

D Householders in 1848 394 

E Statistical Items 395 

F Act of Assembly Establishing Highland 396 

G Boundary Survey of 1848 399 

H Church Letter of William Wilson 401 

I Surveys in Bath, 1744-6 402 

J School Statistics 403 

K Post Offices, Past and Present 405 

L Bond by James Knox 406 

M Appraisement of Seybert Estate 407 

N Servant's Indenture 408 

O Soldier's Oath, 1777 408 

P Attest of Naturalization 408 

Q Tavern Prices in Colonial Days 409 

R Prices of Store Goods in 1820 411 

S Sundry Prices in Former Years 412 

T Regent's Letter to Charles P. Jones 414 

U The Hooke Family 416 


Map of Highland County Opposite Title 

A Pasture in Highland Opposite 1 

Crabbottom Gap Opposite 24 

A House of the Indian Period Opposite 48 

The Fort Meadow Opposite 64 

Site of the Wilson Home Opposite 84 

Map of the McDowell Battlefield Opposite 128 

The Town of McDowell Opposite 136 

The Town of Monterey Opposite 160 

A Highland Farm-house of To-day Opposite 176 

Powder House Key Opposite 1 84 

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THE work of collecting material for this history of Highland 
was begun in last September. Nearly every portion of the 
county was visited, as well as the courthouses of Orange, 
Augusta, Pendleton, and Bath. The archives at Richmond were 
also consulted. Several books were likewise examined which 
have a direct bearing on the annals of this region. 

Compilers of local history often give the greater share of space 
to biographic mention of contemporary citizens, a feature which 
they contrive to make remunerative. But aside from such perma- 
nent value as these articles may possess, it would seem scarcely a 
fair deal to single out certain individuals for genealogic tracing, 
ignoring meanwhile the collateral lines. Those who are passed 
over are not always less conspicuous, and the most of them are 
worthy members of the community. 

Instead of tracing backward from the subject of a special 
sketch, the present writer has preferred to trace forward from 
the pioneer ancestor, thus giving a comprehensive outline of the 
entire connection. To accomplish this end a large amount of 
patient work is necessary, but the appearance of partiality is 
avoided and the interest of the whole community is awakened. 

In a county like Highland the posterity of the pioneers form, 
with a very few exceptions, the entire body of the population. 
To know beyond a reasonable doubt that he has a pioneer sire will 
be of quite as much interest to the Highland man of to-morrow 
as it is to know that he has a Revolutionary sire, the two persons, 
indeed, often being one and the same. As yet it is generally 
possible to trace the line of descent. But oftentimes it is none 
too easy to do so, and as the older people pass away, the difficulty 
increases abruptly and very much. 

With respect to this feature of his book, the writer does not 
guarantee its accuracy. The statements given him had to be taken 
for what they might be worth. Yet he has examined them all 
with care, making the results more accurate wherever it seemed 
possible to do so, and throwing out that which was evidently 

When the writer began this effort he was a stranger to High- 
land county and its people. To a person thus situated there is the 
possibility of keeping free from bias and treating all persons and 
all interests with fairness. Yet on the other hand his unfamiliar- 
ity with his field at the start places him at a disadvantage. 

The writer of this volume has sought to preserve for the 
future such material as could still be gathered. He has intention- 
ally dwelt more on the pioneer than on the recent period. The 
knowledge of the former is fast slipping away, and much is 
already lost beyond recovery. A knowledge of the latter will 
remain for a while on much firmer ground. Consequently he has 
not made his book a general directory of Highland as it is to-day. 
Such a result is not true history. It is a mere description of the 
passing moment, and begins to fall out of date as soon as the ink 
is dry. 

The book being constructed on a topical plan, an index is not 
included. Matter appropriate to a particular chapter is ordinarily 
to be found in that chapter alone. 

Some incidental mention is made of Bath County. This fea- 
ture was not further developed because a history of Bath is con- 
templated by another person. 

While sojourning in Highland the writer has traveled about 
547 miles on foot and 266 by conveyance. He has been entertain- 
ed in the homes of seventy-two of the citizens. He interviewed 
168 persons, besides receiving written communications which 
would raise the number to nearly 200. He has been treated with 
unfailing hospitality and cordiality. A warm and helpful interest 
in his undertaking has everywhere been expressed. The prepara- 
tion of these annals of an historic county has therefore been 
attended with pleasure. It is hoped that the book may prove of 
some lasting value to the people for whom it was written. 

A number of the people of Highland have been helpful to the 
writer in a very marked degree. To certain of them is due the 
credit of making this book a possibility. That no person might 
inadvertently be overlooked, mention by name is not given. But 
he here offers his most sincere thanks to all persons whomsoever 
who have in any manner aided him in his work. 

Oren F. Morton. 
McDowell, Va., Sept., 11, 1911. 



Position of County - Form - Boundaries - Mountains - Valleys - Streams - 
Springs - Mineral Waters - Geology - Soil - Minerals - Climate - Animals - 
Vegetation - Scenic Attractions - Adaptability to the Pioneers - Names 
of Natural Features - Changes in Names. 

HISTORY is not clearly understood without the help of 
physical geography. Conditions of soil, climate, animal 
and vegetable life, and the nature of the surface, whether 
damp or dry, level or mountainous, have very much to do with 
moulding the habits of the people who settle a new region. 

Of the many hundreds of counties in the United States, 
only two bear the name of Highland. These are in Virginia 
and Ohio. The south corner of the Virginian county lies only 
a few miles northwest of the geographic center of the original 
Old Dominion, the northern Panhandle of the newer state 
being left out of consideration. In latitude Highland lies be- 
tween the parallels of 38 degrees, 12 minutes, and 38 degrees, 
35 minutes. In longitude it lies between the meridians of 1 
degree, 20 minutes, and 1 degree, 48 minutes, west from Wash- 

A glance at the map shows that Highland lies in the middle 
distance between the Canadian border and the Gulf of Mexico. 
By road the distance from Monterey to Richmond is 182 miles, 
and to Hampton Roads, where lie the Virginian seaports, the 
distance is 257 miles. To the great cities of Washington, 
Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York, the distances are 198, 
238, 296, and 386 miles, respectively. Looking westward, we 
find that Chicago, which is second only to New York among 
American cities, is by air line scarcely more than one-fifth as 
far away as San Francisco. These comparatively short dis- 
tances have a bearing on the future of Highland. 

A second glance at the map shows that Highland lies al- 
most in the very center of the Appalachian Uplift. The White 

8 History of Highland County 

Mountains of New Hampshire and the iron-filled hills around 
Birmingham in Alabama are equidistant from here. Appala- 
chian America is a large, interesting, and important region. 
It covers an area equal to that of the British Isles and is su- 
perior to them in its varied capabilities. It is a land of wooded 
hills, smiling valleys, wholesome air, and picturesque scenery. 
Its people are almost wholly of the colonial American stock. 
A well-known economist has remarked of it that "nowhere else 
in the United States, in an equal area, is to be found such an 
opportunity for diversity of employment in agriculture, min- 
ing, metallurgy, or varied manufactures." 

In form the county is an irregular quadrangle, its corners 
looking nearly toward the four cardinal points of the compass. 
The transverse distances are about 30 miles in a northerly and 
27 miles in an easterly direction. The circumference is slightly 
above 81 miles, the northern, eastern, southern, and western 
borders being, respectively, 18^, 23%, 16^, and 22^ miles. 
The area, according to the boundary survey of 1848, is 390 
square miles. But according to the books of the county sur- 
veyor, the area is 291,445 acres, or 455^ square miles. 

East and west Highland has natural boundaries. In the 
former direction the line follows the crest of the lofty Shenan- 
doah, or Great North Mountain. In the latter direction it fol- 
lows the backbone of the Alleghany system. North and south 
the boundaries are very artificial, being arbitrary lines drawn 
circuitously between the main Alleghany and the Shenandoah 
ridges. The bordering counties are Augusta and Bath in Vir- 
ginia, and Pendleton and Pocahontas in West Virginia. 

Between the bordering ranges four parallel elevations run 
entirely through the county, dividing it into five well-defined 
valleys. Passing from west to east, we may term these the 
Alleghany, the Bluegrass, the Monterey, the Bullpasture, and 
the Cowpasture valleys. Several minor elevations occur, the 
most conspicuous being Middle Mountain, Little Mountain, 
and Shaw's Ridge. 

In laying off Highland County into its three magisterial 
districts, these natural divisions have been observed. Blue- 
grass District includes the Alleghany and Bluegrass valleys. 

History of Highland County 9 

Monterey District includes only the Monterey Valley, while 
Stonewall District takes in the Bullpasture and Cowpasture 
valleys. The first and third are consequently larger than the 
second. Stonewall District covers 111,512 acres, Bluegrass, 
103,739, and Monterey, 76,194. 

The Main Alleghany, or Alleghany Front, is fairly regular 
in altitude, the average being about 4,000 feet. Lantz Moun- 
tain, forming the eastern border of what we have called the 
Alleghany Valley, is known in the south as Little Mountain. 
It is very perceptibly lower than the Alleghany Front and is 
steeper on its western side. The eastern slope is slightly scal- 
loped at very short intervals, and against the sky-line the 
evenness of the summit is broken only by slight prominences 
corresponding in number with the shallow depressions of 
which we have spoken. 

The next of the principal ridges is known as Back Creek 
Mountain south of Vanderpool Gap, as Monterey Mountain 
between Vanderpool and Crabbottom gaps, and as Backbone 
Mountain north of the latter. It is higher and broader than 
Lantz Mountain and its crest has less of a saw-tooth appear- 
ance. Jack Mountain, the next of the Highland ranges, is the 
most elevated of those lying within the county. In the south 
and likewise in the north it is a single ridge, but in the center 
it becomes complex. There are here two closely parallel 
heights, the western being the watershed, and opposite Mon- 
terey they connect by a low divide separating the sources of 
Crab Run and Straight Creek. In the main arm of Jack Moun- 
tain, four miles south of the county seat, is the commanding 
eminence of Sounding Knob, 4,400 feet above sea. It is the 
highest land within the county, and with a clear sky the view 
from the top is very extensive, even though much is screened 
by the ranges on either side. North and south the vistas are 
far-reaching, including even the distant Peaks of Otter. The 
name of the knob is derived from the hollow sound produced 
by footfalls on a certain limited spot, apparently the roof of a 
cavern. From Sounding Knob lateral spurs are thrown off, 
especially to the west and southwest. Immediately to the 
north is a very conspicuous depression in the main range. 

10 History of Highland County 

dividing the waters of Davis Run from those of Dry Branch. 

Bullpasture Mountain, the fourth of the leading internal 
ridges of Highland, is quite high, yet is less a well-defined 
range than any of the others. It is a belt of table land, occu- 
pying almost the entire breadth between its bordering rivers 
and cut by deep ravines into a labyrinth of hills. 

East of Bullpasture Mountain is Shaw's Ridge, a low, nar- 
row, isolated eminence entering from Pendleton and terminat- 
ing abruptly at the mouth of Shaw's Fork. Still further east 
is the massive Shenandoah Mountain, its lofty sky-line being 
quite uneven and showing toward the southeast corner of the 
county a deep depression. Short lateral spurs, nearly as high 
as the parent ridge, are thrown out toward the west and sink 
abruptly into the valley below. Along the flanks of both the 
main mountain and its spurs are shallow ravines scooped out 
of the steep slopes by the storms of uncounted years. 

Chief among the minor ridges of Highland is Little Moun- 
tain, . a western offshoot of Jack Mountain. It enters from 
Bath and runs northward until it meets and even passes Dick- 
son Hill, a divide coming from the direction of Sounding Knob. 
Another of the minor ridges is Middle Mountain, lying be- 
tween Lantz Mountain and the Alleghany. Redoak Knob, its 
culminating point, is 4,300 feet high. 

Along the Jack and Back Creek ranges are hills of varying 
length and moderate height. These are sometimes broken 
into knob-like prominences by transverse ravines. The conical 
knob is infrequent in Highland, although a few such projec- 
tions are thrust up from the eastern face of Back Creek Moun- 
tain opposite the mouth of Bolar Run. Another is the isolated 
hill just south of Monterey. 

A striking feature of the Appalachian system is the water 
gap, cleaving a mountain wall to its very base and causing a 
stream to leave one valley and flow into another. Several of 
the Highland ridges are interrupted by these narrow clefts. 
Lantz Mountain is thus broken by Mill Gap and Lower Gap, 
which are only a few miles apart. The Back Creek Range is 
interrupted by the Crabbottom Gap, near the north of the 
county and by Vanderpool Gap near the center. In Little 

History of Highland County 11 

Mountain is Bolar Gap and in the eastern arm of Jack Moun- 
tain are a few more, particularly the narrow pass on Crab Run. 
As passages for highways such gaps are very convenient and 
are nearly always thus used. 

It is now in order to mention the five valleys of Highland. 
The westernmost, which we call the Alleghany Valley, is 
deep, quite narrow, and thinly peopled. In the south it is 
drained by Back Creek, flowing southward. In the north it is 
drained by Straight Fork, a tributary of the North Fork. Yet 
this northern section of the Alleghany Valley is in fact double, 
because of Middle Mountain, a spur of the Alleghany Front. 
The sub-valley between these two ranges is shallow and there- 
fore very elevated. It is watered by Laurel Fork, which after 
meeting Straight Fork, beyond the Pendleton line, becomes 
known as the North Fork of the South Branch of the Potomac. 

The next, or Bluegrass Valley, illustrates two other notable 
features of the Appalachians. It is crossed by slight divides 
rendering its drainage complex instead of simple. It is also 
canoe-shaped, being quite long in comparison with its breadth. 
Its length, in fact, is that of the county. At the Bath boundary 
it is brought to an end by interlocking spurs of Back Creek 
and Lantz mountains. On the Pendleton line it is again shut 
in in the same manner. In this direction High Knob, nearly 
as lofty as Sounding Knob, towers midway between the bor- 
dering ranges causing this end of the valley to have a double 
termination like the points of a bootjack. 

In the northern half of the county, the Bluegrass Valley 
is much broader than in the southern, and is distinguished by 
the name of Crabbottom, a contraction of Crabapple Bottom. 
The upper and middle sections of the Crabbottom are rendered 
double by a very low ridge. The western and lower part of 
these sections is curiously interrupted by low, oblong hills, 
running not with the valley but across it. In the coves on 
either side of High Knob the surface is very broken. But 
toward the center is a large expanse of comparatively smooth 
land, almost suggestive of a Western prairie. This is the orig- 
inal Crabapple Bottom, the name not having been applied at 

12 History of Highland County 

first to the entire section of Bluegrass Valley now known as 
the Crabbottom. 

The drainage of the Crabbottom is northward and east- 
ward, and here is to be found the source of the South Branch 
of the Potomac. The middle section of Bluegrass Valley is 
bordered north and south by the low cross divides of which 
we have spoken. The drainage of this basin is southeastward 
through Vanderpool Gap. A southern and longer section of 
Bluegrass Valley was once termed "the Valley of Back Creek," 
but is now known as Big Back Creek to distinguish it from 
Little Back Creek, which is simply the Back Creek valley 
proper. The drainage of this district is westward by means 
of the two small streams which flow into Mill Run and Lower 

The Bluegrass Valley is of limestone formation. It is by all 
odds the most fertile and valuable of the five great valleys 
and is devoted almost exclusively to grazing. 

The Monterey Valley is so broken by minor ridges as to 
seem on a casual glance very narrow. North of its center a 
rather high cross ridge passes from Monterey Mountain to 
Jack Mountain, and on this water-parting lies the county seat. 
The hilly district reaching to the Pendleton line is known as 
the Straight Creek Valley. The middle part of Monterey 
Valley is mainly occupied by the basins of South Straight 
Creek and Dry Branch. Southward, on the east side is Big 
Valley, a limestone region like the Crabbottom. On the west 
side is the narrow valley of Jackson's River proper. Except 
as to the pastures of Big Valley and the fine bottoms of Jack- 
son's River, the Monterey Valley falls quite short of Bluegrass 
Valley in agricultural importance. 

The Bullpasture Valley is drained throughout by the river 
of the same name. Its lowlands are almost wholly to the west 
of the stream. Above the belt of river bottom lies a consider- 
able breadth of low tableland, sometimes hilly and sometimes 
comparatively level. The Bullpasture valley proper reaches 
into Bath as far as Burnsville, where it merges into the nar- 
rower valley of Dry Fork. 

Beyond Bullpasture Mountain is Cowpasture Valley, sim- 

History of Highland County 13 

ilar in its characteristics to the one last named. The uplands 
lie on the left bank rather than the right, and except for Shaw's 
Ridge in the upper half, it is quite free from minor elevations. 

Of the streams of Highland some mention has already been 
made. The average altitude of the county is quite high — 
about 2,800 feet — and the series of cross-ridges throws the 
drainage in opposite directions. Highland is, therefore, a 
birthplace of rivers. No fewer than ten streams flow out of 
it, while only two or three insignificant tributaries flow into 
it. Northward of the cross-ridges, Highland lies in the basin 
of the Potomac; southward it lies in the basin of the James. 
In the former section are the upper courses of Laurel Fork, 
Straight Fork, South Branch, Blackthorn, South Fork, and 
Brushy Fork. In the latter section are the upper courses of 
Back Creek, Jackson's River, the Bullpasture, and the Cow- 

At Hightown is a red-roofed barn, the rainwater from 
which feeds both the Potomac and the James. Nearby is the 
spring which is the fountain-head of the South Branch of the 
Potomac. In coursing down the Crabbottom the brook rapidly 
gains volume, especially from Spring Run and Wimer Run, 
which issue, respectively, from the coves on the western and 
eastern sides of High Knob. At Crabbottom village, eight 
miles from Hightown, the South Branch enters Crabbottom 
Gap as a large and rapid mill stream. At Forks of Waters, 
two miles below, it is joined by Straight Creek, a tributary of 
nearly equal size, and little more than a mile beyond it passes 
into West Virginia. Though already having fallen 700 feet, 
the altitude at the boundary line is 2,400 feet. 

Beyond Jack Mountain and near the village of Doe Hill is 
the head spring and a few hundred yards of the upper course 
of the Blackthorn, an important tributary of the South Branch. 
So inconspicuous is the divide from which it issues that one 
of its springs was with slight effort turned in the opposite 
direction for the better convenience of a milk house. From 
the divides where the Cowpasture and Shaw's Fork rise, there 
flow in the contrary direction the South Fork of the Potomac 

14 History of Highland County 

and its tributary, Brushy Fork, each crossing the state line as 
a small mill stream. 

Jackson's River also rises at Hightown, and collecting the 
drainage of a five-mile section of Bluegrass Valley, pours a 
considerable volume of water through Vanderpool Gap. With- 
in a few miles it is joined by South Straight Creek and by the 
sometimes hidden waters of Dry Branch. A still larger trib- 
utary is Bolar Run, which collects the drainage of Big Valley 
and also of Little Valley, an arm of the latter reaching into 
Bath. Bolar Run crosses and recrosses the Bath line, but is 
essentially a Highland stream. Toward the county line Jack- 
son's River attains a breadth of ten to twenty yards. It is the 
upper course of the James River and should bear the same 
name. Back Creek, a tributary of nearly equal size, rises in 
the Alleghany Mountain, and as already pointed out, it collects 
the drainage of portions of the Alleghany and Bluegrass 

The Bullpasture is formed at Doe Hill by the union of 
three brooks, one of which rises in Pendleton County. At 
McDowell it receives on the right the eight-mile tributary of 
Crab Run, which like Straight Creek rises in the saddle be- 
tween the two arms of Jack Mountain. At the Bath line the 
Bullpasture is a longer and larger stream than is Jackson's 
River at the same border. Just within the Bath line it turns 
eastward, its foaming waters passing through a narrow and 
picturesque gap into the Cowpasture Valley at Williamsville. 

To the above named point the Cowpasture is a shorter and 
smaller river. It is properly a tributary, although below the 
confluence it retains the name of the united waters. Above, 
the Cowpasture has no tributaries of any length, save Shaw's 
Fork and Benson's Run. 

In times of prolonged dryness some streams fail for a dis- 
tance below the source, and a few, as in the case of Dry Branch, 
pursue, in places, an underground course in dry weather. 
These disappearing waters are due to the presence of limestone 
strata. Yet in general the streams of Highland are very per- 
manent. They are also very clear, showing with distinctness 
the rocks and ledges below the surface and the finny inhabi- 

History of Highland County 15 

tants darting hither and thither. The streams are rapid and 
show an almost continuous rippling, yet there are no abrupt 
falls of any note. Deep waters exhibit a well-marked tinge 
of green. 

Small springs are very frequent, except in the limestone 
regions, and many a farmhouse has no need of a well. The 
waters are usually freestone or limestone, according to the 
nature of the rocks they issue from. Some springs are of 
great volume and are never-failing. A stream crossing the 
Bullpasture road two miles above Williamsville very much 
requires its footlog bridge, and yet is wholly the outflow of a 
spring within a hundred yards of the road. Blue Spring, on 
the farm of John H. Swope, has never yet been sounded. It is 
so named because of the bluish tint of its waters. Along the 
base of Bullpasture Mountain are several mammoth springs 
which give vent to the waters sinking into the limestone cav- 
erns above. A spring at Clover Creek has been turning a 
millwheel almost constantly for 160 years. A spring a mile 
above the turnpike ford on the Cowpasture formerly supplied 
a mill, and in a very dry time it becomes the real source of the 
river. Another spring, some distance below, proves fatal to 
the eyeless cave fish by bringing them in contact with the 
sun-illumined waters of the open river. 

Alum, sulphur, and chalybeate springs occur in several 
localities, especially in the Bullpasture and Cowpasture val- 
leys. Some of these are of much local repute. Their waters 
are cool, since they do not rise from a great depth. But the 
zone of thermal springs which gives a name and a wide repu- 
tation to Bath County reaches into Highland. The geological 
formation of this district is that of a fissure, along which the 
surface waters sink to a vast depth. Now it is a well-known 
fact that below a short distance from the surface the tempera- 
ture of the earth rises. In mines 2,000 feet deep it is almost 
too hot for human endurance. At twice that depth water 
reaches the boiling point. In coming back to the surface from 
its distant higher source, the water not only retains much of 
its warmth but has exercised a dissolving action which when 
cold it could not possess. Filtered from organic matter in 

16 History of Highland County 

passing downward, it rises again as mineral water, its proper- 
ties depending on the rocks it passes through. It thus becomes 
charged with gases as well as solids. If, for instance, the 
heated water rises through slate containing iron pyrites (fool's 
gold), sulphate of iron and sulphate of alumina are produced 
and sulphur and alum springs are the result. 

The rocks of Highland are of the kind called stratified. 
They are limestones, sandstones, and shales, and were depos- 
ited by the action of water. They were formed on a large scale 
very much as we see river bars being formed on a small scale. 
The sandstones were once sand, either fine or coarse. The 
shales were once mud, and where they are reddish or maroon 
they were colored by iron. The blue, massive limestone, 50 
to 60 feet deep, was formed in deep water, either by chemical 
action or from the tiny shells of almost microscopic animals. 
The coarser limestone with its shellcasts was formed in shal- 
low water near the shore line. The iron ore was formed as 
iron ore is being formed to-day. Iron is present in nearly 
every kind of soil. Where it is most plentiful it appears in 
springs as a reddish scum which either builds up a deposit 
of brick-red earth or else finally solidifies into bog iron ore. 

The river formations which grow under our own eyes are 
deposited nearly on a level. But in the watergaps, where the 
fact is most readily observed, we find the layers of hard sand- 
stone, hard or rotten shale, and flaky slate bent into almost 
any angle between the horizontal and the vertical. It is plain 
enough that the rocks have been twisted by a tremendous 

Highland was once quite level. To find what crumpled a 
plain into a mountain region we must look back a long way. 
Geology demonstrates to us that our earth was once intensely 
hot. Being a fluid mass the surface was smooth. In the pro- 
cess of cooling a time came when one ocean covered the entire 
globe. The crust below the ocean was now firm, because it 
had to be cool enough to permit water to exist in a liquid form. 
But in cooling everything contracts except water. In roasting 
an apple remains plump, but in cooling the shrunken pulp 
causes the tough skin to become wrinkled. Our earth neces- 

History of Highland County 17 

sarily began to cool on the surface. After a firm crust had 
appeared the cooling and shrinking still went on and wrinkles 
began to show themselves above the waves. The first dry land 
in the United States was a ridge lying a little east of the Alle- 
ghany system but preserving the same general direction. Its 
eastern border is marked by what is known as the Fall Line 
in the James, the Potomac, and other rivers. The cities of 
Baltimore, Washington, and Richmond are on this Fall Line. 
With neither forests nor clear-cut ravines it would have been 
a strange-looking mountain. But the storms of millions of 
years finally wore it down to the base level. Nothing of it 
remains except the beds of granite and other hard primordial 
rocks which cause the rapids at Washington and Richmond. 

As the old mountain wore away new land grew up around 
it. Life appeared on the globe, and plants and animals in great 
variety took a hand in the work of soil formation. Layer after 
layer of gravel, sand, or fine mud was laid down in the waters 
bordering the old mountain, and these differing layers were 
interspersed with limy deposits composed of the shells of 
minute marine animals. The leaves and stems of plants and 
shells and skeletons of large animals became entangled in the 
rock formations, and these are known to us as fossils. Heat 
and the overlying pressure hardened one after another of the 
beds of sand, mud, and marl into sandstone, shale, and lime- 
stone. The new land crept steadily westward. Beyond the 
central line of where are now the Alleghanies was a vast 
swamp covered with a jungle of strange vegetation. Thus 
were formed the coal beds of West Virginia. 

But new wrinkles appeared in the earth's crust, and one 
of these was the Appalachian Highland. As compared with 
the Rockies and the Sierra Nevada, the Appalachians are them- 
selves very old. Old mountains are comparatively low, be- 
cause they have been worn down from a much greater height. 
New mountains are high because there has not been enough 
time to wear them down greatly. The Appalachians were once 
of majestic height. But in the long-continued wearing down 
they have been furrowed into a complicated network of narrow 
ridges and narrow valleys. The watergaps tell a story of their 

18 History of Highland County 

own. We read of the "everlasting hills," yet rivers may be 
older than hills. When we see a river forsaking one valley to 
wander through another, it is because the intervening ridge 
has been upheaved too slowly to prevent the river from keep- 
ing its channel open. 

It is not a matter of chance that we see a ridge here and a 
valley there. In passing through a watergap in Highland, or 
in following with the eye the crest of a ridge, we are likely 
to see a thick layer of flinty sandstone tilted to a very high 
angle. This forms the core of the mountain and it holds up 
the softer materials which form the slopes. If, as is usually 
the case, the sandstone core tips toward the west, it is a per- 
fectly natural consequence that the mountain is steeper on 
that side. A valley means that the space between the two 
bordering ridges was composed of materials more or less soft 
and soluble, and that the scooping out is due to the furrowing 
of the stream that got a foothold between the mountains. 

Neither is it a matter of chance that Bullpasture Mountain 
has a different form and character from the other ridges of 
Highland. Shenandoah Mountain to the east and Jack Moun- 
tain to the west are unbroken forests. Except in the low-lying 
coves, the surface is sterile and heavily burdened with rock. 
Furthermore, either mountain has well-defined crest and 
slopes, while the Bullpasture is less a true mountain than a 
belt of broken table-land. The explanation is simple. The 
Bullpasture plateau is a limestone belt, while the other two 
ranges are held up by their cores of sandstone. Hence the 
absence of clearings on them in contrast with the bluegrass 
meadows on the Bullpasture. 

Mountains are not merely objects of landscape beauty, or 
places where people may go to escape the heat of midsummer. 
A mountain region includes much land that is seemingly 
waste, yet even the rockiest slopes of the Alleghanies can and 
should be a forest reserve. Their summits arrest the clouds 
and increase the rainfall within their spheres of influence. The 
wear and tear of their slopes renews the fertility of the lands 
below, while within the rocky framework is usually a store of 
mineral wealth. 

History of Highland County 19 

Water will readily wear away soil already formed, yet its 
unaided action on hard rock is inconceivably slow. More rapid 
is the scouring effect of the sand, pebbles, and boulders that it 
rolls along. The crumpling of rocks in the process of their 
upheaval and the jarring of earthquakes fill them with in- 
numerable cracks. Into these cracks water finds its way, 
freezes, and pries the rock masses apart. Other blocks are 
pried loose by the roots of trees. And when a monarch of the 
forest falls down it is liable to dislocate several hundredweight 
of earth and rock. The heating of rocks turned toward the 
sun, especially in the case of shale, blisters the surface. Mosses 
and other humble plants cling to any rock, and their tiny roots 
crumble the surface. Rainwater charged with vegetable acid 
works into and widens the seams in an underlying bed of 
limestone. Immense caverns are in this way formed. As the 
cavern grows the roof weakens, and here and there it falls, 
leaving on the surface funnel-shaped sink-holes. The surface 
waters drain into these caverns and at a lower level they re- 
appear in great springs. 

If nature is so slow in forming soil, she teaches that man- 
kind should guard against its undue waste. A naked surface, 
especially when robbed of its spongy vegetable mould, wears 
away with vastly more rapidity than when screened by a for- 
est or carpeted with grass. 

The soils of Highland vary, as a matter of course, with the 
rocks from which they are derived. The darker and stronger 
soils are those of the limestone belts and the river bottoms. 
These are of marked fertility. Elsewhere, there is a looser 
and lighter-colored mould, often verging into a sandy, yellow- 
ish loam. Rocks, either tight or loose, and in very varying 
quantity, are found everywhere, and a considerable share of 
the surface is of very slight value for any other use than graz- 
ing or forestry. With all deductions, however, the agricul- 
tural capacity of Highland is quite considerable as well as 
largely undeveloped. 

The mineral resources do not appear to have been thor- 
oughly prospected. Iron ore occurs, probably in considerable 
amount. As to coal, little more can be said than that it is 

20 History of Highland County 

merely present. The geologic age of our rocks is not such 
as to warrant the expectation of hidden seams of commercial 
importance. On the other hand, the materials for lime, brick, 
and cement are abundant. 

Ever since the coming of the white hunter there have been 
legends of lost lead mines in this and many other nearby 
counties among the Alleghanies. We are told of huntsmen 
who knew the secret path to where any desired quantity of 
pure lead could be hacked out with a hatchet. We are also 
told of persons who claim to have seen the hunters melt their 
chunks of lead. Yet in every instance these "mines" defy 
rediscovery. And well they may. How could the hunter 
threading an unbroken wilderness possess either the skill or 
the luck to come upon such valuable deposits, whereas in the 
century and a half of civilized occupancy, no person, skilled 
or unskilled, has been able to locate any of these spots? But 
we are told the hunters derived this knowledge from the 
Indians. Against this is the fact that the Indians did not 
mine metals and even less had they a knowledge of smelting. 
It had not been thirty years since they had come in touch 
with the whites. Until then they had no firearms, and could 
have found no practical use for a soft metal like lead. How 
could they suddenly develop the skill to find what before was 
of no use and what no one else has since been able to find? 
Then again, lead does not occur in a pure state but in ore. 
These ores do not give up the metal over an open fire. The 
legends we find in so many counties are all alike. They are 
one of those fond delusions which take possession of people 
in a credulous age and are handed down at face value to their 
offspring. The "lost lead mine" of the hunter is as mythical 
as the hoopsnake, an animal often spoken of but never seen. 
A serpent can no more take its tail into its mouth and roll over 
and over like a wagon tire than a man can lie on the ground, 
take his feet by his hands, and proceed to roll in the manner 
ascribed to the reptile. The alleged feat is not only absurd 
but a physical impossibility. 

In the absence of local weather records, one may not speak 
with precision as to the climate of Highland. Because of the 

History of Highland County 21 

elevation it is cool, yet there are noticeable differences within 
the county. The altitude rises from about 1,700 feet where 
the Cowpasture leaves the county to 2,000 feet at Clover Creek, 
2,400 at McDowell, 2,900 at Doe Hill, 3,100 at Monterey, 3,200 
at Hightown, and over 3,500 feet on Laurel Fork. There are 
farm houses at still greater altitudes. But making due allow- 
ance for the position and altitude of the nearest available 
weather stations, it may be affirmed that at McDowell the 
mean yearly temperature is 50 degrees, that of winter being 
30 and that of summer 68. The rainfall is 40 to 45 inches in- 
cluding a snowfall of 25 inches, 12 inches of dry snow being 
equal to one inch of water. McDowell is a fair average for 
the Bullpasture and Cowpasture valleys. In going toward the 
Alleghany the air becomes more humid and the season less 
early. At Hightown the mean yearly temperature will not 
exceed 48 degrees. On Laurel Fork the growing season is 
too short and cool for corn to succeed. 

The winters of Highland are long rather than severe, in- 
tense cold being infrequent. Yet some of the mountain roads 
are often blockaded with snow for weeks at a time. Trees 
come into full leaf about May 25th, but do not assume their 
fall colors much earlier than in the lowlands. The summer 
of Highland is a fine season. There is a large proportion of 
bright, sunny days, and ordinarily the maximum temperature 
is not above 90 degrees. A blanket at night is nearly always 
needed. The air is somewhat humid, as is seen in the morning 
river fogs, so common during the warmer half of the year. Yet 
the humidity is lower than on the other side of the Alleghany 
Front, and there is a higher proportion of sunshine. Tornadoes 
are exceedingly rare, and it is seldom that a local draft blow- 
ing down a valley gathers enough power to cause damage. 
The clearing of the valley lands has had some effect upon the 
climate and streams. The lower levels in Crabbottom and 
Back Creek valleys were once too damp and frosty for corn to 
succeed, but this is no longer the case. As to the streams, they 
are less constant in volume. 

With perfect drainage, pure, invigorating air, and a free-, 
dom from malaria, the healthfulness of Highland is above the 

22 History of Highland County 

average for the United States. Longevity is common and men 
and women remain hale and hearty to an advanced age. Yet 
the cool, humid air predisposes to rheumatism and to ailments 
of the respiratory organs. And as the long and cloudy winter 
does not tempt to an outdoor life at that season, colds and 
other infectious disorders are somewhat frequent. Typhoid 
fever occurs every year, sometimes in a severe form. These 
qualifying remarks do but emphasize the truth that a reason- 
able observance of hygienic law will almost insure good health 
even under unfavorable conditions. In other words a large 
amount of illness is avoidable. 

Until 1870 or later, the woods of Highland sheltered a good 
deal of game. The buffalo and the elk disappeared very soon 
after the settlement. The last buffalo on the Bullpasture was 
seen about 1765. But deer remained numerous, and it is only 
within a recent date that they have practically become extinct. 
The puma, or panther, is gone, and so, happily, is the wolf, 
although the wildcat and the fox remain, as well as a few bears. 
Other mammals still present are raccoons, skunks, weasels, 
mink, opossums, woodchucks, cotton-tailed rabbits, gray and 
striped squirrels, and bats. 

Of birds there are turkeys, ducks, pheasants, eagles, 
owls, hawks, crows, and snowbirds, with, of course, the 
English sparrow. The following migrants have also been 
observed : the partridge, robin, thrush, catbird, whippoorwill, 
blackbird, pigeon, jay, wren, sparrow, raincrow, woodcock, 
swallow, martin, woodpecker, sapsucker, bluebird, lark, tomtit, 
bullbat, and redbird. Of reptiles, mud turtles, lizards, newts, 
frogs, and toads are common, as well as blacksnakes, water- 
snakes, and gartersnakes. The rattlesnake and copperhead 
are not infrequent in their favorite haunts, though less common 
than in former years. The clear streams still contain a few 
trout, perch, bass, suckers, eels, pike, and catfish. Insect life 
is in about its usual evidence and includes some of the farmer's 
enemies. Perhaps the greatest insect damage was the destruc- 
tion of the standing pine in the early 90's. The song of the 
mosquito is scarcely ever heard, particularly in the open. 

The cool upland climate with its well-distributed rainfall 

History of Highland County 23 

and its heavy dews is highly favorable to forest and meadow. 
Land once cleared will quickly return to wood if let alone> 
while on the other hand, the growth of grass on open ground 
is spontaneous. In its wild state Highland was an unbroken 
primeval forest, except that in some degree the river bottoms 
appear to have been natural meadows. 

The trees and shrubs present much variety, and inter- 
mingled with them are many herbs and flowering plants. The 
following trees have been recognized in this region : aspen, 
ash, birch, black gum, box elder, white beech, red beech, red 
cedar, white cedar, chestnut, cooperwood, cucumber, dogwood, 
red elm, white elm, red, white, and shellbark hickory, iron- 
wood, juniper, linden, white, yellow, and honey locust, red 
maple, sugar maple, mulberry, persimmon, yellow poplar, white 
poplar, sycamore, sassafras, yellow willow, weeping willow, 
wild cherry, May cherry, water ash, white walnut, black wal- 
nut. In addition to the above are eight varieties of oak and 
six of pine. 

The oaks are the dominant forest trees, pine occurring 
mainly on the dry, slaty lands. The walnut is of very common 
occurrence, but the trees of merchantable size have been felled, 
and the same is true of the cherry. In former years great 
quantities of fine walnut were burned in log piles, and fence 
rails of this valuable wood are still in service. There was once 
an abundance of white pine, whole forests having been de- 
stroyed to clear the land for crops. What was left was killed 
some years since by an insect, as was also the yellow pine, and 
only young trees are to be found at present. But there is yet 
a considerable amount of white and red oak, ash, birch, poplar, 
hickory, and chestnut. 

Among the shrubs are the crabapple, witch hazel, hazlenut, 
rhododendron, sumach, elder, redbud, chinquapin, pussy wil- 
low, ninebark, wild rose, bearwood, spicewood, choke-cherry, 
haw, sloe, buckberry, reddrop, dogrose, and honeysuckle. Of 
wild fruits, the grape, huckleberry, blackberry, teaberry, and 
common and mountain raspberries are of frequent occurrence, 
and large quantities of blackberries and huckleberries are 

24 History of Highland County 

Appalachian America has unusual landscape beauty and 
Highland comes in for an ample share. There is an absence 
of monotony. The view changes at every point. The not 
too humid atmosphere imparts a vividness to the hue of fresh 
vegetation, and a bright, sunny day in June sets it off to ad- 
mirable effect. The mountain ranges being almost wholly 
uncleared, they stand forth in primeval garb and form a pleas- 
ing background to the belt of open land which follows every 
valley. The irregular outlines of the pastures, meadows, and 
tilled fields are in harmony with the contour of the hills and 

Allusion has been made to the strata of hard sandstone 
which form the core of the less fertile ridges. These may come 
into view along the crest, as in the case of Lantz Mountain, 
or they may stand out from the hillside, particularly in a 
watergap. Instances of this sort are the ledges in Bolar Gap 
and on the bank of Crab Run. Very near the Blue Spring al- 
ready mentioned, two parallel strata of little thickness stand 
out from the very steep end of a foothill in Bullpasture Moun- 
tain. This pair of ledges is known as the Devil's Racecourse. 
A still more striking outcrop, named the Devil's Backbone, is 
seen on the north side of Crabbottom Gap. The thick seam 
of Tuscarora quartzite rises at such a sharp angle that on the 
upper or eastern side no soil can adhere for some distance be- 
low the ragged crest, and the precipice would tax the nimble 
feet of a goat to overcome. 

We have thus far been describing Highland with particular 
reference to its wilderness condition. A word is in order as to 
the suitability of these valleys to the people who came to sub- 
due the wilderness. The settlers were from the British Isles 
and from Germany. Those countries have a cool, moist cli- 
mate quite free from extremes of heat or cold. They possess 
wooded hills and turf-carpeted fields. The soil is not free from 
rock and the streams ripple through their valleys. Coming 
from such a homeland, these European stocks found some 
difficulty in adapting themselves to the hot, malarious, un- 
grassed lowlands of the South. At the present day the Amer- 
icanized branches of the same stocks find difficulty in making 

History of Highland County 25 

themselves quite at home on the monotonous levels of the 
Far West with their cloudless skies and their absence of forest. 

But to those immigrants, Highland must have seemed like 
a virgin corner of their native Europe. The temperature of 
these hills was the same as that of the homeland. The air was 
almost as soft. There was scarcely any acclimation to under- 
go. The forest trees were of the same types as they were ac- 
customed to see, and where there was no wood there was a 
grassy sod, without which the new land would have been a 
desert in their eyes. They could grow the same staples to 
which they were accustomed, and there was no new method 
of farming to learn. Save for the temporary struggle with 
wild man and wild nature, the newcomer could feel quite at 
home from the start. It is very evident that with respect to 
physiographic conditions the European stocks have not in the 
least deteriorated in Appalachian America. 

As a matter of habit and necessity, the pioneers proceeded 
to give names to the topographic features of the region, even 
inclusive of the springs and the cleared fields. The English 
settlers of the seaboard retained very many of the Indian 
names. The Scotch-Irish and German settlers of the interior 
did not follow this practice. Only two of the native designa- 
tions appear to have come down to us. The red men called 
the South Branch the Wappacomac, or "River of Wild Geese." 
They called the Bullpasture-Cowpasture the Wallawhatoola, 
which means, "The River that Bends." It would have been 
better had we kept these names as a memento of the earlier 
inhabitants. They are entirely easy to pronounce, quite as 
much so as the Indian words Shenandoah and Rappahannock, 
which we have no trouble in mouthing. 

It is to the credit of the hard-headed Scotch-Irishman that 
he adopted few European names. He preferred to use terms 
suggested by local circumstance. Why the Calfpasture, Cow- 
pasture, and Bullpasture received their peculiar names is not 
clearly known. The legend that some hunters killed a buffalo 
calf on the first stream, a cow on the second, and a bull on the 
third, sounds too much like an afterthought; like an offhand 
explanation of a forgotten fact. The district watered by these 

26 History of Highland County 

streams was for a long while spoken of as the ''Pastures." 
But during the first twenty years of settlement, the Bullpas- 
ture was called Newfoundland Creek and also Clover Creek. 
Back Creek appears to have been so named from its position 
against the Alleghany Front. Jackson's River received its 
name from the pioneer Jackson, as did also Jack Mountain, 
which for many years was called Jackson's Mountain. The 
name of a pioneer will cling even to a knob, a spring, or a field, 
although of the man himself the recollection is hazy. 

Why one stream was called a creek, another a run, another 
a branch, another a fork, and still another a draft seems some- 
what puzzling, and is not wholly accounted for by European 
usage. A creek in the British Isles is a tidal inlet and not a 
running stream. The settlers of the mountains gave new uses 
to old words, and without any attempt at uniformity of prac- 

Since the period of settlement there have been some 
changes in names and some losses. The South Branch above 
Forks of Waters was at first Crabapple Fork. Straight Creek 
was Straight Fork, doubtless because it has the same general 
direction as the main stream below. Bolar Run was formerly 
Wilson's Mill Run, and Benson's Run was Anglen's Run. 
Above McDowell, the surveyor's book tells of Mount's Run, 
Ferguson's Run, Bardie Run, Jordan's Run, and Carlile's Run. 
In 1768, "the Beaverdam" was a well-known landmark on 
lower Straight Creek, and about 1790 we find mention in Crab- 
bottom of the "Fallen Timber" and the "Bearwallow." 

History of Highland County 27 



Highland once only a Hunting Ground - Small Indian Population - The Shaw- 
nees - Their Habits and Customs - Method of Warfare - What they 
Taught the Whites. 

IN 1727 that portion of Virginia lying west of the Blue Ridge 
was well-nigh uninhabited. In the lower valley of the 
South Branch was a clan of the Shawnees, about 150 strong. 
In what is now Berkeley County were a few of the Tuscaroras. 
The weak tribe of the Senedoes, dwelling near the forks of 
the Shenandoah, had just been crushed by enemies more 

To the red man, the Valley of Virginia was a hunting 
ground. It was also a great military highway. Up and down 
the watercourses and along the ridges lay Indian war trails, 
over which Cherokees and Catawbas from the South marched 
against or fled before the Mingoes and other tribes of the 
North. The territory covered by the states of West Virginia 
and Kentucky was an extension of this great game preserve, 
from which the tribes claiming its ownership drew large sup- 
plies of food. To attract the buffalo, the deer, and the elk, 
the lowlands of the Shenandoah were kept in the condition of 
a prairie. This was accomplished by burning the grass at the 
end of each hunting season. On the bottom lands of the Cow- 
pasture and Jackson's River basins were similar yet narrower 
belts of these pasture lands. 

When the white settlement of the United States began, the 
native population of our great country is supposed to have 
been less than 400,000; not one-fifth of the present population 
of Virginia alone. The whole Shawnee tribe, which committed 
so much havoc between 1754 and 1815, counted only a thou- 
sand souls. 

Yet the smallness of the Indian tribes does not point to a 
recent arrival in America. Neither is it any proof whatever 

28 History of Highland County 

that they had always been so small, or that the Valley of 
Virginia had never been fully occupied by them. Clear evi- 
dence to the contrary lies in the rings of earth which mark 
the sites of ancient villages, in the burial mounds, and in the 
arrowheads so plentifully found in many localities. Good 
material for the stone arrowheads was not particularly abun- 
dant. The weapons themselves require time, skill, and pa- 
tience to fashion into shape, and they would not be used waste- 
fully. Their comparative abundance points to very many 
centuries of occupation. Still further evidence is found in the 
game pastures, of which mention has been made. The entire 
Alleghany region takes naturally to a forest covering. The 
damage wrought by a chance fire is in the ordinary course of 
events soon repaired. But the Appalachian prairies of two 
centuries ago covered in the aggregate a large area. They 
indicate numerous village openings, such as the Indians re- 
quired for their limited agriculture. They further indicate 
the persistent enlargement of these openings through the 
girdling of the forest trees, and the systematic burning of the 
grass each fall. 

Although bands of Cherokee, Catawba, and Mingo warriors 
fought in the great Valley, it was the Shawanogi with whom 
the early settlers were most in contact. In the mouth of the 
white man, the tribal name — which means "a Southern peo- 
ple" — became Shawanoes or Shawnees. These Indians were 
of Algonkin stock and were therefore related to the tribes of 
New England and the Middle States. A very restless nation, 
they had pushed southward and westward. 

In mental attributes and in general ability the Shawnees 
stood above the average of the Indian race. In the person of 
Tecumseh they gave the world one of the ablest red men 
known to history. According to the Indian standard they 
were generous livers and their women were superior house- 
keepers. They could very often converse in several tongues, 
and before they were pushed out of the Alleghany region they 
could generally talk with the white pioneer. The Shawnee 
was active, sensible, manly, and high-spirited. He was cheer- 
ful and full of jokes and laughter, yet few natives could match 

History of Highland County 29 

him in deceit and treachery. He despised the prowess of other 
Indians, and it became his boast that he killed or carried into 
captivity ten white persons for every warrior that he lost. 

We can better understand the life of the old American 
frontier if we look into the habits and customs of the red man 
and his ways of thinking. 

It is not correct to suppose the Indian had a weak sense of 
inhabitiveness. His roving was only because of the pressure 
of hostile tribes. Each tribe claimed a quite well-defined terri- 
tory, and for another people to disregard the boundary line 
was a cause of war. The individual Indian would make a long 
and even dangerous journey for no other purpose than to see 
the locality where his tribe used to live, and to gaze upon the 
graves of his forefathers. And yet he had no knowledge of 
territorial citizenship. A Shawnee was a Shawnee, whether 
dwelling on the banks of the Potomac or the Ohio. He could 
hardly comprehend how the white man could call himself a 
Virginian in one place, and become a Marylander simply by 
moving across a river. Consequently there was no such thing 
among the Indians as individual ownership of the soil. The 
right of a family to its cabin site and its truck patch was re- 
spected by the rest of the tribe, yet only so long as the family 
used the ground. The land of the tribe was considered to be- 
long to the tribe as a people, and in Indian usage none of it 
could be sold except by the tribe. 

Neither did the Indian count relationship as we do. A 
tribe was composed of clans, each with its distinctive name. 
The members of a clan considered themselves as brothers and 
sisters, and the Indian could no more marry within his own 
clan than he could marry his blood sister. In Indian usage 
the clan was therefore the only family recognized. An injury 
to any member of the clan was held to be an injury to one's 
own brother or sister, and any warrior believed it his duty to 
avenge the wrong. And as the Indian meted out redress 
against the people of his own color, so did he mete it out upon 
the white man. Because the members of any Indian clan were 
brothers, he thought all whites speaking the same tongue were 

30 History of Highland County 

brothers to one another. He could not at first comprehend 
customs that were unlike his own. 

The individual families of a tribe lived only in villages and 
never in isolated homes. A limited agriculture was carried on 
in the open space around each village. But as subsistence was 
mainly upon game and fish, a tribe required a very large area 
from which to draw its support. So the Indian never butch- 
ered game out of sheer wantonness, after the manner of some 
people who style themselves civilized. 

A Shawnee hut was circular in form. It was made by fas- 
tening long poles together above and covering this frame- 
work with bark. The only openings were a passage for the 
inmates and another for the smoke. The art of weaving was 
unknown to this tribe. Clothing was of skins tanned by a 
simple process. Until the white trader came, the only weapons 
or other implements were of stone or bone. There were bas- 
kets and pottery, yet the latter was not fireproof, water being 
boiled by dropping hot stones into a vessel. 

Custom took the place of law and was rigidly enforced. 
An offense against custom was punished by a boycott, and this 
answered every purpose. Government was nearly a pure dem- 
ocracy; in other words, there was neither a true monarchy or 
aristocracy, but a government by the people themselves. Mat- 
ters of public interest were settled in a council, where there 
was a very general right to speak and vote. The speeches were 
often eloquent, yet the long-winded orator was not tolerated. 
Men of address and daring were influential, as they are in 
every form of society, and without uncommon ability no per- 
son might be a chief or military leader. 

In common with all unenlightened people, the Indian was 
a believer in witchcraft and a slave to superstition. But in 
his own way and to the extent of the light given him, he was 
religious. After death he believed the soul of the warrior took 
its flight to a happy hunting ground beyond the setting sun. 
Here it followed the chase without limit of days. But no 
coward and no deformed person might enter this abode of 
bliss. Therefore he despised the coward and mutilated the 
slain enemy. 

History of Highland County 31 

The Indian commonly had but one wife. His children, 
who were treated with kindness, belonged to the clan of the 
mother, and were under the authority of the chief of that clan. 
Hence the father had no particular authority over his own 
children, although he exercised a control over the children of 
his own sisters. 

The red man has been called lazy because his wife cared 
for the truck patch as well as the cabin. This charge is not 
altogether just. Custom had brought about a rigid subdivision 
of labor. The Indian was a huntsman and only incidentally 
an agriculturist. The braves spent many toilsome hours in 
making their weapons and in stalking game. In pursuing wild 
animals or in following the warpath, supple limbs are required, 
and supple limbs do not go with hard, continuous labor. 

The Indian had a keen sense of direction in finding his way 
through an unbroken forest, yet during the centuries of his 
control, he had established a network of foot paths with the 
help of his stone tomahawk. In Highland his paths often fol- 
lowed the streams, travel thus being easier and game more 
plentiful. And as the rivers of this region usually run parallel 
with the mountain ridges, oftentimes no more than a slight 
divide parting the waters of two diverging streams, a succes- 
sion of watercourses in one practically continuous valley thus 
marks the line of the natural highway. But in crossing from 
one valley to another, the Indian preferred following a ridge. 
It was easier than to thread a narrow, rocky gorge with its 
danger of ambuscade. 

Among the whites the Indian was silent, generally sus- 
picious, and always observant. Among his own kind he was 
social and talkative. He had no fixed hours for his meals and 
was a great eater, though able on occasion to go without food 
a long while. He discovered the tobacco plant, but not the 
filthy practices of chewing and snuff-dipping. He smoked a 
pipe, yet not habitually. Smoking was with him a means of 
communion with the Great Spirit. It was also a form of oath. 
A treaty between tribes was made valid through a mutual 
smoking of the "pipe of peace." 

The Indian had no written language except the embryotic 

32 History of Highland County 

form of picture writing. In making marks on a stone, in 
carving a horn spoon, or in weaving a basket, there was al- 
ways ornamentation, and this was never without a purpose. 
Every form of decoration conveyed some particular story. 

The red American had his games of skill or chance, and 
he had his secret societies. He also possessed a large fund of 
folk-lore and of tribal history, this being handed down from 
father to son in the form of oral tradition. His keen sense of 
humor is shown in such proverbs as the following: 

No Indian ever sold his daughter for a name. 

A squaw's tongue runs faster than the wind's legs. 

The Indian scalps his enemy; the paleface skins his friends. 

Before the paleface came, there was no poison in the Indian's corn. 

There will be hungry palefaces so long as there is any Indian land to 

There are three things it takes a strong man to hold; a young warrier, a 
wild horse, and a handsome squaw. 

As a fighting man, the Indian was superior to any barba- 
rous race of the Eastern Hemisphere. His fewness of num- 
bers, his primitive commissariat, and his wilderness country 
caused his warfare to be of the guerilla type. Having to econ- 
omize his strength he thought it foolhardy to fight in the open. 
When he fought a white army, it was usually with inferior 
numbers, and even then he won many victories. 

To gain his end in time of war he used craft without stint, 
yet he was true to the promise he gave in time of peace. Sev- 
eral frontiersmen had his consent to settle and hunt on the 
Monongahela. In 1774, Governor Dunmore sent a messenger 
to warn them back. An Indian gave him this reply : "Tell 
your king he damn liar. Indian no kill these men." The 
frontiersmen remained where they were and in safety through- 
out the war which followed. 

In war the Indian was cruel, yet no more so than the re- 
ligious zealots of Europe in the preceding century. Those 
men skinned, burned, and disemboweled heretics in the hid- 
eous belief that they were saving their souls. In his own way 
the Indian was no less logical. He sought to injure his foe 
beyond any chance of recovery. The wounded enemy who 

History of Highland County 33 

fell into his power was given no opportunity to get well, so 
that he might fight him again. The Indian warrior scalped 
and mutilated, to preserve on the one hand a trophy of his 
victory, and on the other hand to fulfill his belief that no man 
may enter the future world who is disfigured in body or limb. 
He killed the wife, so that she might not bear any more chil- 
dren. He killed the boys, because they might grow into aveng- 
ing warriors. He killed the girls, because they would become 
the mothers of still other warriors. Finally, he burned the 
house, sparing nothing that was of no use to him. 

Yet he often spared his enemy and took him to his own 
village. The captive was either put to the torture, made a 
slave, or adopted into the tribe. Adoption was a prerogative 
of the women, as in the celebrated instance of Pocahontas, and 
it was often exercised. The custom was thus a ready means 
of repairing the losses sustained in war. To the adopted cap- 
tive the Indian was kind. Many a one taken in childhood and 
afterward returned to his people has still preferred the rude 
tepee of the native to the cozy cottage of the white man. The 
freedom of the forest life had more charm than the complex 
restrictions of civilized society. 

The red man was in some degree a teacher to the white. 
He imparted to the latter his many ways of preparing corn as 
food. He taught the pioneer how to make deerskin sieves, 
how to utilize cornhusks, how to recognize medicinal herbs, 
and how to clear land by deadening the trees. All in all, the 
experience of the native entered very materially into the mode 
of life of the white frontiersman. The costume of the latter 
was an approach to that of the Indian, and sometimes his 
cabin was no more inviting than the red man's wigwam. 

A little to the west of New Hampden is a flint quarry, 
where the natives used to make their arrowheads. So im- 
portant to them was such a source of supply that the quarry 
was sometimes neutral ground, even in time of war. 

34 History of Highland County 



Causes of Early Immigration from Europe - Religious Intolerance - European 
Society - Why England Led in Settling the Colonies - Attitude of Other 
Countries - Elements appearing in the Immigration - The Scotch-Irish - 
The Redemptorists and Convicts. 

WHEN in 1607 there was an actual beginning of those 
Thirteen Colonies which grew into the United States 
of America, Europe had not more than a third of her present 
population. Even England, now the foremost nation to import 
grain, was until 1775 feeding her people from her own soil and 
building her ships from her own forests. The number of peo- 
ple in Europe was in itself a matter of no importance in caus- 
ing emigration to America. 

Neither was it a pleasure trip to cross the Atlantic. The 
voyage often consumed more than a hundred days, the speed 
of the sailing vessel being no greater than that of a man afoot. 
If the winds were very contrary, the supply of water and pro- 
visions might fail. Smallpox and other forms of disease were 
liable to cause havoc in the crowded and untidy ships. There 
was also the peril of shipwreck, but there was the further peril 
of capture by pirates. These robbers of the sea very often 
made good the adage that dead men tell no tales. The passen- 
ger might congratulate himself if simply his person were put 
ashore, no matter where the spot might be. Once safely across 
the ocean, the average immigrant was not at all likely to re- 
visit his old home. 

The prime causes for the settling of America were Religious 
Intolerance and Economic Oppression. 

For fifteen centuries there was practically but one Chris- 
tian Church in all Europe. The one church upheld the various 
national governments, and the various national governments 
upheld the one church. It was the general conviction that 

History of Highland County 35 

unity in religious interest within the state was every whit as 
essential as unity and vigor in civil authority. So it was 
thought rightful and proper for the state to crush a new relig- 
ious sect, just as it would crush a rival to its civil pretensions. 
Those times were harsh. Since a man could be hanged for 
stealing a loaf of bread, he might expect to be burned alive 
for being a heretic. 

The Protestant Reformation did not at once break down 
this deep-seated belief in religious unity. Wherever it pre- 
vailed it required conformity to its own creed. Nothing short 
of this could reasonably be expected. But divisions arose 
among the Reformers. Through the sheer weight of inherited 
opinion, each sect believed itself wholly in the right. It had 
the courage of its convictions and it would go to war to de- 
fend them. Stubborn men finally learned to respect the ad- 
versary who refused to yield. When this point was reached, 
a more or less complete form of toleration became an accepted 
fact. It was then seen that toleration did not bring about the 
anarchy that was feared. 

Even in the British Isles, any sect that found itself in power 
proceeded to persecute other sects with a bigotry and cruelty 
which we of this century find it very hard to comprehend. 
Each sect wished to be let alone, but would not let others 
alone. But here in America was a wilderness where men who 
could not agree might still get beyond elbow touch with one 
another. So the Pilgrims came to Massachusetts, the Bap- 
tists to Rhode Island, the Quakers to Pennsylvania, the Epis- 
copalians to New York and the South, and the Presbyterians 
to the frontier. Nevertheless, two colonies enjoyed religious 
freedom from the start, and its acceptance by the others was 
only a question of time. Persecution was indeed brought to 
America, yet never took deep root and was mild here to what 
it long continued to be in Europe. 

The other prime cause for the peopling of America was 
Economic Oppression. 

The long rule of the Roman Empire made Europe thor- 
oughly acquainted with despotism. When that empire went 
to pieces, the lawlessness of Western Europe became intol- 

36 History of Highland County 

erable. The masses of the people saw no other recourse than 
to put themselves under the protection of military chieftains. 
They had to toil for the support of the leader and his house- 
hold and to follow him in war. They thus became known as 
serfs, or villeins, and lived in virtual slavery. The chieftains 
became the dukes and barons of the Middle Ages. They lived 
in castles, wore armor in battle, and boasted of their coats of 
arms. They were proud and overbearing, held labor in con- 
tempt, and despised the serfs on whose toil they lived. To- 
ward these peasants there was no thought of social equality 
or intermarriage. 

This structure of society was known as feudalism. It 
slowly gave way as new monarchies rose here and there out 
of the wreckage of the old empire. These gained power at the 
expense of the nobility, until the latter lost their authority as 
petty rulers, although retaining the ownership of the lands 
they had controlled. They remained as haughty as ever, and 
nearly as indifferent to the welfare of the peasants. But the 
loss of their civil power worked an important change in the 
relation between noble and peasant. The former became little 
more than a landlord, to whom the peasant now paid rent in- 
stead of giving compulsory service. The lot of the peasant 
was still hard, although he was coming into a higher con- 
sciousness of his natural rights and was more disposed to act 
upon them. 

But in Europe the area of land was a fixed quantity. The 
arrogant landlords were virtually reducing the amount. They 
were inclosing large tracts, so that they might hunt deer and 
pheasants. This process of inclosure and the growth of popu- 
lation made the rents too high for comfort. Poverty was 
spreading, and the yeoman farmer, the natural backbone of 
society, was being crowded to the wall. He could perceive 
that the future was with the mass of the people and not with 
the small privileged class. But he could also perceive that 
those who control the land control the government and deter- 
mine the structure of society. Europe would remain aristo- 
cratic until land monopoly was overthrown, and this result 
would come only after a long and bitter struggle. The uni- 


History of Highland County 37 

versal tendency of rent is to leave the toiler only enough to 
enable him to exist. It is rent that determines wages. 

In America there was a seemingly boundless amount of 
wild land. Wild land meant free land, free land meant own- 
ership, and ownership meant relief from unjust rents. Free 
access to land meant that direct participation in government 
would be generally diffused. It further meant that the result- 
ing society would be democratic rather than aristocratic. It 
could still further be seen that a higher and more general de- 
gree of well-being was possible than where privilege was in the 
saddle and riding rough-shod. 

The desire for economic freedom lured men to America 
even more than the desire for religious freedom. 

It is true enough that a varying degree of land monopoly 
and of aristocratic thought and practice was a share of the 
baggage brought from Europe. This was inevitable. Human- 
ity does not progress by leaps but by steps. Yet such weeds 
could never take firm root in the American soil so long as 
there was free access to a public domain. Land could not be 
a dependable source of income unless the owner rolled up his 
sleeves and went to work. To evade this necessity, the planter 
imported white servants and soon afterward was purchasing 
negro slaves. Yet neither indentureship nor slavery could 
withstand the competitive power of free access to land. Like- 
wise, the attempted land baronies of Lord Fairfax and others 
were foredoomed to early failure. 

Economic and religious opportunity were thus the two 
arms of the magnet that drew Europeans to America and made 
this country great. 

It is now in order to ascertain why certain countries estab- 
lished the American colonies, and why certain other countries 
furnished many settlers yet established no colonies. 

In this movement, England was very far in the lead. This 
was not merely because she was a seafaring nation and lay 
nearer the American shore than was the case with continental 
Europe. England was foremost in breaking the power of feu- 
dalism and giving the masses of her people a will to assert 
themselves. Also, the strong religious sects in that country 

38 History of Highland County 

were better able to take care of themselves than was true of 
other European lands excepting Holland. The spirit of the 
weaker sects was not broken, and they were not prohibited 
from leaving the country. Furthermore, the English were 
brave, sturdy, and venturesome. They were empire-builders 
by nature and inclination. Different classes of the English 
were impelled to go to America, and therefore several colonies 
were founded instead of one colony only. 

Scotland, then a sister kingdom, and Wales and Ireland, 
dependencies of England, contributed to the stream of emigra- 
tion, but as the interests of the Scotch, Welsh, and Irish in the 
new continent were identical with those of the more numerous 
English, these people did not seek to form colonies of their 

Holland, though small, was then the first commercial coun- 
try of Europe, and owned as many ships as all the rest of the 
continent. With respect to civil and religious liberty, Holland 
was also the freest of the European lands. Being quite exempt 
from persecution and having a keen eye to business, we would 
expect the Hollanders to found a single colony, and primarily 
for the purpose of trade rather than agriculture. This is pre- 
cisely what took place, and the metropolitan city of New York 
bears witness to their good judgment. 

Germany and Scandinavia had taken no interest in Amer- 
ican exploration. The former was not then a united country. 
From 1618 to 1648 it was in the throes of the most terrible war 
that ever desolated Europe. Germany, therefore, had no time 
to think of founding colonies of her own. Sweden was then 
a great military power. To find a haven for persecuted Protes- 
tants, her king started a little colony on Delaware Bay. 

France, Spain, and Portugal had been very active in the 
exploration of America. But the French are not emigrants 
by temperament or inclination, and they had made no resolute 
effort to colonize our Atlantic seaboard. As for Spain and 
Portugal, they took little interest in lands which lay outside 
the tropics. 

Yet in an indirect way, both France and Germany sent 
many of their people to our shores. A bigoted king undertook 

History of Highland County 39 

to crush the strong foothold the Reformation had secured in 
France. His Protestant subjects, known as Huguenots, were 
the most intelligent and enterprising of his people. They were 
the mainstay of French commerce and industry. The tolera- 
tion extended to them by a former king was revoked, and it 
was made difficult for a Huguenot to escape with his life. Yet 
to the number of 300,000 they did get away, and they found 
a refuge in England and Germany. In England they joined 
the Puritans and in many instances adopted English surnames. 
In Germany they became in a large degree a German-speaking 
people. In both countries they joined very numerously the 
emigration to America. In New England and South Carolina 
they were particularly numerous. 

Unhappy Germany continued to be desolated by war after 
war. An incident in one of these was the devastation of the 
Palatinate, a province on the Rhine and bordering France. 
This was done by order of the French king, and the fine prov- 
ince was made a temporary desert. Villages and farmhouses 
were burned to the ground, orchard trees were destroyed, and 
wells were filled up. But William Penn, the founder of Penn- 
sylvania, invited the now homeless people to join his colony, 
and many of them complied. This early German emigration 
was almost wholly from the valley of the Rhine and from 

Until the second decade of the eighteenth century, America 
was more homogeneous than it has ever been since. The vol- 
ume of immigration had become relatively small, and notwith- 
standing the institutional differences among the colonies, the 
people were predominantly of English blood and character. 
The country was now a century old, and the inhabitants 
thought of themselves as Americans and not as Englishmen. 
They viewed with considerable disfavor the heavy volume of 
Scotch-Irish and German immigration which now set in. This 
was because of the alien appearance and in part the alien 
speech of the newcomers. While events did not justify the 
fears of the older population, the future of America was pro- 
foundly influenced by the new arrivals and very particularly 
by the Scotch-Irish. As this is the very element which led in 

40 History of Highland County 

the settlement of Highland, it becomes necessary to look into 
the prior history of these people. 

Before doing so it is well worth while to sketch the pecu- 
liarities of the European stocks from which the colonial Amer- 
icans are derived. The English, the Lowland Scotch, the 
Saxon Irish, the Hollanders, the Germans, and the Swedes 
were of the Germanic stock, which is cool-blooded and per- 
sistent. The Welsh, the Highland Scotch, and the native Irish 
were of the Celtic stock, which is more turbulent than the 
other and more impatient of restraint. The Huguenots were 
of the Latin stock, which, like the native Irish, is of warm 

The English people had come from the North German coast 
eleven centuries before, and in this time had grown much away 
from their German cousins. The Englishman is earnest, dig- 
nified, and strong-willed. He is also enterprising, industrious, 
and a lover of order. Wherever he settles, he never fails to 
hold his ground. 

The Lowland Scotch are shrewd and thrifty, and much less 
under the influence of aristocratic ideas than their English 
kinsmen. The Highland Scotch were at the outset of the sev- 
enteenth century a cluster of disorderly clans, each one much 
given to fighting its neighbors and stealing their cattle. The 
Welch were industrious and prosperous, living on good terms 
with the English. The Celtic Irish have been much oppressed 
by their English masters because of their Catholic faith. To 
this circumstance is largely due their quick wit and their incli- 
nation to use words of flattery. The Saxon Irish are derived 
from the English who settled around Dublin in the twelfth 
century. They developed a difference from the English, just 
as the English developed a difference from the Germans. Ed- 
mund Burke, the friend of America in the quarrel with Britain, 
was one of these people. 

The Hollanders resembled both the English and the Ger- 
mans. They were industrious, thrifty, and progressive. The 
Germans from the Rhine had lived under very repressive rule, 
and because of this fact they were a little slow in getting used 
to the ways of colonial self-government. These people came 

History of Highland County 41 

almost wholly from the farming and industrial classes. They 
were peaceable and industrious, yet clannish. The Huguenots 
differed from the English in being less stern in disposition, 
more active in mind, more intense in their affections, more 
chivalrous to woman, more flexible and hospitable to men and 
ideas, and more keen and enterprising in matters of business. 
The Swedes, an excellent people, were few and were soon ab- 
sorbed in the population around them. 

We now return to the people known as the Scotch-Irish. 
During the colonial era they were spoken of as Irish because 
they arrived from Ireland. Yet they were quite distinct from 
the Celtic Irish. They were fundamentally Scotch, especially 
the Scotch of the Highlands. There was also a considerable 
admixture from the north of England and a slight sprinkling 
of Huguenots. They were thus a composite people, and such 
a stock is usually forceful. 

In consequence of rebellion and famine at the close of the 
sixteenth century, the north of Ireland had become almost 
depopulated. The few native inhabitants were in a most 
wretched condition. The English government confiscated a 
great amount of the land, and took measures to repeople this 
province of Ulster, the natives being treated with slight con- 
sideration. Already a wild and lawless class of people from the 
Scottish Highlands had begun to flock in. But the later 
comers, who crossed over to secure allotments of land, were 
of a more promising sort. At first, according to Waddell, 
"a great many of them were openly profane and immoral. But 
in the course of time, pious and zealous ministers came over 
from Scotland and England, and through their efforts a great 
religious reformation occurred. The intelligence, industry, 
and thrift of the Scotch soon transformed the face of the 

The new settlers did not mingle with the native element. 
Between the Presbyterian immigrants and the Irish Catholics 
lay an antagonism too deep for intermarriage. In fact, the 
natives, who had taken to the forest, committed depredation 
whenever they could. In 1641, they rose in rebellion, and the 
war which followed was one of dreadful ferocity. 

42 History of Highland County 

Although the English government had invited these immi- 
grants to Ireland, it scarcely ceased, between 1625 and 1782 
to make life a burden to them. This oppression was both 
religious and industrial. 

The Church of England was made the established church 
in Ireland, and as Presbyterians were included among the Non- 
conformists, they were made to feel the displeasure of the 
government. The Scotch-Irish ministers were deposed, im- 
prisoned, or made to flee the country. Many of the people had 
to cross to Scotland to enjoy the ordinance of communion. In 
1639, all the Protestants of Ulster above the age of sixteen were 
required to take an oath binding them to an explicit obedience 
to all royal commands. The penalties were so severe that mul- 
titudes, both of men and women, fled to Scotland or hid them- 
selves in the woods, leaving their homes to go to ruin. 

During the civil war in England and the rule of Cromwell, 
there was a respite from persecution. In 1660 the eighty Pres- 
byterian congregations included a population of 100,000. But 
in that year the infamous Charles II became king and trouble 
returned. The ministers of Ulster were liable to fine or im- 
prisonment. At times their meetinghouses were closed and 
they had to preach by night in barns. According to the bishops 
of the Established Church, the marriages solemnized by the 
Presbyterian ministers were illegal and the children resulting 
from them were pronounced illegitimate. 

Even under the milder rule following the English Revolu- 
tion of 1688, there were times when no Presbyterian could 
hold civil or military office or teach anything above a primary 
school. Religious books could not legally be sold by them. 
Liberty of worship was conceded to the Ulster people, but 
there were grievances which still remained unredressed. Not 
until 1782, and then only because of the American Revolution, 
did the British government acknowledge the validity of mar- 
riages sanctioned by dissenting preachers. 

During the war of 1689, following the expulsion of the 
detestable Stuart kings, the Irish rose in behalf of the de- 
posed monarch, Ulster was invaded by a large army, and 
Londonderry and Enniskillen were besieged. Both places were 

History of Highland County 43 

defended with a desperation unsurpassed in history. Without 
help from the English, without trained officers, without suffi- 
cient food or ammunition, and in the face of fever and cholera, 
the Ulster men beat off the besiegers with great loss. This 
staunch support of the English cause would seem to have en- 
titled the Scotch-Irish to much consideration. Yet with blind 
obstinacy, the British Parliament enforced its anti-popery 
laws against the Presbyterians as well as the Catholics. 

The persecution of these people was industrial as well as 
religious. Their thrift and diligence had created an important 
trade in woolen and linen fabrics. The jealousy of the English 
merchants was aroused, and grievously repressive laws were 
enacted, one result of which was the destruction of the woolen 
industry in 1698. 

After enduring oppression almost a century, the Scotch- 
Irish began flocking to America in 1718. The movement was 
at first slow, but in 1729, 6,000 arrived at Philadelphia. In 
some of the years following the number rose to 12,000, and by 
1775, 200,000 — a full half of the Ulster people — had crossed 
the Atlantic. The standpatters of the British government 
finally got their eyes open, but not until it was too late. The 
emigrants from Ulster were among the hottest foes of King 
George during the crisis of the American Revolution. By 
throwing their heavy weight into the scale against him, it is 
scarcely too much to say that the loss of the American colonies 
was the round price which England had to pay for her persist- 
ent hostility toward the Scotch-Irish. 

In general, and as a matter of course, the emigrants to 
America in the colonial period represented the pick of the 
European nations. In intelligence, progressiveness, and in- 
dustry, they were well above the mass of the people they left 
behind. Oftentimes, they brought some degree of wealth. 
But with a certain large class of immigrants these remarks are 
only partially true. In part this class was indigent, and in part 
it was criminal. Much of it, however, was of good quality, 
yet poor with respect to worldly substance. These immigrants 
were of two-sub-classes ; the redemptorists and the convicts. 
The one was voluntary and the other was involuntary. The 

44 History of Highland County 

redemptorists were people more than willing to come to Amer- 
ica, yet unable to pay their passage. They were given this 
name because they could redeem the cost of fare by a term of 
labor. Many were from Germany, where wages were low 
and a living scanty. Traveling agents wearing jewelry and 
fine clothes toured the country in the interest of the shipmas- 
ters. They made the uninformed people believe the day la- 
borer could soon become a rich farmer, and the servant girl a 
fashionable lady attired in silks and satins. They almost made 
them believe America was a land where it rained gold dollars 
and where roasted pigeons would flow into their mouths. Thus 
the stimulated immigration from the south and east of Europe 
in our own day had its parallel in the eighteenth century. 

The agent promised to advance the cost of passage, which 
was usually $80 to the adult and $40 to the half-grown child. 
To small children no charge was made. But in the long run 
there was a heavy profit to the ship owners in these transac- 
tions. Articles of agreement were signed before leaving Eu- 
rope. The ships were crowded, the hard bread was often 
mouldy and the water bad. In one year 2,000 of these redemp- 
torists died at sea or soon after landing at Philadelphia. There 
the surviving people were advertised to be sold for a term of 
years, and purchasers flocked to the port much as people now 
congregate at a county fair. The young and the single were 
soon disposed of, but widows and elderly or infirm people were 
dull of sale. But if such persons had children, their own pas- 
sage was charged to the children's account, and thus the chil- 
dren had to serve extra time. Until the children were sold, 
the parents could not leave the ship. Trunks were taken on 
another vessel, and were often broken into during the voyage. 
When the term of servitude was over, the newcomer was a 
free man. But if in the meantime he ran away and was caught 
and returned, his term was extended. Yet in the long run 
these people usually fared better in America because of its 
broader opportunities. 

The other, or involuntary immigrants, were not wholly 
made up of British jailbirds. Some had been kidnapped from 
the British seaports. Some were married consorts, whom the 

History of Highland County 45 

other party, whether husband or wife, contrived to have sent 
out of the country. Some were homeless children. Still others 
were ne'er-do-wells and other derelicts, sent here by their re- 
lations in order to be out of sight if not out of mind. The 
actual cost of transportation was about $25 to each person, 
and the average price paid by the planter — usually in Vir- 
ginia — was about $150. After serving their time, yet perhaps 
still carrying on the hand the mark of a branding iron, some 
of these people became good citizens. But there were others 
who did not acquire any relish for steady work and orderly 
life. Such persons drifted into the coves of the Blue Ridge, 
so as to get away from the plantation owners. They remained 
shiftless, and their mode of life was little better than that of 
the savage. In 60 years 10,000 convicts were sent here from 
the famous "Old Bailey" prison of London. With the Revo- 
lution this practice had to come to an end, and England then 
proceeded to unload her trash upon Australia. 

Though familiar with white servitude, the colonists had 
seen nothing of negroes in Europe and were slow to take up 
with African slavery. Although "twenty negars" were brought 
to Jamestown in 1619, the number of such in the colony had 
in forty years grown to only 300. Yet by 1745, the negroes 
were almost one-fifth of the colonial population. 

With respect to religious faith, practically all the colonials 
were Protestant, excepting the English Catholics in Maryland. 
As to opinions on society and government, their differences 
were largely on the surface. Having so very much in com- 
mon, it was quite inevitable that in the course of time all the 
white elements we have sketched should blend into an Amer- 
ican nation very distinct from any of the mother nations of 

46 History of Highland County 



Relation of the Colonies to one another - Their Small Population - Industries - 
Institutions - Character of the Colonials. 

THE white settlement of Highland begins in 1745. It will 
be interesting at this point to take a general look at the 
country which had not yet assumed the name of the United 
States of America. 

It comprised thirteen colonies, all owning a certain degree 
of allegiance to the British crown. Two of these, Pennsyl- 
vania and Delaware, were under the authority of the same 
governor. With this partial exception, the thirteen colonies 
were with respect to one another thirteen independent, Eng- 
lish-speaking nations. Nine-tenths of the white people were 
of British origin, and their laws and institutions were conse- 
quently much alike. Nevertheless, each colony was jealous 
of its own rights and more or less distrustful of its neighbors. 

Georgia, the youngest of the colonies, had been established 
only thirteen years. Virginia, the first founded, was not so 
old by thirty years as is the settlement of the Bullpasture Val- 
ley to-day. The occupied area of the colonies extended a 
thousand miles along the coast. On an average it reached 
inland scarcely more than a hundred miles. 

By the terms of their charters, some of the colonial grants 
extended clear across the continent. But west of the Alle- 
ghanies no settlement had yet been made. The entire Mis- 
sissippi Valley was claimed by the French, and in a slight de- 
gree had been colonized by them. To all intents and purposes, 
what is now Highland County lay directly on the frontier of 
the British domain. 

In all the British colonies there were not one-third as many 
people as there are now in the two Virginias. The growth was 

History of Highland County 47 

everywhere rapid, both by natural increase and immigration, 
yet large portions of the settled area were thinly occupied. 
Towns were very few and very small, and even villages were 
scarce except in the New England section. Boston had 15,000 
people, Philadelphia had 12,000, and New York only about 
10,000, or substantially the same number as is found in Staun- 
ton to-day. The only other places of size were Salem, New- 
port, Norfolk, and Charleston. The negroes were scarcely 
one-fifth of the population, and not 20,000 of them were to be 
found north of Maryland. The estimated population in 1745 
is as follows : 

New Hampshire 26,000 Pennsylvania and Dela- 

Massachusetts 168,000 ware 125,000 

Rhode Island 29,000 Maryland 120,000 

Connecticut 84,000 Virginia 237,000 

New York 71,000 North Carolina 65,000 

New Jersey 58,000 South Carolina 56,000 

Georgia 6,000 

Total 1,045,000 

Roads being bad and bridges few, there was no journeying 
by land when it was possible to travel by rowboat or sailing 
vessel on the bays and rivers. The active commerce with Eng- 
land and the West Indies required several hundred of the 
small ships of that day. There was no intercourse with South 
America, Africa was known only along its coast, Australia was 
uncolonized, and the lands east of Russia or beyond our own 
Mississippi were little else than blank space on the map. The 
great Pacific was less known than is the Arctic to-day, and 
nearly every sea was infested with pirate vessels. The trav- 
eler was still suspected of being a liar and sometimes he was. 

In the cities and towns and along the navigable waters, the 
houses of people esteemed well-to-do were substantially built 
and quite roomy, yet within they would seem less cozily fur- 
nished than the better class of homes in any American village 
of the present century. Away from the coast, the log house 
was almost the only dwelling. 

Farming was the one great industry, and it was carried on 
in a crude, laborious, and wasteful way. The Middle and 

48 History of Highland County 

Southern colonies contributed the greater share of the agri- 
cultural exports. Tobacco, the leading staple of Maryland 
and Virginia, afforded a surplus of 70,000 hogsheads. 200 
ships were engaged in this service, and the revenue it yielded 
to the British treasury was more than a million dollars yearly. 
By reason of their climate and soil, the New England colonies 
turned their very active attention to commerce and fishing. 
As for manufacture, this branch of industry was severely hand- 
icapped by British jealousy. England wished to use the co- 
lonial domain as a market for the products of its own work- 

In all America there were but three colleges : Harvard, 
Yale, and William and Mary. Outside of New England there 
was no system of public schools, and illiteracy was common. 
Yet in every colony were not a few persons who were well 
versed in the higher education of that day. It was little else 
than a classical training, and it conduced to a style of discourse 
that was heavy, stilted, and full of Greek and Latin names and 
allusions. The men of best education were the ministers and 
lawyers. The daily newspaper was yet in the future. The 
very few weeklies were in size about like our Sunday School 
papers. The mails were few, slow, and irregular, and the 
frontier settlement did well if it received its letters once a 

Religion was free only in Rhode Island and Pennsylvania. 
Elsewhere a state church was supported by general taxation, 
and all people were expected to attend a certain number of 
times in the course of the year. In Virginia this church was 
the Episcopalian, known also as the Church of England. 

It was a very dark age with respect to medical knowledge. 
Hygiene was little understood or practiced. Quacks were 
numerous, and in the South physicians were held in low es- 
teem. As to legal procedure, its methods are always conserva- 
tive, and even yet they have undergone no radical change. 
With respect to society, it was colored by aristocratic ideas 
more than is the case at present. Even when the Federal 
Government went into operation in 1789, only one person in 
twenty-five was a qualified voter. 

I _J 


U. ^ 

O | 

uj ir 

History of Highland County 49. 

Taverns were in every county, and they always kept liquor, 
the use of which was general. Southern taverns were poor, 
but the traveler was sure of free entertainment in the homes 
of the planters. His visit was an appreciated break in the 
sameness of life in a sparsely settled country. 

The life of every community was very local in its spirit and 
sympathies and was comparatively sluggish in its movement. 
This was because of the slowness and difficulty of travel, the 
meager amount of general news in the journals of the day, 
and the prejudice shown toward the stranger.. Each neighbor- 
hood was a little world in itself. It was interested in little 
else than its own petty affairs, and was rather content in its 

The differences between the colonies were due in part to 
denominational opinions and in part to social and economic 
conditions. But as yet an immense majority of the people; 
were of English derivation, and whether Cavalier, Puritan, 
Quaker, or Catholic, their English ancestors had lived side by. 
side as actual neighbors. In all the colonies there was a con-, 
siderable though unequal sprinkling of Irish, Welch, and 
French. The French were exclusively Huguenots, but unlike 
the Hollanders and Germans, and even unlike the French 
Catholics of Canada, they did not perpetuate their mother 
tongue. Neither were the few Swedes of Pennsylvania and ; 
Delaware very long in becoming amalgamated with their Eng- 
lish neighbors. The same fact was far less true of the Hol- 
landers of New York, a colony not founded by the English. 

In 1745 England was, therefore, in a very broad sense the 
mother-country of the colonies. Not only their language, but i 
their laws and usages were derived from England. And yet 
the causes which have made the American a very different 
person from the Englishman had begun to operate with the 
coming of the first immigrant ships. 

50 History of Highland County 



Settled Area in 1727 - Structure of Society - The Planter - Currency - Mode 
of Government. - Church and School - Early Distinction between Tide- 
water and Upper Virginia. 

BY knowing what Virginia was when settlement began to 
creep west of the Blue Ridge, we can much more easily 
understand the early history of the mountain belt. 

At this time — 1727 — the population of the colony was about 
150,000, probably a third being negro slaves, while a very large 
share of the remaining two-thirds was made up of redemp- 
torists or their descendants. As far inland as a line drawn 
through where Alexandria and Richmond now stand, and 
southward to near the Carolina line, the country was well 
occupied. Westward toward the Blue Ridge was a light 
sprinkling of settlement, particularly along the streams. 

Yet there was no town worthy of being called such. Wil- 
liamsburg, the capital, was no more than a straggling village, 
probably no larger than McDowell. Norfolk was a very small 
place, and Richmond was yet to be founded. In fact, the ruling 
element of the Virginia people did not like towns and did not 
encourage them. At a county seat was little else than the 
little courthouse and jail, a tavern, or ordinary as it was then 
called, perhaps two or three dwelling houses, and probably 
a church. 

The white inhabitants were derived entirely from the Brit- 
ish Isles and nearly all of them were English. 

As in England itself the people were grouped into classes. 
At the top of the social structure were the comparatively few 
planters, owning most of the land and wealth and consequently 
controlling the government. Next were the pretenders, or 
"half-breeds," really equal to the planters in birth and culture. 

History of Highland County 51 

yet inferior in influence. They had enterprise and energy but 
no wealth. They were not regarded by the planters as on a 
par with themselves, yet by sheer ability often crept into their 
ranks. Third was the yeoman, a free person, yet very poor 
and very often illiterate. Fourth were the indentured white 
servants, living in a form of bondage, usually to the planters. 
Fifth were the negroes, nearly all of whom were slaves to the 
same class. 

The structure of society being aristocratic in a marked 
degree, class terms were in constant use. The planter, and in 
great degree the pretender, was called "gentleman." This 
term was not primarily a mark of culture but of social rank. 
In theory, but not always in fact, the gentleman was a person 
whose ancestors had always been free. In actual use, the term 
was somewhat elastic, since any man who became a justice 
had a recognized right to the title. In court proceedings the 
yeoman, servant, or slave is mentioned according to his class. 
The freed servant became a yeoman, but it was not at all 
easy for him to pass still upward into the favored planter circle. 

Agriculture on the planter system was almost the sole in- 
dustry in Virginia. In Tidewater, which as we have seen was 
the only well-peopled section, nearly all the land was held in 
great estates, usually tilled by servants or slaves, although 
little tracts would be leased to yeomen. Tobacco was almost 
the sole money crop, yet some flour was shipped to the West 

The planter was to Virginia what the country squire was 
to England. His tastes were entirely rural and he had slight 
use for towns. He wanted land and in this new country he 
could gratify his desire. He built his "great house" remote 
from the public road and as far from neighbors as possible. 
His intimate associates were among the other people of his 
own class. Through force of custom the other elements of 
the population looked up to him, and in local affairs his author- 
ity was nearly supreme. He therefore considered the colony 
in his own keeping, and he made and administered the laws. 
He governed well, though always in a conservative manner. 

Being a man of power and not backward to use it, the 

52 History of Highland County 

planter was dictatorial, yet he was generous, courteous, hon- 
orable, and high-minded. His high sense of family pride gave 
him a contempt for baseness, though it also gave him a con- 
tempt for manual labor. He was public-spirited, jealous of 
his rights, and not slow to assert them. He kept open house 
and was open-handed. He was fond of outdoor sports, fine 
horses, handsome furniture, and elegant table ware. Passing 
to the other extreme, many of the ex-servants were not only 
ignorant and uncouth, but disorderly and troublesome. They 
lived in untidy cabins, subsisting mainly on corn bread and 
the flesh of razor-backed hogs. 

Not only the habits of the people but the geography of the 
country explained the absence of towns and villages. Nav- 
igable rivers not far apart reach from the coast half way to 
the Blue Ridge. The planter could roll his hogsheads of to- 
bacco by horsepower to the very ship that took them away, 
and from that ship he received in return, the supplies ordered 
from England. He could thus get along without the middle- 
man. Yet the roads were mere lanes through the woods, and 
were very poor, unless in dry weather. Travel was by horse- 
back, and streams were crossed by fording or by boats. 

Tobacco overshadowed everything else, yet it did not make 
the colony rich. Merchants were the most prosperous people. 
Money was scarce. Spanish and French coins were in general 
use, but a large share of them found their way into Pennsyl- 
vania, where their purchasing power was greater. The Span- 
ish piece of eight, the French crown, and the Dutch dollar 
were each rated at five shillings (83 cents), and in transactions 
where the consideration was merely such as to satisfy the law, 
the sum of five shillings would accordingly be specified. A 
depreciation very early appeared, and to settle a confusion in 
values the English king decreed that the coin in most general 
use should be reckoned equal to six shillings. Its value being 
one dollar of our money, this fixed the Virginia penny at 1^ 
cents, the shilling at 16^? cents and the pound at $3.33^. 
Where, as in wills, the English shilling is named, the British 
coin of 24 cents' value is meant. The scarcity of money caused 
tobacco to come into general use as currency. Even county 

History of Highland County 53 

levies were reckoned in pounds of tobacco. What was thus 
paid into the public treasury was turned into money only in 
England. The fact that a pound of tobacco once represented 
but three farthings, or only one cent, shows that the abund- 
ance of the weed made it very much a drug in the market. But 
by degrees the value rose and after the Revolution, 100 pounds 
of tobacco as currency represented one Virginia pound of 
§3.33 value. 

As the king's proxy, the royal governor lived in much 
pomp and dignity. He was appointed by the king from among 
his British subjects, but his salary and perquisites of $10,000 
a year came out of the colonial treasury. He was no figure- 
head. He would dodge the instructions of the king, and 
through his use of patronage he would often control the House 
of Burgesses. 

The Governor's Council was the equivalent of our State 
Senate and also our Supreme Court. The members held office 
by appointment. The House of Burgesses was elective, each 
of the 36 counties of 1743 sending two members. The towns 
of Norfolk, Yorktown, and Williamsburg, and the one college 
of William and Mary also sent two members each. Yet the 
voting privilege was very much restricted. Even so late as 
1829, more than two-fifths of the white male adults could not 

When a new county was organized, the governor appointed 
a number of men to act as "worshipful justices." Individually 
or by group these men were magistrates, and with a quorum 
present they were the equivalent of our board of supervisors. 
Vacancies were filled by men recommended to the governor 
by the court. Thus the county court was self-perpetuating. 
It remained a close corporation until 1852, and it appointed 
the clerk of the court, the jailor, and the constables. Quite as 
a matter of course, the county court represented the more in- 
fluential families. It was much inclined to provide for its own 
favorites, and it was within its power to be tyrannical. 

A sheriff was a senior justice, and was appointed by the 
governor on the court's recommendation. Usually, he did not 
act himself, but sublet his profitable office to another man. 

54 History of Highland County 

When his term of two years was out, he resumed his place as 
justice, and perhaps filled the position a second time. 

An official known as the county lieutenant was military 
commandant within the county and had the honorary title of 
"Colonel." He was in some degree a deputy governor. 

But within the county itself was another system of local 
government. This was ecclesiastical in its origin. The county 
contained one to three parishes, each supporting by public 
taxation one minister of the Church of England. His salary 
was 16,000 pounds of tobacco. In each parish was a board of 
twelve men called the vestry, which like the county court was 
self-perpetuating. The vestry was presided over by the min- 
ister. It appointed a clerk and also two executive officers 
called church wardens. 

Both the justices and the church wardens were conserv- 
ators of the peace and looked into the morals of the people, 
though none too effectually it would seem. The church ward- 
ens watched the sinners, and bound out apprentices as well as 
the bastards, of whom there was never any lack. The vestry 
provided the minister with a farm, or glebe, as it was called, 
and laid tithes for his further support, these being collected 
from heads of families. Glebes, churches, and ministers' sal- 
aries were paid out of the public treasury. The parish levy 
was laid by the vestry, the county levy by the county court, 
and the public levy by the colonial Council. The latter 
source of income consisted of a quitrent of one shilling for each 
50 acres, an export tax of two shillings on each hogshead of 
tobacco, and a port tax of 15 pence per ton on all incoming 
vessels. Within the county, the sheriff collected all moneys, 
except when the parish levy was collected by the church 

In 1692 Virginia had established one post office for each 
county. For a letter of a single sheet, the postage was 4 cents 
for a distance of not more than 80 miles, and 6 cents for a 
greater distance. When there were two sheets, the rates were 
7 cents and 12*/? cents. But until after 1738 there was only 
one weekly mail to Pennsylvania. 

All crimes and chancery matters, unless of too large or 
grave a nature, were tried before the county court ; otherwise, 

History of Highland County 55 

before the governor and Council, although there were at length 
quarterly courts of four or more members. There was much 
confusion as to the laws, it being hard to tell what ones were 
actually in force. County courts often made blunders through 
their ignorance in this matter. The grand jury of 24 members, 
sworn for an "inquest on the body of this county," was se- 
lected by the sheriff from the freeholders. 

The Church of England was not only supported by law, 
but until 1748 no other was tolerated. To a limited degree, 
attendance on public worship was compulsory. Yet the clergy 
were at the mercy of the planters and trimmed to suit their 
humor. Oftentimes, the parish would be without a minister. 
With not a few worthy exceptions, the clergy were of sporting 
proclivities, intemperate, and sometimes immoral. 

Education was not regarded as a matter of public concern. 
The well-to-do had their children educated by tutors, and there 
were some good schools taught by members of the clergy. 
College education was supplied by the one college of William 
and Mary at the capital and by the larger colleges of England. 
If the planter were of studious habits he had for that day a 
good library. But the education of the mass of the people was 
quite neglected, except where some philanthropic person main- 
tained in his own neighborhood and at his own expense what 
was then known as a free school. 

As the lands of the Tidewater were usually in the hands of 
the planters, the small farmer became more numerous in the 
uplands beyond the head of deep water navigation in the rivers. 
This same line was a considerable check to the expansion to- 
wards the mountains of the plantation system. The great 
farm was less profitable in the uplands because of the greater 
distance to navigable water. Hence, as there was more oppor- 
tunity for the small farmer, this upper section of the colony 
was less aristocratic than the Tidewater and had a larger per- 
centage of white people. It formed a middle zone between the 
European Virginia of the Tidewater and the still more demo- 
cratic society that was to appear beyond the Blue Ridge. 
Bacon's rebellion of 1676 was an armed protest of the small 
farmers of the upland against the policy of the planters of the 
lowland. And near half a century later. Governor Spottswood 

56 History of Highland County 

made this aristocratic complaint: "The inclinations of the 
country are rendered mysterious by a new and unaccountable 
humor, which hath obtained in several counties, of excluding 
gentlemen from being burgesses, and choosing only persons 
of mean figure and character." 

Though the greater portion of Tidewater was yet in a state 
of nature, the soil was light and the system of farming was 
thoroughly bad. Fertilization was almost unthought of. When 
the stumps were gone, the soil had lost its virgin strength 
and was left to cover itself with a pine thicket, a new field 

-being cleared to take its place. This pillage of the soil was 
already causing the Virginians to look toward the stronger 
lands of the interior. A half century later, Washington was 
telling his countrymen that if this ruinous policy were con- 
tinued it would drive the people of the lowlands into the moun- 
tains for support. 

The colonial civilization of Tidewater was picturesque and 
it contained elements of strength and value. It developed 

'strong leadership. It bred the statesmen of the American 
Revolution. But in an industrial and social sense it was fatally 
weak. The aristocratic structure brought over from Europe 
and set up in the wilderness with small alteration was fore- 

■ doomed to decay. The whole tendency of America was toward 
the unfolding of democratic ideas and practices. It was a los- 

i ing fight to expect men to put up with tenant farming or to 
work for wages so long as there was an unoccupied wilderness 
in the interior. The continued occupation of this interior was 
destined to overturn the aristocratic edifice, as the clashing of 

: interest between the eastern and western districts of Virginia 

■prior to 1861 bears witness. The system of indentured servi- 
tude was not long in giving way. The resort to African slav- 
ery was an instinctive effort to prolong the old era. 

We have described at some length the colonial Virginia 
east of the Blue Ridge, because it was the Virginia which 
opened to settlement the country beyond the mountains. It 
was likewise the Virginia which framed the laws under which 
the new settlers were to live and gave an impress to their 
customs and political thought. 

History of Highland County 57 



Spottswood and His Expedition - The Scotch-Irish Inflow - The German 
Inflow - How Land was Chosen - The Cowpasture - How Highland 
was Settled - A Composite Mountain Population - The Calfpasture 
Settlement - The Lewises and Other Pathfinders. 

N 1716 Virginia was more than a century old. There were 

already 24 counties and nearly 100,000 people. Yet beyond 
the Blue Ridge, less than 200 miles from the capital by trail, 
lay a country as little known as is the interior of Greenland 
to-day. It is indeed claimed that a very few persons had 
penetrated the mountains and obtained glimpses of the coun- 
try beyond. And yet it would appear that little heed was 
given to the reports of these early pathfinders. The land 
screened by the Blue Ridge had the repute of being a dismal 
region that people would do well to keep out of. 

In the year above named Alexander Spottswood, a man of 
enterprise, was governor of Virginia. He not only deemed 
it important to learn the truth regarding this land of ill-report, 
but relying on the accounts coming from the Indians, he sup- 
posed the Great Lakes were only a few days' march beyond 
the mountains. Here, then, was a country which should be 

Yet Spottswood was not altogether impelled by curiosity 
or far-sightedness. The land-hunger which has impelled the 
American step by step to the Pacific was even now making 
itself felt. The pillaging of the Tidewater soil, of which we 
have already spoken, had begun to counsel a decisive explora- 

So the governor left the capital with a mounted party of 50 
gay companions, and as there was no road the greater part of 
the distance, it took him from August 20th till September 5th 
to cover a distance of 220 miles. In climbing the Blue Ridge 

58 History of Highland County 

through Swift Run Gap, the party encountered many rattle- 
snakes, and on the summit they found trees blazed by the 
Indians. Descending to near where Elkton now stands they 
reached a fine river which they named the Euphrates. Cross- 
ing to the left bank they held a banquet next day, — September 
6th, — and the chronicler of the expedition is careful to enum- 
erate the considerable variety of wines and liquors which had 
been brought along. Each toast was followed with a volley 
from their firearms. 

The governor and the "gentlemen" of the party did not go 
farther. Some rangers remained to prosecute the exploration. 
At the disbanding at Williamsburg, after an absence of eight 
weeks, the governor took steps to present each of his com- 
panions with a miniature horseshoe of gold containing the 
Latin motto, "Sic juvat transcendere montes." A free trans- 
lation is, "So let it be a joy to pass over the mountains." That 
Spottswood then instituted a new order of chivalry styled 
the "Knights of the Golden Horseshoe" is not strictly correct. 
He would not have presumed thus to encroach on a preroga- 
tive of royalty. 

The expedition had far more solid results than the swilling 
of liquor or the presentation of badges. Instead of a forbidding 
region they found one that was highly inviting. On the moun- 
tains they crossed and on those they saw in the blue distance 
were noble forests. Between was a broad, grassy prairie with 
a more fertile, homelike soil than that of Tidewater. The 
wilderness abounded in game and fish, and there was no Indian 
village within a hundred miles. The land beyond the moun- 
tains was now officially and practically discovered, and attrac- 
tive reports of the same were soon circulating in Europe. 
When, in 1720, another county was formed, it was named 
Spottsylvania, in honor of the governor, and it then took in 
the locality he visited. 

Yet the governor declared that his chief purpose was to 
assure himself that it was practicable to reach the Great Lakes. 
According to Indian reports they could be seen from the moun- 
tains in the distance. It is somewhat surprising that he did 
not push on to those mountains to see for himself, instead of 

History of Highland County 59 

merely writing his official recommendation that settlements 
be established on the Lakes and communication secured by 
means of a chain of forts. It was a case of passing through ; 
meadow of tall grass to look for another where the grass might 
be a little taller. His idea was good even though it came to 
nothing. Other men were more immediately practical than he. 

The further exploration of the great Valley of Virginia and 
the minor valleys beyond was tolerably rapid. By 1727 the 
Cowpasture Valley had been prospected, and a year or two 
earlier a Dutch trader by the name of John Vanmeter had 
ascended the South Branch as far as the vicinity of Franklin. 
John Vanderpool, another Dutch explorer, discovered the gap 
which bears his name, and told of a beautiful valley beyond, 
yet with impassable mountains in the distance. 

In the ordinary course of events the newly found country 
would have been settled from lower Virginia, yet with much 
less speed than by the people who actually took possession. 
While hunters and rangers were prospecting this land of 
promise, a new wave of immigration was setting in, destined 
within a half-century to supply the colonies with probably at 
least a fifth of their whole population. 

When, in 1732, George Washington was born, the Scotch- 
Irish and the Germans had only begun to float across the 
Atlantic. The 600,000 people already here were still in the 
lowlands and had nowhere penetrated the Alleghany water- 

Some of the Scotch-Irish arrived at Charleston and went 
direct to the Carolina uplands. But by far the greater share 
of the immigrants of both nationalities came to Philadelphia. 
This was because of the reputation of the Pennsylvania colony 
for its civil and religious liberty. By this time the district 
along the Delaware River and westward toward the mouth 
of the Susquehanna was quite well occupied by a substantial 
class of English Quakers. As we have seen, the people already 
here looked with distrust on the strange appearing immigrants 
from Ireland and Germany. Such of the newcomers as were 
not bound to servitude had therefore to push inland through 
the zone of settlement. 

60 History of Highland County 

But this was not all. While the earlier colonists did not 
receive the new immigrants with wide open arms, they liked 
the Scotch-Irish the less of the two because of their assertive 
manner. Restrictive laws were accordingly passed. To some 
extent the Germans were required to adopt English names, 
and this circumstance appears to explain the wholly English 
form of the surnames of not a few of the German pioneers. 

Accordingly, many of the newcomers made but a short 
stay in Pennsylvania. These moved to the southwest, because 
in this direction lay the door of wider opportunity. Lovers 
of peace and on the whole the less aggressive of the two races, 
the larger share of the Germans remained in Pennsylvania 
and occupied the inland districts as far as the western rim of 
the Cumberland Valley. The overflow pushed through that 
valley into the adjacent section of Maryland, and across the 
Potomac into the valleys of the Shenandoah and the South 
Branch, the latter then known as the Wappacomac. They 
occupied the west side of the Shenandoah Valley as far south- 
ward as the vicinity of Harrisonburg. In the valley of the 
South Branch, the attempt of Lord Fairfax to make his ex- 
tensive grant a feudal barony of the English pattern caused 
much of the immigration to push above his boundary, which 
lay in the vicinity of Moorefield and Petersburg. 

The Scotch-Irish were more numerous and more venture- 
some, and the area of their distribution was much wider. It 
was not long until they had occupied the western section of 
Pennsylvania. They filled the Valley of Virginia southward 
of the German district. They not only filled the Valley of 
East Tennessee, but they took possession of the uplands of 
both the Carolinas. They thus became a frontier community, 
which extended from the vicinity of the Great Lakes south- 
ward into Georgia. The development of this frontier was quite 
rapid and therefore it greatly hastened the westward advance 
of the American people. 

For some cause the attention of the Scotch-Irish path- 
finders was particularly fixed on that section of the Valley of 
Virginia which lies southward of Massanutton Mountain. They 

History of Highland County 61 

proceeded to occupy this inviting region in force. Yet their 
earlier selections were not in the smooth, open plain between 
the mountains. At first blush it is hard to see why they should 
appear to scorn fertile lands that needed no clearing. Their 
motive in doing so was substantially the same as that which 
led the earlier settlers beyond the Missouri to shun the open 
prairie and cling to the creek bank, where drinking water had 
only to be dipped out of a spring and where timber was at 
hand for shelter and fuel. The limestone plain in the Valley 
is deficient in surface water. The Scotch-Irishman did not 
shirk at the trouble of felling trees, but he had no mind to dig 
a deep well if he could help it. 

Hence in 1727, a year before the first permanent settlement 
in Rockingham, and five years before there was anybody at or 
near where the city of Staunton grew up, we find an attempt 
to colonize the Cowpasture Valley. In that year Robert and 
William Lewis, William Lynn, Robert Brooke, and Beverley 
Robinson petitioned the Governor and Council to this effect : 

Your Petitioners have been at great Trouble and Charges in making 
Discoveries of Lands among the Mountains, and are desirous of taking up 
some of those Lands they have discovered; wherefore your petitioners hum- 
bly pray your Honours to grant him an order to take up Fifty Thousand 
Acres, in one or more tracts, on the head branches of James River to the 
West and Northwestward of the Cow Pasture, on seating thereon one Fam- 
ily for every Thousand Acres, and as the said Lands are very remote and 
lying among the great North Mountains, being about Two Hundred Miles 
at least from any landing — Your Petitioners humbly pray Your Honours 
will grant them six years' time to seat the same. 

Thus we find that in the very year when the first actual 
settler came to the Shenandoah Valley, there was an earnest 
effort to colonize the Highland* area. And this was only 120 
years after the landing at Jamestown ; when as yet the entire 
population of the Colonies did not equal the present number of 
people in the city of Baltimore. 

That the above petition was granted is more than doubtful ; 
but in 1743 there was an order of council, in favor of Henry 

*We use the term "Highland area" to designate the exact region which was set off into 
Highland County more than one hundred years after the settlement began. 

62 History of Highland County 

Robinson, James Wood, and Thomas and Andrew Lewis, for 
30,000 acres in the same region. 

By this time there was a considerable number of the Scotch- 
Irish in the upper Shenandoah Valley and even southward. 
The region west of the Blue Ridge had in 1738 been set off 
into the counties of Augusta and Frederick, the line between 
the two crossing the Shenandoah Valley in the vicinity of 
Woodstock. Yet the county machinery of Augusta was not 
set in motion until the close of 1745. During this interval, 
Augusta remained attached to the parent county of Orange. 

The Augusta colony was practically the starting point of 
the Scotch-Irish settlement of upper Virginia. The dispersion 
from this center was governed by the position of the gaps in 
the mountains. Pioneer travel never climbed a steep, rocky 
ridge when it was possible to find a grade line along even a 
crooked watercourse. So in moving westward into Bath and 
Highland the settlers did not go over the rugged Shenandoah 
Mountain, but flanked it by way of Panther Gap, some 30 
miles southwest of Staunton. 

Highland was settled in precisely the way we might ex- 
pect. Scotch-Irish landseekers came through Panther Gap 
and along the upper James, and moved up the valleys of the 
Cowpasture and Jackson's River, until they reached the laurel 
thickets along the cross-ridges separating the waters of the 
James from those of the Potomac. German land-seekers from 
the opposite direction crept up the three valleys of the South 
Branch waters until they, too, had come to the divide. 

In the settlement of a new region, like attracts like. Pio- 
neers of the same class naturally prefer to be together. Yet 
the Scotch-Irish and the German settlers were not like oil 
and water. In communities of either stock the other was in 
some degree represented. 

So in the pioneer days of Highland we find two easily de- 
fined areas of settlement. The Scotch-Irish filled the five 
valleys which open southward. The Germans occupied 
Straight Creek and the Crabbottom. A few of them made 
homes south of the divide, and a larger number of the Scotch- 
Irish settled north of it. When Pendleton County was estab- 

History of Highland County 63 

lished in 1787, its southern line followed this water-parting. 
It was, therefore, not only a natural geographic boundary, but 
it was also a boundary between two provinces of settlement. 
Pendleton was predominantly German. Bath, soon to be 
stricken off, was distinctly Scotch-Irish. 

To the present day the distinction is in evidence. In the 
valleys of the Cowpasture, the Bullpasture, Jackson's River, 
and Back Creek, the family names are mainly Scotch-Irish, 
though in a less exclusive degree than formerly. In the Crab- 
bottom and in Straight Creek, family lineage is mainly Ger- 
man but thoroughly Americanized. There has here been much 
blending of the two stocks. Some families not German in 
name have become almost German in blood, while on the other 
hand, the present generation of the German immigrant cannot 
point back to an unmixed German ancestry. In the northeast 
of Highland the divide passes very near the county boundary. 
Crossing into Pendleton one finds a large number of the peo- 
ple using a broken-down German idiom. South of the divide 
it is an unknown speech, and indeed, it never had much foot- 
hold here. 

The region east of the Blue Ridge being almost wholly 
English, we would expect that persons from that quarter would 
be attracted to the mountains and would join the Scotch-Irish 
in settling on fresh soil. It is, therefore, a quite natural con- 
sequence that English names come third in order of number. 
However, not all these families were from the east of Virginia. 
Even distant New England supplied a few of them. 

We have elsewhere seen that Welsh, French, and Celtic 
and Saxon Irish scattered freely throughout all the colonies, 
without seeking to found distinct settlements of their own. 
Thus we find all these elements represented among the pio- 
neers. Also, the venturesome Hollanders of the New York 
colony are not quite unrepresented. 

But in the preceding paragraphs we did not take time to 
sketch the actual beginning of settlement in the present coun- 
ties of Highland and Bath. The latter county lying directly 
against the gateways to the Valley of Virginia, the settlement 
of Bath was a little earlier than that of Highland. The Cow- 

64 History of Highland County 

pasture Valley was first reached and first settled, while the 
valley of Back Creek came last, just as we might suppose. 
It is also worthy of notice that the German influx did not 
reach the divide so soon as the Scotch-Irish. There were 
people at the head of the Bullpasture fifteen years before there 
appears to have been any in Crabbottom. 

Just when and by whom the actual settlement of the twin 
counties began it would not seem possible to say. A man 
would enter a tract which then or afterward was embraced in 
some order of council. When the county surveyor came along 
to run lines for the grantees, he would report the given tract 
as "now in the possession of" the person living on it. Actual 
possession seems generally to have been confirmed by the per- 
sons to whom the order of council was given. In some in- 
stances there may have been an understanding on the part of 
the squatter that he was to wait for the order of council 
through which he would gain title. At all events, we often 
find a pioneer living in a certain locality, although there is 
no recorded evidence that he had title to the land he occupied. 

The Calfpasture Valley lies eastward across the mouth of 
Panther Gap, and it might be supposed that settlement would 
here be a little earlier than in the valleys beyond. On April 
2d, 1745, deeds for 2,247 acres were given by James Patton 
and John Lewis to William Campbell, Jacob Clemens, Samuel 
Hodge, Robert Gay, Thomas Gillam, and William Jamison. 
August 17th, 1745, other deeds for 5,205 acres were given by 
the same men to Francis Donally, Robert Gwin, Robert Brat- 
ton, John Dunlap, Loftus Pullin, John Wilson, John Kincaid, 
John Miller, Robert Gay, and James Carter. Almost all these 
names occur shortly afterward in Bath or Highland, either 
through the purchaser himself or a son. The total of purchase 
money for the 7,452 acres was $717.95. The rate per acre 
varied from \y 2 cents to 11 cents. 

According to Mr. Waddell, settlement was made in the 
above-named region as early as at Staunton or nearly so. On 
the South Fork in Pendleton we have knowledge that a num- 
ber of German families, to whom deeds were given on one and 
the same day, had been living on their lands ten years and in 

V *= 5 

it. aj ^ 

S* E 

^ i_ IB 

5 £ „ 

O h. 

History of Highland County 65 

recognized occupancy. And yet the lands had already passed 
into private ownership. Neither is there on record any permit 
for those persons to settle upon them. The authorization 
would seem to have been verbal and for a definite term of 

Turning to the country beyond the Shenandoah ridge and 
above the confluence of the Cowpasture with Jackson's River, 
we find that in 1744 a survey of 176 acres was granted to one 
William Moor on the last named stream and in what is now 
Alleghany County. The following year ten other persons* 
took surveys on the Cowpasture below Williamsville. In 
1746, nineteen more surveys are recorded for the lower Cow- 
pasture, thirteen for Jackson's River, and five for Back Creek. 
All these appear to be below the Highland line. 

Excepting seven surveys retained by the grantees, Henry 
Robinson, James Wood, and William and Andrew Lewis, 
nearly or quite a 1 l these surveys are to actual settlers who are 
mentioned as already occupying their lands. How long these 
people had been here, we cannot tell with certainty. John 
Lewis was lirerted by the Orange court, May 23d, 1745, to 
take the list Oi tithables for the district between the Blue 
Ridge and the North (Shenandoah) Mountain, "including the 
Cow and Calf Pastures and the settlers back of the same." 
But this is not quite conclusive that any settlers had actually 
gone beyond the Cowpasture. The order was worded so as 
to include all settlers, however far to the west they might be 
found. Aside from the report of the county surveyor, there 
seems to be no evidence at all that people had located west of 
Shenandoah Mountain prior to the coming of Moor in 1744, or 
perhaps 1743. If he were not the only man in this region in 
1744, it might reasonably be asked why the surveyor did not 
proceed up the river and do the work he performed one and 
two years later. The order of council in favor of the Lewises 
and their associates was granted in 1743. When we take into 
account the entire silence of county records with reference 
to people west of the Valley before 1744, and the frequent men- 

*See Appendix I. 

66 History of Highland County 

tion of settlers when once they do appear, it would seem most 
probable that the pioneers in question anticipated the visit of 
the surveyor only by a few months, or a year or two at most. 

Adam Dickenson, whose fort stood four miles below Mill- 
boro, appears to have been the leader of the settlers on the 
lower Cowpasture. He was a large landholder, and on the 
organization of Augusta in 1745 he became one of its first 

It remains to speak of the men who were most conspicuous 
in the founding of the Augusta colony, which in a few years 
spread over so wide an area. 

Colonel John Lewis, of Scottish-Welsh descent, came from 
Ireland and lived two miles east of Staunton. He died in 1762 
at the age of 84. All his sons were prominent in the early 
history of Augusta. Thomas, the first county surveyor, was 
a member of the House of Burgesses and held other important 
positions. As surveyor and as one of five men to whom a 
grant of 30,000 acres was made, he figures conspicuously in 
the settlement of Bath and Highland. Andrew was also a 
surveyor, but is better known as a soldier. He served as an 
officer through the French and Indian War, fought and won 
the battle of Point Pleasant, and in the opening year of the 
Revolution he drove the royal governor to the shelter of his 
ships. Washington counseled his appointment as commander- 
in-chief of the American armies. Charles, the youngest of the 
brothers, settled on the Cowpasture and was a most skilful 
Indian fighter, but his promising career was cut short at Point 

Colonel James Patton, the rich man of the Augusta settle- 
ment, is said to have made twenty-five voyages across the 
Atlantic, bringing immigrants every time. He was county 
lieutenant and fell in battle in 1755. 

Gabriel Jones, a Welshman, was the first resident lawyer, 
being appointed prosecuting attorney when only twenty-two 
years old. He lived near Port Republic but owned land in 
Bath. He was brother-in-law to Thomas Lewis, and both 
these men were members of the state convention that con- 
sidered the Federal Constitution. They voted in favor of its 

History of Highland County 67 



Early Bullpasture Pioneers - Later Comers - Cowpasture Pioneers - Jack- 
son's River and South Branch Pioneers. 

IN the settlement of the Valley of Virginia it was not the 
usual practice for a pioneer to isolate himself. Few In- 
dians were seen, and these were nominally at peace with the 
whites. Yet it was known that a hostile relation might arise 
at any moment. So for mutual aid and protection, a group of 
settlers would come into a valley together. 

In the early days of April, 1746, when all Augusta had not 
6,000 white people, and when the county seat had no other 
name than "Beverly's Mill Place," the county surveyor laid 
off several tracts within the Highland area. He came again 
at the close of July and still again in September. Altogether 
he laid off 21 tracts on the Bullpasture and Cowpasture, but 
almost wholly on the former. Besides running lines for 14 
persons, nearly or quite all of whom are reported as being on 
the ground, he reserved a tract for Andrew Lewis, his brother, 
and three more for the syndicate of which the two brothers 
were members. All these surveys came under the order of 
council of 1743. The 348-acre tract of Andrew Lewis was 
patented by himself four years later, and the farm of W. P. B. 
Lockridge is now a portion of it. 

The settlers now here were Alexander Black, John and 
Robert Carlile, Wallace Ashton, Loftus Pullin, Richard Bod- 
kin, James Miller, Matthew Harper, William Warwick, James 
Largent, William Holman, John McCreary, Samuel Delamon- 
tony, Archibald Elliott, and Robert Armstrong. Black was 
just above the mouth of the Bullpasture, where Major J. H. 
Byni, now lives. All the others, with perhaps one exception, 
were on the Bullpasture itself, and nearly or quite in the order 
they are named as one ascends the river. 

68 History of Highland County 

Ashton was on the McClung farm at Clover Creek. The 
two Carliles were in the broad bottom just below. Pullin was 
a mile above in another wide sweep of bottom. Bodkin was 
higher up, lying where the present river road comes back to 
the bottom after its circuit over a bluff. Harper was where 
W. T. Alexander lives. Miller was between Bodkin and Har- 
per. Warwick was at the mouth of Davis Run. Largent 
appears to have been in the vicinity of McDowell. Holman 
adjoined McCreary, who was between McDowell and Doe Hill, 
as was also Delamontony. Elliott was at the very head of the 
river, one of his corners being on the Blackthorn. Armstrong 
was likewise in this vicinity. The Carliles held two tracts near 
by on the run named for them. One of these tracts cornered 
on McCreary. 

It may not be affirmed that every one of the settlers was 
living, at least at this time, on the tract he selected. This is 
particularly the case with respect to the surveys near the head 
of the river. Armstrong would appear to be the same Robert 
who lived on Jackson's River below Warm Spring. Warwick, 
also, may really have been one of the settlers of that name 
in Bath. The enterprising pioneer was not slow to seize an 
additional choice tract, even if it lay at some distance from 
his home. 

Black died in 1764. His son William sold to Thomas 
Houston and went to Greenbrier, Alexander Jr. moving to Ken- 
tucky about 1797. Samuel, probably another son, had a num- 
erous family, and took land in 1774 close to where the county 
seat now is. 

The Carliles lived and died on their homestead, which re- 
mained in the family many years later. Wallace Ashton dis- 
appears from sight almost at once, and is followed by Wallace 
Estill, who inherited the farm and lived on it about twenty 
years. He sold to John Peebles and removed to Botetourt. 
Estill came from New Jersey with a family partially grown, 
and reared a second large family in Highland. He owned land 
at Vanderpool and was a man of ability and influence. 

Pullin was a single man when he came. He lived and died 
on his homestead, being the ancestor of the Pullin connection. 

History of Highland County 69 

The name of his wife, Ann Jane Usher, uncovers a romance. 
One Edward Usher eloped with the daughter of an English 
nobleman named Perry and came to America. Their four 
children were daughters, one dying in infancy. Usher died 
while they were yet small, and the widow went to England, 
hoping for a reconciliation with her father. He recognized 
her on the road as he drove by in his carriage, but being still 
angry he tossed her a shilling, telling her that was all she 
would have from him and that she must mind her brats herself. 
She returned to America, her children, if not also herself, 
finding their way to the Augusta colony, probably to Fort 
Dickenson. James Knox became the guardian of Ann Jane,* 
and with a portion, at least, of her inheritance he purchased 
for her a negro girl. Several years later she married Loftus 
Pullin. One sister married William Steuart, another High- 
land pioneer, the third (Martha?) marrying a son of Captain 
Adam Dickenson. The stern parent finally relented and pro- 
vided for his daughter by will. But the search he instituted 
failed to discover her, and no knowledge thereof coming to her 
descendants for many years, the matter went by default. 

Bodkin arrived with sons nearly grown. In 1762 either he 
or Richard, Jr., sold the homestead and went higher up the 
valley. During the next forty years the connection largely 
drifted out, the present Botkins being with the exception of a 
single household the posterity of one only of the pioneer's 

Miller appears to have come with sons nearly grown and 
bearing the names of John, William, and Hugh. They often 
appear in the Augusta records, yet the family does not seem 
to have remained very long. 

Harper sold to Hugh Martin in 1764 and went to Chris- 
tian's Creek near Staunton. Of Warwick, Largent, and Hol- 
man we know nothing, except that Largent gave his name to 
a hill below Clover Creek. McCreary sold to Bodkin in 1763, 
but a son of the same name appears to have wedded Margaret 
Black in 1786. Of Delamontony we have no further mention 

*See Appendix L. 

70 History of Highland County 

except as a member of the militia in 1760. Elliott seems to 
have been only a bird of passage. 

It is possible that several other persons came quite as early 
as those already named. Be this as it may, the settlement re- 
ceived many accessions during the next fifteen years, even 
in spite of the Indian peril during the latter half of this period. 
In some instances they appear to have arrived before we find 
definite mention of them. 

Thomas and Hugh Hicklin, who lived below the Carliles, 
are named in 1756. Robert Graham, also a little below the 
Carliles, was here by 1755, although he did not buy out the 
Wilson patent until 1761. Samuel Given purchased the Bod- 
kin homestead in 1762. 

In 1750 Hans Harper purchased land adjoining Matthew 
Harper, but six years later moved north of Doe Hill, where 
in 1765 he again sold out and disappears from view. Between 
1754 and 1760, Michael Harper was living on Carlile Run, but 
died on the South Branch in 1767. He was then up in years, 
and had a son Michael, although Matthew came from Chris- 
tian Creek to settle the estate. During their short stay these 
Harpers figure somewhat often in the county annals. They 
seem to have been brothers. There is no evidence that the 
Pendleton Harpers are derived from them. If they were of 
German origin, as is the case with the latter, they were the 
only Germans on the Bullpasture for many years. Matthew 
was a constable, which would not have been the case had he 
been unfamiliar with written English as were nearly all the 
German immigrants. Neither is it likely that a solitary Ger- 
man would have been chosen to that office. Hans had a Ger- 
man given name, but this proves nothing. 

In 1754 Samuel Ferguson located above McDowell. 

In 1757 one George Wilson, a land speculator, bought of 
James Trimble, another speculator, the Elliott survey at Doe 
Hill, and the next year sold a part of it to Samuel Wilson. 
Very soon afterward, we find William Wilson in this neigh- 
borhood. These two men, progenitors of the Wilsons of Doe 
Hill, were brothers and were sons of John, the first delegate 
from Augusta to the House of Burgesses. Colonel John Wil- 

History of Highland County 71 

son held this post until his death in 1773. Captain Samuel, 
his son, fell in battle the next year at Point Pleasant, the fatal 
bullet passing through his powder horn. The Graham home- 
stead was purchased of one Matthew Wilson, who is named 
as the oldest brother and heir of William. In 1750, a William 
Wilson had patented this land, but he was not the same as the 
William of Jackson's River or the William of Doe Hill. An 
Isaiah, seemingly of the same vicinity and probably the parent 
or brother of Matthew and William, died in 1758, and his estate 
was appraised by Hugh and John Hicklin. 

In 1754 we see the name of William McCandless and in 
1761 that of William Johnson. In 1762, Robert Duffield, al- 
ready here, purchased the McCreary homestead and lived on 
it more than thirty years, the family removing to Kanawha 
County. The Malcomb name does not appear on the records 
till 1773, when Joseph bought of Richard Bodkin, Jr., a farm 
and mill near the Dunkard Church above McDowell. But the 
Malcombs are known to have been in the vicinity of the Clover 
Creek Mill during the Indian War. 

Turning to the Cowpasture we find in 1754 Hackland Wil- 
son at the head of the river, and William Price at "a big 
spring," doubtless the one a mile above the turnpike ford. 
Charles Gillam was a landholder in this section, but sold to 
James Bodkin and he to Robert Carlile. James Trimble, a 
deputy surveyor and land speculator, had three tracts on this 
river, and George Wilson had several, one of which he sold 
in 1759 to William Steuart, and three years later another to 
James Clemens. 

Steuart, a young Scotchman, had a thrilling experience in 
reaching these mountains. Being well educated, he expected 
to follow a profession. The ship on which he took passage 
was captured by Spanish pirates, and the crew killed. He was 
the only passenger and was put on the South Atlantic shore 
with no clothing save a piece of canvas and without his chest- 
ful of books. Thence he drifted northward to the Augusta 
colony, doing at first manual labor. His soft hands and in- 
tellectual air brought him a welcome invitation to teach school, 
and he followed this calling the rest of his life. But downcast 

72 History of Highland County 

at the loss of his beloved library, he was content to spend his 
days in the frontier wilderness. Steuart settled just below the 
mouth of Shaw's Fork. In marrying Margaret Usher he be- 
came brother-in-law to Loftus Pullin. 

Turning up Shaw's Fork we find John Shaw in 1756. 
James, probably his son, bought land of George Wilson in 
1759. It is thought that the Shaw cabin stood on the hillside 
opposite and a little below Headwaters. As the pioneer of this 
neighborhood he could have found a better choice. The Shaws 
gave their name to the stream and to a mountain. In 1766 
Thomas Devericks became their neighbor across the run. 

Proceeding down the Cowpasture, James Anglen was, in 
1751, living at the mouth of the tributary which for a while 
bore his name, but afterward became known as Benson's Run. 
There is no record that Anglen had title to land. Sarah, per- 
haps his daughter, married William Knox in 1794. 

James Knox, a neighbor to Black and the guardian of Ann 
Jane Usher, was living on the Floyd Kincaid farm. He died 
in 1772 and the farm passed to Patrick Miller, remaining with 
the Millers a long while. There is a tradition that James Jr. 
was jilted by Anne Montgomery, and that his hunting trip to 
Kentucky in 1769 was in consequence of this. As leader of a 
military force he built Fort Knox, which grew into the city of 
Knoxville, Tenn. He was a soldier of the Revolution, a mem- 
ber for five years of the Legislature of Kentucky, and in that 
state was known as General Knox. In marrying the widow 
of General William Logan, he finally won the woman of his 
choice. He lived until 1822. 

Passing to Jackson's River at the mouth of Bolar Run, the 
earliest settlers of whom we find mention are William and 
Stephen Wilson in 1753, and David Moore in 1759. William 
Wilson was married in Dublin, Ireland, and lived a long time 
on Brandywine Creek, Penn.* In 1747, he came to New Provi- 
dence Church in Augusta, and thence to Jackson's River. The 
late William L. Wilson, of West Virginia and Washington 
and Lee Universities, and a conspicuous member of Congress, 

*See Appendix H. 

History of Highland County 73 

was a descendant of his cousin, the Rev. William, who wrote 
his will, and who united several Highland couples. Stephen 
appears also to have been a relative. 

In 1757, Thomas Parsons had surveyed the tract on the 
South Branch at the state line which, in 1765, was sold to 
Peter Fleisher, progenitor of the family of that name. The 
first known settler in Crabbottom was Robert Cunningham, 
who in 1761 purchased a patent of James Trimble. Agnes, 
probably his wife, and perhaps at the time a widow, entered a 
survey the same year. Trimble seems to have been very much 
alive to the worth of the Crabbottom. He seized a large and 
choice portion of it, and in selling the same he pocketed a quite 
tidy sum. 

74 History of Highland County 



War and Hunting Parties - Rivalry Between British and French - Effect of 
Braddock's Defeat - Precautions of the Frontiersmen - Stockades - The 
Clover Creek Fort - Depredations in Highland - Battles on Upper North 
Fork - Forays into Bath - Restored Captives - Attack on Wilson Family. 

WHEN the settlement of Highland began the nearest Indian 
village was a small one of the Shawnees about sixty miles 
down the South Branch. As already stated, the red men used the 
Valley of Virginia only as a hunting ground and military highway, 
along which bands of Northern and Southern Indians made forays 
against one another. The chief of these war trails lay through 
the Shenandoah Valley, and this "Indian road" is alluded to in the 
surveyor's book. 

Below Millboro in Bath is a memento of the war trail in the 
form of a mound containing skeletons. Tradition has it that the 
mound is the result of a fight between Indian bands, and that a 
girl whose lover was in the affray watched the combat from a hill- 

The passing through of a war party was not at all welcome. 
Several murders were committed by these painted warriors, and 
several cabins were burned. In 1742 there was a battle near 
Balcony Falls with a party of Mingoes. It was quite needless, a 
Capt. McDowell having turned loose the passions of the Indians 
by treating them liberally with whiskey. 

Small hunting parties often visited the homes of the settlers, 
and through them and the traders they picked up a quite service- 
able knowledge of the white man's tongue. That their English 
vocabulary was well supplied with terms of abuse and profanity 
is significant of the sort of language they were accustomed to hear. 

The Indian was himself very hospitable, and when he came to 
a house he expected something to eat. Neither was he backward 
in making his wants known. But the Indians would sometimes 

History of Highland County 75 

plunder, and their exactions were a burden as well as annoyance. 
Such behavior was probably not always unprovoked, yet the set- 
tlers seem generally to have thought it the part of prudence not to 
make a bad matter worse. To the Indian, the white was an in- 
truder to pilfer from whom was not very wrong. To the white, 
the Indian was more objectionable than a tramp is to us. 

In particular instances the frontiersman would marry an Indian 
woman and adopt Indian ways, and the red man would hobnob 
with the paleface ; yet these exceptions did not set aside the general 
rule that at close range no people ever really likes another. 

For more than twenty years after the founding of Augusta, 
there was peace, such as it was, between the races. The clash 
came through the rival ambitions of two white nations. The 
English and the French had already fought three wars in America, 
and the decisive trial of strength was now at hand. The French 
claimed all the country west of the Alleghany divide, and so did 
the English. By 1754 the British-Americans had not only pushed 
inward to this very line, but were pressing beyond it. The settle- 
ments of the former had several times been compelled to fight for 
their very existence, whereas, the weak, scattered settlements of 
the French had usually been let alone. This was because of the 
difference between the two nations in their attitude toward the 

The Frenchman did not clear the land by wholesale nor elbow 
the native out of the way. He often took an Indian wife, he lived 
like the native when with him, and the latter was benefited by the 
commodities he received for his pelts. But the British colonist 
preferred a wife of his own color. His numbers were greater. 
He cleared the land as he came along, and he scared away the 
larger game. He esteemed the room of the red man preferable to 
his company, and in dealing with him he had less tact than the 
Frenchman and less influence. So when Governor Dinwiddie 
precipitated the fighting that took place between 1754 and 1760, 
the tribes generally sided with the French and were very helpful 

In 1755 Braddock marched his army against Fort Duquesne. 
Had he taken the place he would have dealt the French power an 
effective blow at a vital point, and the Indians would have been 

76 History of Highland County 

held in check. On the contrary he met a needless and crushing 
defeat, and his routed redcoats fled in panic to the very coast. 
A frontier of hundreds of miles was at once exposed to Indian 
depredation. Flushed with triumph at their easy victory, the red 
warriors from the Ohio proceeded to harry the frontier with fire 
and tomahawk. 

The news of Braddock's defeat reached the Augusta people 
in just one week and created consternation. Hundreds of people 
fled across the Blue Ridge, while others stayed manfully in their 
settlements. To Washington was assigned the defense of the 
frontier with headquarters at Winchester. His force was entirely 
too small to protect so long a line effectually, and to make matters 
worse the men of one county were not inclined to help those of 
another. His letters give a vivid idea of those distressful days. 
Under date of April 15, 1756, he reports that "all my ideal hopes 
of raising a number of men to search the adjacent mountains have 
vanished into nothing." Nine days later he says, "not an hour, 
nay, scarcely a minute passes that does not produce fresh alarms 
and melancholy accounts." Still another letter declares that, 
"the deplorable situation of these people is no more to be described 
than is my anxiety and uneasiness for their relief." 

The Highland area went through this trying ordeal with less 
injury than Bath to the south or Pendleton to the north. Some 
damage was inflicted, yet there was no exterminating raid into the 
Bullpasture Valley, to which the settlement was as yet almost 
wholly confined. 

The log house of the frontier was built with reference to 
possible attack. It was near a spring. The door could be strongly 
barred. The windows were too small for a man to crawl through. 
There were loopholes in the walls through which the inmates 
could fire. And if possible it was not too near the spot where the 
enemy could find cover. Houses in this region still stand and in 
some instances are still occupied, in the walls of which are "shoot- 
ing-holes" covered by the weatherboarding which was afterward 
laid on. 

Against an attack in open day by a few foemen, and with 
warning of the same, the inmates of a cabin had a chance. But 
against a large party, especially if aided by darkness and the 

History of Highland County 77 

firebrand, the odds were too great. So in time of special danger 
the cabin was abandoned and the family took refuge in the near- 
est fort. 

A man taken by surprise near Fort Lewis in Bath could not 
get into his cabin in time to escape a flying tomahawk which 
grazed his head and stunned him. The wife put him on the bed, 
bolted the door, and kept the enemy at bay with the husband's gun. 
Two of them, however, mounted the roof and began to descend 
the cavernous chimney. The woman at once pulled the bedtick 
from under the man and threw it on the live coals. Stupified by 
the smoke the first Indian fell through and was promptly toma- 
hawked. The second coming to his aid shared his fate, leaving 
the victory with the plucky wife. 

The stockade with blockhouse inside was a much better protec- 
tion than the strongest cabin. It was a far easier means to keep 
the enemy at a safe distance in any direction. The Indians had 
small relish for assaulting a stockade. If they could neither fire 
the buildings nor lure the garrison into an ambush, they sought 
to reduce the fort by strategem or starvation. The whites on their 
part were often careless. Being used to an outdoor life it was 
wearisome to stay cooped up in a little inclosure, and if the enemy 
were not positively known to be near, they would take very 
imprudent risks, and were often killed or captured by Indians 
lurking near the fort. 

It was the practice for two or more rangers to set out from a 
stockade with provisions for three or four days, and watch the 
trails and passes in the vicinity, sometimes thus guarding a circuit 
of thirty miles. If signs of Indians were detected an alarm was 
given, so that families at their own homes could flee to the fort. 
When their provisions were gone, the scouting party would be 
relieved by another. Some of the frontiersmen became even 
more skilled in woodcraft than the Indians themselves. 

During the winter season the settlers were quite safe. The 
Indians were not inclined to maraud while food was scarce and 
the forest leaves fallen. 

But one actual stockade seems to have been built in Highland. 
It stood in the Bullpasture bottom midway between the Clover 
Creek Mill and the residence of L. M. McClung. It was thus on 

78 History of Highland County 

the land of Wallace Estill, Whose house appears to have stood a 
few yards beyond the southern angle. It is the tradition that the 
"fort meadow" has never been plowed. This will account for the 
remarkable distinctness with which the outline may be traced, 
even though every vestige of log has crumbled into dust. 

The stockade was about ninety feet square, and was placed 
diamond-wise with reference to the direction of the valley. At 
each angle was a bastion ten feet square. Inside the western angle 
was the powder house about twelve feet square. A few yards 
beyond the southern angle stood a house, probably Estill's dwelling, 
about eighteen by twenty-two feet with an annex twelve by twelve. 
Under the main portion of the house was a cellar. Toward the 
river from near the east corner of the stockade are plain traces of 
a short covered way leading to a shallow ravine, once the river 
channel, and perhaps at this very time. Thus the fort was evi- 
dently built under the direction of some person who understood 
the correct principles of fortification. The walls in accordance 
with the custom of the time were of logs set firmly into the ground 
and rising to a height above of ten or twelve feet. 

The site was well chosen. Not only was it nearly in the heart 
of the Bullpasture settlement and not too near a commanding 
elevation, but. the fort guarded the road which here crossed the 
river in its course from Bolar Run to the Calf pasture. As to the 
time and circumstances of its building there is some mystery, 
though it would seem highly probable that the fort was put up in 
accordance with the following letter from Dinwiddie to Washing- 
ton, dated Sept. 11, 1754: 

"I now order you to give a detachment of forty or fifty men to Capt. 
Lewis. With them he is to march imediately to Augusta county in order 
to protect our frontier from the incursions of small parties of Indians, and I 
suppose some French. Order him to march imediately, and to apply to 
Col. Patton, the County-Lieutenant, who will direct him where to proceed 
that he may be most useful." 

Andrew Lewis obeyed instructions by marching Oct. 6, and 
within the next month he built a fort. Feb. 12, 1755, the Governor 
ordered him to garrison his fort with an ensign, a corporal, and 
eighteen privates. The ensign chosen to hold the post was 
William Wright. The Governor instructed him "to keep a good 

History of Highland County 79 

look out," to be exact in his duties, to make short excursions from 
the fort, and in case of alarm to apply to the County Lieutenant 
to have some of his militia ready at an hour's notice. But by the 
next July, and before Braddock's defeat, Wright was sent else- 
where, probably to the Holston river. 

This Clover Creek fort stood on a direct road to Staunton and 
thus held vigil over a point which it was important to protect. 
West of Jack Mountain there were scarcely any settlers at all. 
Northward for almost twenty miles beyond the head of the Bull- 
pasture there were almost none. Southward in Bath there was 
a considerable number, but for their protection were Forts Lewis, 
Dickinson, and Dinwiddie, and another fort at Green Valley. 

It is rather singular that the name has been forgotton. From 
a letter written by Joseph Carpenter, it is conjectured that its name 
was Fort Nelson. This, however, is only a surmise. 

The stockade was never assaulted, though on one occasion 
arrows were thrown at it from the hillside across the river. The 
distance was too great for such missiles to take any effect. Dur- 
ing the summer of 1754 and afterward, the people of the settle- 
ment forted here, and according to a statement by the late 
Mrs. Susan Wright, two boys were born in the stockade on the 
very day of Braddock's defeat, July 9, 1755. In the confusion of 
the hour a looking-glass was smashed, and the frame is still pre- 
served. One of the boys was Robert Carlile* and the other was 
Christopher Graham. Mrs. Wright was a daughter of the latter, 
and the coincidence in date was one likely to be remembered. 

In the fall of 1755, Washington came from Fort Cumberland 
on a tour of inspection, and went at least as far as Fort Dinwiddie. 
He must have come by way of the Clover Creek fort since there 
was no other direct road. This was the only visit to Highland 
by the Father of his Country. 

With one prominent exception, there seems very little know- 
ledge of particular damage by the Indians within the Highland 
area. A Henderson and a Wade of the Gum connection are said 
to have been killed by Indians, but when or where is not known. 
John Shaw was probably a victim. A boy of the same name was 

G reat uncle to the late John G. Carlisle, of Kentucky. 

80 History of Highland County 

spared by being concealed by a woman within the folds of her 
dress. Lewis Taggart, who married a sister to James Hicklin, was 
taken to Canada and a ransom demanded. The emissary, half 
French and half Indian, who went to steal him away had trouble 
in convincing him that all was right. They came down the Ohio 
living on parched corn. The guide dressed a polecat, but Taggart 
found he was not hungry for that sort of game. 

At a council of war held in Staunton, July 27, 1756, it was 
resolved to build ten forts for the defence of the 250 miles of 
Augusta frontier, and to garrison them with 680 men. Among 
the recommendations were forts at Upper Tract and Trout Rock 
in Pendleton, at Matthew Harper's on the Bullpasture, and at 
Captain John Miller's, near Vanderpool Gap. The scheme as a 
whole was given up, only one or two of the forts being built. It is 
quite strange that the council made no mention of the fort at 
Clover Creek, the distance from Harper's on a short course being 
only four miles. It is possible the fort had burned, though there 
is no recollection of such event. 

There is knowledge of two battles in Highland in 1763. An 
Indian band exterminated the Greenbrier settlement, ambushed 
and defeated a party under Captain Moffet at Falling Spring in 
Bath, passed over to the Cowpasture, and there burned the 
Dougherty home. The band divided, the smaller party returning 
and the larger making a destructive raid on the Kerr's Creek 
settlement. On its return it camped near the head of Back Creek. 
A pursuing party under Captains Lewis, Dickinson, and Christian 
overtook the Indians and nearly effected a surprise. It was de- 
cided to attack at three points. Two men sent in advance were to 
fire if they found the enemy had taken alarm. They fell upon 
two Indians, one leading a horse, the other holding a buck upon it, 
To avoid discovery they fired, and Christian's men charged with a 
yell. The other parties were not quite up, and retreating in the 
direction whence there was no noise, the Indians escaped with lit- 
tle loss aside from the stolen goods, which sold at $1,200. Only 
one white is said to have been killed. 

But the Indians who escaped were overhauled on Straight 
Fork, four miles above the state line, their whereabouts being 
betrayed by their camp fire. All were killed but one, and the 

History of Highland County 81 

cook's brains were scattered into his pot. Their carrying poles 
were seen here many years later, and ancient guns have been 
found on the spot. 

The disposal of the recovered property caused at least one 
lawsuit. The declaration in the case of William Gilmore vs. 
George Wilson thus reads : 

During the late war the Indians came to the plantation where the plaintiff 
lived, and after killing his father and mother, robbed them and the said 
plaintiff of almost everything they had, and amongst the rest the horse in 
dispute — that the defendant and several others pursued the Indians for some 
days and retook great part of the things belonging to the plaintiff, the horse 
in dispute being part thereof. 

The valuation of the horse was $50. The plaintiff won because 
of the following condition : 

We agree the inhabitants of Car's Creek (the plaintiff not one of them) 
offered to any persons that would go after the Indians and redeem the pris- 
oners they should have all plunder belonging to them. 

The region comprised in Bath and Alleghany suffered severely. 
Forts Lewis and Dickinson were both assaulted. Men did not 
attend church at Windy Cove without taking their guns, and a 
sentinel stood at the door. In September, 1756, thirteen persons 
were killed around Fort Dinwiddie, including John Byrd , James 
Mayse, James Montgomery, George Kinkead, and Nicholas 
Carpenter. Two others are mentioned as wounded, while twenty- 
eight, mostly children, were carried away. Among these were 
Mrs. Byrd and six children , Mrs Kinkead and three, besides 
five children of Joseph Carpenter, who was himself taken but 
escaped. In 1757, Sergeant Henry, James Stuart, and three others 
were killed, three were wounded, and James McClung and thirteen 
more were taken. In 1758, John and William McCreary, Moses 
Moore, and a boy named William Ward were captured. But in 
this year Fort Duquesne fell and there was a partial respite from 
further depredation. 

It was perhaps on the occasion of the Stuart murder that a 
man coming to his house found warm cabbage and pone on the 
table, but no person about. This meant an Indian alarm and he 
hurried on to a fort. 

82 History of Highland County 

We have alluded to the capture of Mrs. Byrd an d her childre n. 
It took place while fleeing to Fort Dinwiddie on lower Jackson's 
River. There is no further account of the mother and four of the 
children. The oldest, then a girl of ten years, is said to have 
married an Indian. The only one to return was John, Jr. who was 
eight years old when carried away. When he was returned, now 
a boy of sixteen, he was wearing a gold chain fastened to punc- 
tures in his nose and ears. His bravery put him in high favor 
with his captors. They had him climb trees to drive bears out of 
them, but took care that he was not harmed. The only time he 
took fright was when he heard a gun and knew a bear was making 
for him. The Indians were greatly attached to the boy and in- 
tended making him a chief. He made two attempts to return to 
them, but was prevented, and became ancestor of the Byrds of 
Bath and Highland. 

After the collapse of the French power, the Indians were 
humbled by expeditions sent against them. By the treaty of 1764, 
they were required to give up their captives, and 32 men and 58 
women and children were thus restored to their Virginia homes. 

The Indians were kind to the captives they adopted, and when 
the latter had been taken in childhood they were usually so unwill- 
ing to part with their dusky comrades that force had to be used. 
Hunting parties followed the rescuers for days to keep their for- 
mer companions supplied with food. 

Another of the restored captives was the wife of William 
Kincaid of the Calfpasture. She was kindly treated, especially 
at the birth of a daughter, a few months after she was carried off. 
An older daughter, whose name was Isabella, was not restored till 
afterward. She was found by Captain Charles Lewis in a village 
on the Muskingum. She was dressed in skins, spoke only the 
Indian language, and clung to the skirt of a squaw. David Gwin, 
who was with Lewis, was certain that he recognized the girl, and 
at his suggestion the interpreter told the squaw to take off the 
child's moccasin. A little toe was found missing, which had 
accidentally been cut off by her brother. She married Andrew 
Hamilton and one of her descendants is the wife of Captain John 
S. Wise of the city of New York. Captain Gwin named for her 
his first child by his second marriage. 

History of Highland County 83 

In the year Mrs. Kincaid was restored, the wife of Benjamin 
Estill was visiting her stepfather, who lived on Middle River, 
five miles west of Staunton. In a raid on the house, Mrs. Estill 
was carried off, but her brother, Captain Moffet, made prompt 
pursuit and recovered her in the spurs of the Alleghany, inflict- 
ing considerable punishment on the raiders. 

It was also in the same year - "1764" - that a raid was made 
on the home of William Wilson at the mouth of Bolar Run. This 
took place in the month of July and by a portion of a larger band, 
which had divided to inflict further damage. The family were 
building a new house, and John, the older son, had gone away 
for nails and for help in the raising. His brother Thomas was at 
the gristmill, two sisters were washing tow linen at the river, and 
the other two were ironing in the house. The mother was with 
her daughters at the river. The father and some other men were 
trimming the logs for the new house. An Irishman was weaving 
outdoors near the old house. Thomas, alone at the mill, was over- 
come after a hard struggle, as appeared from the torn sod, and 
was tied to a sugar maple on which he managed to cut his name. 

The three women at the river were then attacked. In fleeing 
toward the house, Barbara Wilson was struck by a flying toma- 
hawk and rendered unconscious, but was not scalped. The 
mother, moving more slowly, was wounded in the same manner 
but in the wrist. The weaver escaped with a bullet wound in his 
shoulder. The other daughters secured the door, and scorched 
with a hot iron the hand of the Indian who tried to unlatch it. 
The men at the logs now came along, and the Indians fled over 
Back Creek Mountain, but carried Thomas with them. It was 
perhaps owing to their haste that they did not scalp the injured 

John Wilson was near by on his return, and was fired upon, 
this causing his new hat to fall off. He stooped to pick it up and 
heard the satisfied grunts of his foe who thought he had fallen. 
Realizing his danger he made his way over Jack Mountain to the 
Bullpasture, where he assembled a band of about twenty rescuers, 
one of whom was David Gwin, then a youth of eighteen years. 
When they were near, John Wilson hung his saddle in a tree and 
went on afoot. The mill was found running. It now being dark 

84 History of Highland County 

he had to approach the house cautiously, because the family kept 
some cross dogs. The father and sisters were there, but the 
mother was missing. In the morning she was trailed, and found 
a mile up the river, whither she had walked and crawled in a 
dazed condition. She recovered and lived many years. Her 
wounded daughter also lived to old age, but never quite recovered 
from the wound in her head. 

The Indians were pursued, but not overtaken. It was learned, 
however, that Thomas died of fever several years afterward. He 
had remained a captive though kindly treated. Usually he wore 
moccasins, but the morning of the day he was taken he put on 
shoes, and was the less able to run. 

The house which the Wilsons were building, close to the pres- 
ent Stony Run Church, was completed, and it stood until about 
1895, when it was torn down. It was called a fort and there was 
a porthole in the attic. The floor boards were nicely edged and 
fitted. The swamp oak near which Barbara was wounded is yet 
standing in a meadow. 

This is usually represented as the last raid by the Indians in 
Highland, yet there is knowledge of a raid as far as the Cow- 
pasture in 1774, shortly before the battle of Point Pleasant, and 
an alarm in 1783 caused women and children to flee across the 
Shenandoah. Not until Waynes victory in 1795, a period of more 
than thirty years, was there the assurance that danger from the 
native was wholly an episode of the past. 

The Highland of 1754-64 was a young, thinly peopled frontier 
community, compelled to live within reach of the stockaded fort ; 
compelled to use watchful care with the help of large dogs, lest 
at any moment the stealthy foe might approach through the deep 
woods, kill or maim the adults of the family, regardless of age or 
sex, and carry away young children who though spared might yet 
be lost to the parents. All this was a heavy item in the cost of 
subduing the wilderness. 

It was after the close of hostilities that six braves crossing 
the Bullpasture at Buffalo ford near the Pullin home, stole fish 
from some men who retired under cover to let them pass. The 
Indians passed on and entered the Pullin house, Mrs. Pullin being 
present. Seeing a huge lump of tallow suspended from the ceiling, 

o *g 

in a „ 


History of Highland County 85 

the visitors grunted their approval and took the tallow but left the 

William Lucas, a chief, used to pass Forks of Waters on his 
visits to Washington. If on being invited to a test of marksman- 
ship, one of the party shot off a rooster's head, the fowl was claim- 
ed in accordance with Indian custom. 

86 History of Highland County 



Settlers After the Indian War - Pioneer Homes - Manner of Life - Farming 
Customs - Roads - Mills and Taverns - Church and School Interests - 
Organization of Augusta - County Courts - Punishments - Lawsuits - 
Wills - Deeds - Surveys - White Servants - Game - Money. 

IT might seem as though the troublous years of 1754-58 would 
have worked an entire suspension in the buying and selling ot 
land. Yet transactions in this line took place, and when a time of 
comparative safety returned they increased in number. When the 
War for Independence broke out, there was a considerable popu- 
lation in these valleys. Favored localities after the Indian war 
were the heads of the Cowpasture and Bullpasture rivers, the 
Crabbottom, and the vicinity of Vanderpool Gap. 

James Burnside lived a number of years on the Bodkin home- 
stead. Andrew Lockridge in 1774 purchased a large "boundary" 
of land in Bullpasture Valley just above the Bath line. Dawson 
Wade lived near the mouth of Davis Run, but sold to William 
Steuart and went to Botetourt. Edward Hines was on Crab 
Run in 1768. At Doe Hill, Abraham Hempenstall became a 
neighbor to the Wilsons. Tully Davitt lived in the same neighbor- 
hood, but at the close of 1775 he sold to John Hiner. John 
McCoy was another neighbor by 1773. It is said that in coming 
through Panther Gap most of McCoy's seed potatoes fell into the 

On the Cowpasture, George Benson purchased in 1776 at the 
run which bears his name. In the near vicinity we find at the 
same time mention of William Renick and of William and Fran- 
cis Jackson. Higher up the river was Henry Erwih in 1772. 

The limestone soils of Bullpasture Mountain caused this up- 
land to be thought the only one much worthy of being reduced to 
private ownership. The first entry we find here was that of 
William Price as early as 1754. In 1772, Thomas Wright appears 

History of Highland County 87 

to have been living on the mountain and he was soon followed by 
others, especially in the section above the turnpike. 

Turning to the Middle Valley, we find that George Nicholas 
came to the Forks of the Waters in 1770. The first entry on 
Straight Creek proper seems that of David Bell in 1771. The 
Bell's were for some time considerable landholders in Highland, 
and at an early day appear to have lived here. A little over the 
Monterey divide was David Frame in 1767, and "Frame's Cabbin" 
is spoken of as a well-known landmark. His neighbors about 
Vanderpool Gap were Robert and John Dinwiddie, William Given, 
and James Morrow. Robert Dinwiddie was a man of some edu- 
cation and property, but the notion that he was the same as 
Governor Robert Dinwiddie is entirely wrong. The latter had 
no sons and after his term of office went back to England and 
died there. But that the pioneer was a relative is very possible- 
Down the river at the mouth of Dry Branch was Robert Wiley in 

Peter Hull sold his farm in the Valley of Virginia and became 
a heavy purchaser in the center of Crabbottom in 1765. Below 
him were Bernard Lantz about this time, Michael Arbogast and 
John Gum in 1766, Palsor Naigley in 1768, and Peter Zickafoose 
in 1772. 

At the time of the raid on the Wilsons one half of Highland 
was still an unbroken forest, yet there were more than fifty house- 
holds scattered along the river bottoms of the other half. Already 
this region had begun to take on the semblance of a stable commu- 
nity. It was not with Highland as with the remote regions of the 
Appalachians. The distance to the seaboard was not so prohibi- 
tive, and the people did not mean to lie outside the pale of civiliza- 

At the outset the usual type of Highland dwelling was the 
round-log cabin, with a single door, a "stick-and-daub" chimney 
and one or two little openings closed by shutters. The building 
was small, low and hastily constructed. Nothing else could read- 
ily be thrown up. It was the offspring of necessity, just as was 
the sod house with the settlers on the far Western prairies. 
Whether the single-roomed house were neatly or slovenly kept 
depended on the habits of the inmates. 

88 History of Highland County 

We are told of a Highland family of twelve persons living in 
a cabin with only an earth floor and with no other beds than bear- 
skins laid before the fire when needed. When the house had a 
floor, the space beneath was sometimes a sheep pen at night, be- 
cause of the wolves. The cattle pastured on the mountain side 
soon grew accustomed to staying within a limited range. On his 
return from salting his cattle, the pioneer very likely brought back 
a deer, the victim of his rifle or of a sharp stake set for this object 
at a "jumping over" place. 

But in no long time, as we have seen in the case of the Wilsons, 
a more substantial type of dwelling appeared. The settler who 
wished to live, and not merely exist, put up a well-built structure 
of hewn logs, and supplied it with a massive chimney of hewn 
stone. It could now better accommodate the parents and the eight, 
ten, or fifteen children who shared the house with them. Nails 
had to be made by the blacksmith and were sparingly used, wooden 
pins being a substitute. Window panes were not only small 
but few, since it was tedious and expensive to bring glass from 
the seaports, where alone the glass could be had. Neither were 
many boards used, since they had to be made by the slow, toilsome 
process of whipsawing. On the roof, clapboards held down by 
weight poles took the place of shingles. 

This type of dwelling in a modified form is yet by no means in 
disuse. The clapboards gave place at length to shingles, the walls 
■were weatherboarded, the windows became larger, and the rooms 
were ceiled. Finally, the yawning fireplace was closed up and a 
stove set in front of it. Houses of brick or stone are even yet 
rare, especially of the latter material. But after steam sawmills 
came into vogue no more log houses were built. Those still in 
use are relics of a past age. 

Returning from our short digression we find that even in the 
better homes of the pioneer period the simple life was in full 
force. It was in fact the rule among all classes. All people wore 
homespun and lived on cornbread and wild meat. Spoons were 
of pewter or wood. Furniture was handmade. In the report of a 
public sale for this period, even from a well-to-do home, we are 
struck by the commonness of nearly all the articles, and find the 
selling price in a majority of instances to be within the dollar 

History of Highland County 89 

mark. Things which now would go into the rubbish pile had then 
a positive value because not easy to replace. 

The barns and stables were very primitive and were not much 
needed for the housing of farm implements. But the livestock, 
especially the smaller animals, had to be strongly penned to keep 
off wolves, panthers, and bears. The tilled area was very small. 
The pioneer grew no more than what his family and his livestock 
could consume. Even the pasture lands were small, and trees 
were cut down for the farm animals to browse upon the twigs. 
The abundance of game and fish solved the meat question. Yet 
the idea that the livestock industry is a recent development is not 
correct. The pioneer farm was well supplied with cattle, horses, 
sheep, and hogs. Animals could walk to market, and were then 
as now the chief agricultural resource. Sheep were even more 
necessary than now, because the only woolen goods, and in fact 
the only cloths of any kind, were those made on the hand loom in 
the fannhouse. Thus the flax patch was as necessary as the corn 
patch. A sowing of a half -bushel of flax was considered good 
for fifty to seventy-five yards of cloth. In the later colonial era 
there was a bounty on hemp, paid out of the public treasury. 
In 1767 we find the following certifications among others: John 
Graham, 961 pounds, John Estill, 902, William McClung, 730, 
Robert Carlile, 478, and Wallace Estill, 259, while Peter Wallace 
produced the very unusual amount of 3,039 pounds. 

There was much care to provide fruit trees, especially the 
apple. The young plants were brought long distances and on 
horseback. The orchards thus set out have been very long-lived. 
Decrepit trees, older than any people now living, are still in bear- 
ing. A spitzenberg apple set out in 1765 by William Wilson on 
Jackson's River bore in 1909, twenty-five bushels of fruit. Hun- 
dreds of grafts have been taken from this tree. But the still- 
house was in every neighborhood, and the apple was no more 
esteemed for eating than for its convertibility into brandy. The 
sugar maple orchard was the only available source of sugar and 
syrup. The honey bee, it is claimed, was not here before the white 
man came. 

The soil was fresh and good, and so long as a new field of 
equal strength could be cleared, the manure heap was disregarded. 

90 History of Highland County 

The farming method was crude, as were also the handmade tools. 
A farm wagon was a great rarity, and had block wheels when it 
did appear. The plow was a clumsy concern with wooden mould- 
board ; occasionally it was only a walnut root. The harrow was 
either a thornbush with cross-sticks tied on with hickory bark, 
or else a frame with teeth of seasoned hardwood. The hayfork 
was cut out from a forked dogwood. The scythe had a straight 
handle. The pioneer cut his grain and also his fingers with a 
sickle. His threshing machine was a flail with a capacity of about 
fifteen bushels a day. Hickory bark as a material to tie with was 
almost indispensable. 

Since the pioneer had to live so much within himself, he needed 
to be resourceful. If he was that handy person known as the 
jack-at-all-trades, so much the better for him. Resourcefulness 
was quite as necessary on the part of the wife. The etymology of 
her title then held true, for she was a weaver by necessity. The 
blacksmith was a highly important person in the community for 
he made tools as well as mended them. He forged nails, and if 
skilful at his trade he made bells, so necessary in keeping track 
of the livestock. The gristmill was in every neighborhood. It 
was a miniature building with little stones quarried not far away. 
The wheel was undershot if the current were swift; otherwise, it 
was overshot. Yet the miller was not quite so indispensable as 
the blacksmith. By dint of elbow and backbone movement a 
bushel of meal in a day could be ground on a handmill. 

The pioneers of the Bullpasture must very speedily have had a 
bridle-path along the river bottom, but a direct way to the court- 
house soon became a necessity. So Wallace Estill was directed, 
May 29, 1751, to clear a road from his mill to a road already 
opened to the head of the Calfpasture. The settlers appointed by 
the court to help him were Loftus Pullin, Richard Bodkin, Samuel 
Ferguson, Matthew Harper, John Miller, William Price, James 
Anglen, James Hall, Philip Phegan, John Shaw, Hackland Wilson, 
two John Carliles, and Robert and William Carlile. By petition 
of May 18, 1753, this road was extended from Estill's mill to 
William Wilson's mill on Bolar Run. Stephen Wilson and Hugh 
Hicklin were overseers for this section, and to work under them 
were John Miller, William and John Wilson, Samuel and Robert 

History of Highland County 91 

Gay, Robert and John Carlile, John and Thomas Hicklin, and 
Loftus Pullin. 

This thoroughfare, some 32 miles long, was the first public 
road in Highland. It could have been no more than a narrow lane 
through the woods, to be traveled by horses with packsaddles. 
According to law, posts of direction were to be set up at necessary 
points. The neglected wagon path up the west face of Jack 
Mountain from Bolar appears to be the course of this old road, 
and would have been followed by John Wilson eleven years later 
when he rode over for help against the Indians. From the top of 
the mountain it would have followed a fairly direct course toward 
the Bullpasture at W. P. B. Lockridge's, thence up the bottom to 
Estill's mill. From this point it seems to have reached the mouth 
of Shaw's Fork nearly with the course of the present road. Its 
further course would have been up the Fork to the run at Head- 
waters, and thence was doubtless the foundation of the first state 
road over Shenandoah Mountain, climbing the elevation by a more 
direct course and much sharper grade than the present turnpike. 

There appears to have been some dissatisfaction with this road, 
for Matthew Harper and Wallace Estill were appointed not long 
afterward to view a course. They reported the existing route as 
the most convenient one. In 1762 the surveyor speaks of a point 
on Back Creek, "where an old road crosseth to Greenbrier opposite 
Stephen Wilson's." But this must have been an Indian trail. 

The earliest mention of a road in Bath is in 1749, when Will- 
iam Jackson was directed to mark and lay off a way from Jack- 
son's River to Colonel Johnson's on the Covvpasture. 

The road orders above named prove there was a mill at Estill's 
by 1751, and at Wilson's by 1753. As permission for a mill had 
to be secured from the county court, there should be a record to 
this effect, although none appears to have been entered on the 
order book. Andrew Lockridge secured a license in 1753, but 
whether at the "double fords" above Williamsville or on the Calf- 
pasture we do not know. The pioneer mill in Bath seems to have 
been that of Adam Dickinson, licensed in 1746. 

The house of public entertainment was then called an ordinary, 
and the prices it might charge for its services were regulated by 
the county court with great minuteness. This care was not so 

92 History of Highland County 

needless as it would seem. Taverns were too few for competition 
alone to keep down the rates. It was as needful to protect the 
public in this respect as it is now with reference to railway rates. 
Principles endure although their application changes. Peter 
Wright took out a tavern license in 1764, Wallace and Benjamin 
Estill being his sureties. William Wilson had already taken a 
license in 1762. 

We have now said about all there is to relate, previous to the 
Revolution, concerning phases of collective effort among the 
Highland pioneers. Until after that event there was no church 
organization here, and the nearest "meetinghouses" were those 
at Deerfield on the Calfpasture and at Windy Cove, a few miles 
above Dickenson's Fort. Even the people most religiously in- 
clined must have attended but rarely. 

All Protestants who were not of the church of England were 
known as Dissenters. Their houses of worship had to be licensed 
and registered by the county court. In the Valley they were not 
fined for not attending the parish church, but they were taxed for 
its support. Their preachers had to take various oaths and until 
1781 they were not permitted to perform the marriage ceremony. 
It was not until after the Revolution was under way that all such 
discriminations were brushed aside and religion in Virginia made 
free. In 1738 the Presbyterian Synod in Ireland had thus ad- 
dressed Governor Gooch : 

May it please your Honor, we take leave to address you in behalf of a 
considerable number of our brethren, who are meditating a settlement in 
the remote parts of your Government and are of the same persuasion as the 
Church of Scotland. We thought it our duty to acquaint your Honor with 
this design, and to ask your favor in allowing them the liberty of their con- 
sciences and of worshiping God in a way agreeable to the principles of their 
Education. Your Honor is sensible that those of our profession in Europe 
have been remarkable for their inviolable attachment to the house of Hanover , 
and have upon all occasions manifested an unspotted fidelity to our gracious 
Sovereign, King George, and we doubt not that but these our brethren will 
carry the same loyal principles to the most distant settlements, where their 
lot may be cast, which will ever influence them to the most dutiful submis- 
sion to the Government which is placed over them. This we trust will 
recommend them to your Honor's countenance and protection, and merit 
the free enjoyment of their civil and religious liberties. We pray for the 
divine blessings upon your persons and Government and beg leave to sub- 
scribe ourselves your Honor's most humble and obedient servants. - 

History of Highland County 93 

The Governor made the following response: 

As I have always been inclined to favor the people who have lately 
removed from other provinces to settle on the western side of our great 
mountains; so you may be assured that no interruption shall be given to 
any minister of your profession, who shall come among them, so as they 
conform themselves to the rules prescribed by the Act of Toleration in 
England, by taking the oaths enjoined thereby, and registering the place 
of their meeting, and behave themselves peaceably toward the government. 

If the schoolmaster were "abroad in the land," he was almost 
totally unable to get into the public records. The Scotch-Irish set 
great store on schooling, but pioneer life in a thinly-peopled wil- 
derness was not favorable to effort in this direction. The more 
alert of those who could read and write would give their children 
some rudimentary training. Occasionally, a person appeared in the 
settlements who was competent to act as a tutor, and doubtless 
was so employed to a limited extent. The first classical school 
west of the Blue Ridge was opened by Robert Alexander in 1749 
near Greenville. It continued until the Revolution, when Liberty 
Academy, finally to become Washington and Lee University, 
arose at Lexington. But as a matter of fact there was a marked 
ebb for many years in educational acquirements. A significant 
instance lies in the fact that an early constable of the Bullpasture, 
who of necessity was able to read and write, reared an illiterate 
family. A signature by means of a mark was very common, 
although the illiterate person sometimes used the initial letter of 
his surname or even the initials of both names. 

The settlement of the Highland area and the organizing of 
separate county government in Augusta took place at almost the 
same time. The first court met Dec. 9, 1745, but the only member 
for the district west of Shenandoah Mountain was Adam Dicken- 
son. The courthouse was of hewed logs and was eighteen by 
thirty-eight feet in size. There were two little windows unpro- 
vided with glass or shutters, but light also came in through un- 
chinked spaces between the logs, some of these openings being 
several feet long and several inches wide. The jail was smaller 
and not well constructed. The county seat was not known as 
Staunton until 1748, in which year it was laid out as a town. 

94 History of Highland County 

Such was the center of local government for a territory covering 
a section of the Valley of Virginia 240 miles long. 

Until 1776 a county court was opened by the reading of the 
royal commission to the justices: "Be it remembered, (date here 
given) his majesty's commission directed to (names of commis- 
sioned justices here given), to hear and determine all treasons, 
petit treasons, or misprisons thereof, felonies, murders, and all 
other offenses and crimes, was openly read." The court had gen- 
eral police and probate jurisdiction, with control of levies, roads, 
actions at law, and suits in chancery. A single justice had juris- 
diction in matters not exceeding the value of one pound ($3.33). 
There was no particular limit as to the number of members, and 
at least twenty were usually in commission at the same time. 

A jail in those days was most numerously occupied by delin- 
quent debtors. Imprisonment for debt was not put aside until 
within the memory of people still living. Consequently in the 

order book we often find this form : "Thereupon came , and 

undertook for the said defendant, in case he be cast in this suit, 
he shall pay and satisfy the condemnation of the court, or render 
his body to prison in execution for the same, or that he, the 
said , will do it for him." 

A courthouse yard was supposed to be equipped with whip- 
ping-post, pillory, stocks, and perhaps also a ducking stool. The 
whipping-post was sometimes a tree. Whipping, up to the num- 
ber of thirty-nine lashes on the bare back, was much in vogue, 
was administered promptly and without regard to sex. The 
female thief or the mother of a bastard child was often thus 
punished. Sometimes the culprit unable to pay a fine prayed for 
corporal punishment, and seems always to have received what he 
asked. The essential feature of the pillory was a pair of short 
planks, each with a large notch in one edge so that a person's 
neck might be fitted into the opening. The stocks differed from 
the pillory in confining the wrists or ankles, or both, and in not 
compelling the culprit to stand. Neither position could be very 
agreeable, especially if the flies were numerous and the spectators 
inclined as in England to throw mud, sticks, eggs of venerable 
quality, and epithets as vile as the eggs. The ducking stool was a 
long plank, pivoted in the center and furnished at one end with a 

History of Highland County 95 

seat to which the culprit was lashed. The design of the apparatus 
was to give the person an involuntary bath in a mill-pond or river. 
It was a favorite punishment for a scolding woman. 

Another punishment was branding on the hand with a hot iron 
and in open court, the criminal being made to say the words, 
"God save the commonwealth." For swearing or getting drunk, 
the penalty was five shillings for each offense or the choice of ten 
lashes. For working on Sunday the penalty was twice as great. 
Not a few crimes were punishable with death, and if the offense 
were regarded as particularly flagant, it was supposed to make the 
penalty more impressive by decreeing death without benefit of 

In 1763 a negro named Tom mortally wounded John Harrison 
by shooting him in the back. He confessed in court and was 
ordered to be hanged ten days later. His head was then to be 
taken off and set on pole on the top of a hill near the courthouse. 
In Orange a negro was hanged for stealing fine linen of the value 
of $2.50. 

With relatively small crimes punishable by death, with the 
nailing of ears to the pillory and cutting them loose, with im- 
prisonment for debt, and with whipping in liberal measure, it 
might seem as though there should have been enough terror in the 
law to keep people in the path of rectitude. Yet the laws seem to 
have been violated more often than they are now. The spirit of 
the times was harsh and coarse, as is seen in the severity of the 
laws and the frequency with which even these laws were broken. 
The beholding of public punishment dulled the sensibilities of 
people and did not reform the law-breaker. Men swore and 
otherwise misbehaved in open court, even to abusing the justices. 

The ears of criminals were often cropped. In the records of 
1746 we read that Philip Jones, losing a part of his right ear in a 
fight, had this fact certified, so that he might not be apprehended 
as a runaway convict. 

It was not unusual for a person to make oath that he stood in 
fear of bodily hurt. 

About 1750 an Augusta man was indicted for beating another 
in a meetinghouse yard at the time of a burial. 

The path of the constable was not one of roses, and he was 

96 History of Highland County 

sometimes prevented by fist or club from removing goods. In 
1750 a constable made the return, "Not executed by reason the 
Deft with a loaded Gun or Rifle stood in the Door of his House 
and threatened to shoot me or any one that offered to lay hands on 
any part of his estate. Neither would he suffer me to enter into 
the House." 

The offenses most numerously before the court were in addi- 
tion to debt, assault, trespass, slander, bastardy, drinking, swear- 
ing, neglect of road supervision, disturbing public worship, and 
delinquency in paying head tax. The list will enable us to form 
some estimate of the nature of the times. 

It is often alleged that although the use of liquor was once 
well-nigh universal, actual drunkenness was rare. This delusion 
is an effect of the distance in time. Court records prove that 
alcohol was the same curse in pioneer days that it is now. That 
the voice of decency was occasionally heard is shown in the will 
of John Dickenson of Bath in 1808, whereby he forbids the use of 
liquor at his interment. 

The Augusta people were much given to litigation, and the 
suits, complaints, and indictments are almost innumerable. The 
settlers on the Bullpasture got into court quite frequently. Burn- 
side and some others were contentious, especially in the matter of 
trespass. The Millers were quarrelsome toward the Bodkins, and 
several combats between them are recorded. One slander suit 
brought out a good share of the settlement and the plaintiff gained 
a verdict of two pounds ($6.67). Two other men misbehaved in 
court and were given a few hours in jail. Still two other men 
were fined each 400 pounds of tobacco in 1763, for non-attendance 
as jurors. 

In consequence of the lawsuits the order books are exceedingly 
voluminous. The writing is in a very small hand and the lines 
are near together. In general the entries are neatly and carefully 
made, and when a coarse-pointed quill was used the writing may 
be read with ease. But when done with a fine pointed quill the 
writing becomes almost microscopic. Instead of covering his 
pages with an unreadable scrawl, the copyist took time to begin a 
long entry with a highly ornamented initial letter. Indexing was 
done with extreme economy of space, there being sometimes 

History of Highland County 97 

eight lines to the inch. The ink was generally very permanent 
and the paper is not corroded, as is the case when a steel pen is 

A will usually began with a piously worded preamable, which 
may be taken to mean that at heart the settlers were more religious 
than in much of their practice. The following, from the will of 
John Bodkin in 1791 is a favorable specimen. 

In the name of God, I, John Bodkin, being through the abundant mercy 
of God though weak in body yet of a sound mind, perfect understanding 
and memory, do constitute this my last will and testament and desire it to 
be received by all as such: Imprimis, I most humbly bequeath my soul to 
God my Maker, beseeching His most gracious acceptance of it through the 
all-sufficient merits and mediation of my most compassionate Redeemer, 
Jesus Christ, who gave himself to be an atonement for my sins and is able 
to save to the uttermost all that come unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth 
to make intercession for them, and who I trust will not reject me, a returning 
penitent sinner, when I come to him for mercy. In this hope and confidence 
I render up my soul with comfort, humbly beseeching the most blessed and 
glorious Trinity, one God most holy, most merciful and gracious, to prepare 
me for the time of my dissolution, and then to take to himself into that 
peace and rest and incomparable felicity which he has prepared for those 
that love and fear his holy name: Blessed be God. 

In land conveyances before the Revolution, there was followed 
the English practice of drawing a double instrument ; a deed of 
lease followed at once by a deed of release, so that deeds are re- 
corded in pairs in the deed-book. The deed of lease was valid 
"from the day before the sale for one whole year to be completed 
and ended, yielding and paying therefor the rent of one pepper- 
corn on Lady-day next (March 25), if the same shall be lawfully 
demanded, to the intent and purpose that by virtue of these pres- 
ents and of the statute for transferring uses into possession, the 
said (purchaser) may be in actual possession of these premises, 
and be thereby enabled to accept and take a grant and release of 
the possession and inheritances thereof." The consideration 
named in this paper was five shillings (83 cents). The deed of re- 
lease, which was the real and effective instrument, was dated one 
day later, and mention is sometimes made of the purchaser receiv- 
ing from the seller a twig in token of possession. The Revolu- 
tion swept away this clumsy practice of giving two deeds in a sin- 
gle transaction. 

'98 History of Highland County 

The man who could prove that he had met the cost of his pas- 
sage from Europe could enter fifty acres of the public domain and 
have it surveyed by the county surveyor. Later on he received 
a patent for the land. It is alleged that the Governor did not 
read the patents he signed and that his secretary did not compare 
them with the originals. It is also alleged that the grant of fifty 
acres to each actual settler was evaded or perverted, and that the 
clerk in the Secretary's office would sell such right for the modest 
"graft" of one to five shillings. 

Prior to 1784, there was no recording of marriages unless by 
the officiating minister. Prior to 1747 there was no clergyman of 
the Church of England west of the Blue Ridge, and until 1760 no 
church edifice. Marriages performed by other persons were illegal 
in the eye of the Virginia law. This worked a hardship until a 
more liberal rule came into force, by which a dispensation from 
the Governor could enable a minister to officiate who was not an 

Indentured white servants were not rare in the Augusta colony. 
The general influence of the system was not good, since it led to 
black slavery and also fostered immorality. The female servant 
who became the mother of a bastard was made to serve an extra 
year. Servants often ran away, and if captured, they were forced 
to serve extra time as an offset to the cost of recovery, this being 
adjudicated by the county court. Wallace Estill made a claim of 
this sort in 1756, specifying twelve days as spent in the recovery. 

James McAvoy and thirteen other youths were kidnapped 
from Ireland and brought to Virginia. Several of the boys were 
recovered by their parents. McAvoy was sold to Robert Garble, 
and by him resold to a man in the Valley. While in the service of 
the latter he married Frances Pritt, but returned to the Bull- 
pasture before his time was out. His owner came and took him 
back. At length his wife went to where he was, carrying her 
child, and the morning after her arrival she said she would have 
to go back. Pritt's master offered his servant a horse to take 
his wife a distance, but she refused the help, and the pair walked 
slowly out of the settlement. Presently the wife tucked her cloak 
into her belt, took her child, and said to her companion, "Now put 
down your foot." He did put down his foot and continued doing 

History of Highland County 99 

so until after walking all day and the following night, they reach- 
ed the Bullpasture. McAvoy was not again disturbed, and later 
on became a resident of Bath. 

Negroes were for some years rare in the mountains. The first 
one known to be in Highland was a young woman purchased for 
Ann Jane Usher by her guardian about 1750. 

Mention has been made of the abundance of game. The set- 
tler often shot deer from the door of his house. In his trip to 
and from Cumberland Gap in 1749, during which journey of 
eighteen weeks he passed through Bath, Dr. Thomas Walker re- 
lates that the party killed thirteen buffaloes, eight elk, fifty-three 
bears, twenty deer, four geese, about one hundred and fifty tur- 
keys, and a considerable quantity of other small game. 

When the pioneer went to court he took his long-barreled 
flintlock rifle, and if possible a wolf head, the latter being a form 
of currency. The bounty on a wolf at this time was one pound 
($3.33). In 1763 Benjamin Estill turned in thirty-six assigned 
wolf heads, these being worth $120, the equivalent of twice that 
sum at the present day. The hemp certificate was also a form of 
money, being receivable for taxes. 

Although some of the pioneers brought along a considerable 
stock of gold and silver coin, it is not easy to see how money in 
the wilderness could reproduce itself otherwise than very slowly. 
There was little to take to the remote markets except cattle and 
furs, and the market for the former could not have been quick. 
Nevertheless, land sold at a relatively high price and the goods 
for sale at a "public vandue" found buyers. 

The account book of a Staunton merchant who sent goods to 
Richmond from 1766 to 1775 shows that the leading items were 
hemp, butter, beeswax, ginseng, cheese, and deerskins, the latter 
being worth in 1774 an average of $1.05. The shipment of flour 
for the nine years was only thirteen barrels, and in 1767 the price 
per barrel was $5. This was relatively a high figure. Cornbread 
was the staff of life. 

100 History of Highland County 



Battle of Point Pleasant - Letters Describing It - The Revolution - Resolu- 
tions by Augusta People - Augusta Men in the War - Slight Outward 
Change under Independence. 

FROM 1764 until 1774 there was once more nominal peace with 
the Indians. But the persistent pressure of the whites led to 
some mutual outrages, and war broke out in the summer of the 
last named year. Governor Dunmore led a force down the Ohio 
from Wheeling, while General Andrew Lewis with the militia 
of the Valley reenforced by a few troops from Bedford and Cul- 
peper, marched down the Great Kanawha, reaching Point Pleasant 
early in October. 

In the army of Lewis, 1,100 strong, were four companies from 
the present counties of Bath, Highland, and Pendleton. The cap- 
tains commanding them were John Dickenson of Bath, Andrew 
Lockridge and Samuel Wilson of Highland, and John Skidmore 
of Pendleton. In these companies were 22, 26, 27, and 32 men 
respectively. It would be interesting to present a full roster of 
these companies. Considering the population at that time, this 
region was well represented in the expedition. 

The Virginia forces being divided, the Indians attemped to 
surprise and overwhelm Lewis, intending then to dispose of the 
governor and his army. Had they succeeded, the effect on the 
border settlement would have been like another Braddock's de- 
feat. The influence on the Revolution, which broke out the follow- 
ing year, would have been serious indeed. The battle at Point 
Pleasant was well contested on both sides. The fighting was al- 
most hand to hand, the lines being seldom more than twenty yards 
apart, and sometimes no more than six. The Virginians lost 75 
men killed and 140 wounded, the more slightly injured not appar- 
ently being included. The numbers and losses of the Indians are 
unknown, but were probably somewhat smaller in both particulars. 

History of Highland County 101 

At the close of the day the result was thought by some of the 
whites as no better than a drawn battle. Yet the Indians were dis- 
heartened, and agreed to a peace which lasted until they were 
stirred up by the British in 1778. The army of Lewis returned in 

A number of Highland men were undoubtedly killed or wound- 
ed, but with the exception of Captain Wilson, who was killed, we 
are ignorant of their names. Captain Skidmore was wounded. 
The estate of Captain Wilson showed personal property to the 
value of nearly $1,000. 

The subjoined extracts were written on the spot by men who 
were in the battle. They not only furnish accounts of the first 
great battle in which Highland men were engaged, but they give 
some idea of the epistolary writing of that period. 

From Col. William Fleming's Orderly Book : 

Monday October the 10th (1774). 

This morning before sunrise two men came running into Camp & gave 
information That a considerable body of Indians were incampt about 2 miles 
up the Ohio a small distance from it, who made a very formidable appearance. 
This important intelligence was quickly confirmed by two or three more. 
The drums by order immediately beat to Arms & 150 men were ordered to 
be paraded out of each line & march against the enemy in two Columns. 
The right column headed by Colo. Chas. Lewis with Captains Dickinson, 
Harrison, and Skidmore. The left Column commanded by Colo. Fleming 
with Captains Shelby Russell Love & Buford. Thus disposed they marched 
pretty briskly about 150 or 200 yards apart up the river about half a mile 
when on a Sudden the Enemy lurking behind Bushes & Trees gave the 
Augusta Line a heavy fire which was briskly followed by a second & third 
& returned again by our men with much bravery & Courage. The attack 
was attended with the death of some of our bravest officers & men also 
with the deaths of a great number of the Enemy. Nor were the Enemy 
less tardy in their attack upon the left Column; for immediately after the 
fire upon the right line succeeded a heavy one on the left & a return from us 
with spirit & resolution. As the disposition in which the men were first 
placed would never promise success against an Indian Enemy the men were 
forced to quit their ranks & fly to trees in doing this the Enemy made a 
small advance and forced our men of both lines to retreat the distance of 
perhaps one or two hundred yards under heavy fires attended with dismal 
Yells & Screams from the Enemy. About this time we were succoured 
with a detachment from the Camp commanded by Captains Mathews 
McDowell & others of the Augusta line and some time afterwards by all 

102 History of Highland County 

the Captains of each line except Capt McClenahan of Augusta who was upon 
guard & Captain Lewis of Botetourt who was ordered to form a line round 
the Camp for its defence. With the reinforcement from the Camp our men 
found their strength much increased & making a fierce onset forced the 
Enemy from their Stations & caused them to retreat by degrees about a 
mile giving them many brisk fires & hitting many of the leading men as 
was imagined, we at last with difficulty dislodged them from a fine long 
ridge leading from a Small slash (swamp) near the river towards the hills 
& being discontinued by a small wet bottom again rose & was continued 
to the hills half a mile or more from the river. This advantageous post was 
gained about 1 o'Clock all the efforts of the enemy to regain it proved fruit- 
less. Tho' they would summon all the force they could raise & make 
many pushes to break the line; the advantage of the place & the steadiness 
of the men defied their most furious Essays. About 3 or 4 o'Clock the 
Enemy growing quite dispirited & all the attempts of their warriors to 
rally them proving vain they carried off their dead & wounded, giving us 
now & then a shot to prevent a pursuit; so that about an hour by sun we 
were in full possession on the field of Battle. Victory having now declared 
in our favour We had orders to return in slow pace to our Camp carefully 
searching for the dead & wounded & to bring them in, as also the Scalps 
of the Enemy. The day being by this time far advanced with [out] any 
written orders double guards were ordered to be mounted. Parole Victory. 
Killed of the Augusta Line in the action on the 10th of Octr. 1774 Colo. 
Chas. Lewis, Capt. Saml Willson and Lieuts. Hugh Allen, & 18 Privates. 
2 Capts. 2 Lieuts. & 51 Private wounded. 

Extract from letter by W. Ingles. 

Our Guards Properly Posted at a Distance from the camp as usual 
little Expecting to be attacked by any Party of Enemy as we looked upon 
them to be so much inferiour to us in Numbers, but they takeing the advan- 
tage of the Night the [y] crossed the Ohio on Rafts & Posted themselves 
within one mile of our camp where the lay till morning with an intent as we 
Suppose to force our Camp had not Providence in a Partickular manner 
Interposed in our behalf the ware discovered by Some of our hunting Partys 
that hapned to turn out that Morning verry Early and one of Our men was 
fired upon by them & Kild and one of them was Kild in his place that 
fireing alarmed the whole Camp and two Detachments was Sent out of a 
hundred & fifty each the one Commanded by Colo. Charles Lewis of 
Augustia the other by Colo. William Fleming the soon fell in with the Enemy 
& a hot Engagement Ensued which Lasted three hours Very doubtfull 
the Enemy being much Suppirour in Number to the first Detachments 
Disputed the Ground with the greatest obstinacy often Runing up to the 
Very Muzels of our gunes where the as often fell Victims to thire Rage Sev- 
eral more Detachments being Sent from the Camp they were obliged to 
Give Ground which the Disputed inch by inch till at Length the Posted them- 

History of Highland County 103 

selves on an advantagus peese of Ground where the Continued at Shooting 
now & then untill night putt an End to that Tragical seen & left many a 
brave fellow Wallirring in his Gore we had the Satisfaction of earring of 
all our wounded & kild with Very litle Lose of Sculps we Sculped 20 (17) 
of them on the Field several the have sculped thimselves thire wounded the 
Carryed of in the Night after the Battle and several of them the Draged into 
the River (Our) Loss of Men is very considerable 

From letter of Col. Wm. Christian. 

From what I can gather here I cannot describe the bravery of the enemy 
in the battle. It exceeded every mans expectations. They had men planted 
on each river to kill our men as they would swim over, making no doubt I 
think of gaining a complete victory. Those over the Ohio in the time of 
battle called to the men to "drive the white dogs in" Their Chiefs ran 
continually along the line exhorting the men to "lye close" and "shoot 
well," "fight and be strong." At first our men retreated a good ways and 
until new forces were sent out on which the enemy beat back slowly and 
killed and wounded our men at every advance. Our people at last formed a 
line, so did the enemy, they made may attempts to break our lines, at length 
our men made a stand, on which the enemy challenged them to come up and 
began to shoot. Our men could have forced them away precipitately, but 
not without great loss, and so concluded to maintain their ground all along 
the line. Which they did until Sundown, when the enemy were supposed 
to be all gone. Our people then moved backward scalping the enemy, and 
bringing in the dead and wounded 

The enemy came over on rafts about six miles up Ohio & set at the 
same place. They encamped within two miles of this place the night before 
the battle and killed some of our beeves. They damd our men often for Sons 
of Bitches, said "Don't you whistle now" (making sport of the fife) and made 
very merry about a treaty. 

The war of the Revolution began only half a year after the 
battle of Point Pleasant. In a former chapter we spoke of the 
attitude in that conflict of the Scotch-Irish settlers in America^ 
Being almost wholly of that stock, it goes without further state- 
ment that the pioneers of Highland were zealous supporters of the 
American cause. 

The war was fought by the Americans to gain industrial free- 
dom and to maintain their rights as British citizens. They 
acknowledged themselves to be subjects of the king of England, 
but held that they could rightfully be taxed only by their own 
legislatures. If this claim were given up, the door was at once 
open to injustice and oppression. The colonies were rapidly grow- 

104 History of Highland County 

ing, and in consequence it was the more intolerable that they 
should be expected to keep out of manufacturing, trade only with 
England, and be content to exchange the raw products of their 
fields and forests with the finished products of her workshops. 
The claims of the Americans did not necessarily lead to independ- 
ence. This step was resorted to and accomplished because of 
the blind obstinacy of the British king- Canada, Australia, and 
South Africa remain British because the home government 
learned wisdom from the lesson of 1783. 

The temper of the Augusta people will appear in the following 
instructions, drawn up at Staunton, February 22, 1775, and given 
to their delegates to the House of Burgesses : 

"The people of Augusta are impressed with just sentiments of loyalty 
to his majesty, King George, whose title to the crown of Great Britain rests 
on no other foundation than the liberty of all his subjects. We have respect 
for the parent state, which respect is founded on religion, on law, and on the 
genuine principles of the British constitution. On these principles do we 
earnestly desire to see harmony and good understanding restored between 
Great Britain and America. Many of us and our forefathers left our native 
land and explored this once savage wilderness to enjoy the free exercise of 
the rights of conscience and of human nature. These rights we are fully 
resolved with our lives and fortunes inviolably to preserve; nor will we 
surrender such inestimable blessings, the purchase of toil and danger, to any 
ministry, to any parliament, or any body of men by whom we are not repre- 
sented, and in whom we are not represented, and in whose decisions, there- 
fore, we have no voice. We are determined to maintain unimpaired that 
liberty which is the gift of Heaven to the subjects of Britain's empire, and 
will most cordially join our countrymen in such measures as may be necessary 
to secure and perpetuate the ancient, just, and legal rights of this colony and 
.all British subjects." 

The above paper shows that the frontiersmen of Augusta knew 
Tiow to use their mother tongue with clearness and force. It 
breathes a conviction that their claims were just and a resolution 
to defend these claims to the utmost. It also asserts a national 
difference between America and the British Isles. 

A memorial from the county committee, presented to the state 
convention, May 16, 1776, is thus mentioned by the latter: 

"A representation from the committee of the county of Augusta was 
presented to the Convention and read, setting forth the present unhappy 
condition of the country, and from the ministerial measures of revenge now 

History of Highland County 105 

pursuing, representing the necessity of making a confederacy of the United 
States, the most perfect, independent, and lasting, and of framing an equal, 
free, and liberal government, that may bear the trial of all future ages." 

This memorial is said by Hugh J. Grigsby to be the first ex- 
pression of the policy of establishing an independent state govern- 
ment and permanent confederation of states which the parlia- 
mentary journals of America contain. It is worthy of a most 
careful reading. 

We can readily understand that the men who could formulate 
papers like the above would back them up in a practical manner. 
In a burst of savage fury the British government closed the port 
of Boston to foreign commerce. Augusta sent 137 barrels of flour 
toward the relief of the people of the northern city. It was far 
less easy to send this flour than in these days of railroad trains. 

The Augustans also backed up their words with bullets. Men 
who at that time or later were residents of Highland served in 
Washington's army. They also helped to guard the western front- 
ier against the Indian allies of the British. Highland volunteers 
under Captain David Gwin marched to the support of General 
Greene in 1781 and took part in the battle of Guilford. There a 
large majority of the Virginia militia fought so well that Greene 
wished he could have known of it beforehand. He had reason for 
his doubts, because the American militia had often behaved badly 
in battle. But on the field of Guilford the raw Virginians helped 
very much in making the nominal victory of Cornwallis a crush- 
ing defeat in reality. He lost a third of his men and had to get 
out of North Carolina in hot haste. 

The companies raised in Augusta were expected to consist 
of expert riflemen. Each man was to "furnish himself with a 
good rifle, if to be had, otherwise with a tomahawk, common fire- 
lock, bayonet, pouch or cartouch box, and three charges of powder 
and ball." On affidavit that the rifleman could not supply him- 
self as above, he was to be supplied at public expense. For fur- 
nishing his equipment he was allowed a rental of one pound 
($3.33) a year. His daily pay was to be 21 cents. Out of this 
was an allowance for "hunting shirt, pair of leggings, and binding 
for his hat." 

Seemingly enormous bounties were offered toward the close 

106 History of Highland County 

of the war. But the paper currency issued by Congress deprecia- 
ted like that of the Confederacy eighty years later. "Worthless 
as a continental bill" was a byword for many a year. 

The people of the valley and mountains had the families of 
their indigent soldiers to support and were required to pay burden- 
some taxes. These, however, could be commuted in farm produce 
and in deerskins. 

Yet only seven months after Guilford the end of the long 
struggle was in sight, and the next year prices had fallen to their 
natural level. The war had never been popular with the English 
people. Even before the surrender of Cornwallis, William Pitt 
on the floor of Parliament had pronounced it the "most accursed, 
wicked, barbarous, cruel, unnatural, unjust, and diabolical of 

The last Augusta court under King George was held May 1, 
1776. The first one under American independence was held July 
16th of the same year. In matters of local government the change 
to the new order of things was for some years little more than 
nominal. The native governor lived in state like his British 
predecessor and signed land patents just as he had done. The 
man signing a bond was no longer "indebted to the king," but to 
"his excellency, the governor." The general assembly was noth- 
ing more than the House of Burgesses under a new name. There 
was still a governor's council of eight members. The Virginia 
constitution of 1776 was no more than a restatement of the source 
of Virginia law. The structure of society was in fact no more 
democratic and no less aristocratic than it was before. 

History of Highland County 107 



Subdividing of Augusta - Formation of Pendleton and Bath - The Green- 
brier District - Highland Men as Local Officers - Growth of the High- 
land Area - The Turnpike. 

AUGUSTA has indeed been a mother of counties. Extending 
at the first 240 miles along the Blue Ridge, and thence west- 
ward to the Mississippi, its growth in population soon made it 
unwieldy. County after county was lopped off in every direction 
except the east. The subdivision began with Botetourt in 1769, 
and continued so rapidly that in 1790, Augusta was reduced to its 
present size. 

In 1787 the Highland area was wholly a part of Augusta. In 
that year the portion of Rockingham lying west of the Shenandoah 
Mountain was with the addition of narrow slices taken from 
Hardy and Augusta made into the county of Pendleton. The 
southern line of the new county passed through the Highland 
area by following the divide between the waters of the Potomac 
and the James. Its course was therefore crooked. Scarcely more 
than two years after Pendleton was created, the county of Bath 
was stricken off from the parent county by being made to include 
that section of it west of the Shenandoah range. It thus took in 
the whole upper basin of the James, down to the point where it 
passes through the range just mentioned. The boundaries of 
Bath consequently followed natural lines. 

But in 1796 the southern line of Pendleton was pushed south- 
ward a varying distance of four to twelve miles, and made to 
cross the Highland area nearly through the center. The reason 
for such annexation is not at this late day clearly apparent. 

In the same year both Pendleton and Bath were enlarged by 
being made to take in the upper Greenbrier Valley. Their western 
border was therefore changed from the crest of the main Alle- 
ghany to that of the "Back Alleghany," which diverges from the 

108 History of Highland County 

former on the west line of Pendleton and runs southwestward in a 
nearly parallel course at a distance of ten or fifteen miles. This 
enlargement was by petition of the few settlers on the Upper 

In 1821 this remote section of the two counties became a part 
of the new county of Pocahontas, and in the same year Bath was 
diminished to the southward by the creation of Alleghany county. 
It was the intention to name the western county Alleghany and 
the eastern Pocahontas, but through a blunder of the engrossing 
clerk the names were transposed. They are less appropriate as 
they stand than as they were designed. 

When the Highland area had thus become identified with the 
new counties of Pendleton and Bath it seems to have contained 
from 1,000 to 1,200 people. Many new settlers had come into its 
valleys. The Back Creek basin, the last to be occupied, now 
contained the Wade, Slaven, Bird, Matheny, Briscoe, Chestnut, 
Ryder, and Woods families. On Straight Creek in 1799, we find 
the following persons in a coroner's jury called together by a tree 
falling upon John Mifford : John Beverage (foreman), Henry 
and John James, James and Jacob Seybert, George Franklin, 
John Moon, Thomas Jones, George Fisher, John Warwick, James 
Trimble, and George Rymer. At the sale of the late Christian 
Wagoner's effects, in May, 1800, we find present Michael Arbo- 
gast, William Bennett, William Cunningham, Michael Fox, John 
Hickley, William Janes, James and Hopkins Jones, Martin and 
Christian Life, William Michael, Francis Nicholas, Michael Peck, 
John Rexrode, Christopher Reed, James Trimble, Philip Wimer, 
Martin Waybright, John White, Adam and Michael Wagoner, 
and Christina Joseph. Abraham Smith was at this time a dweller 
in Crabbottom. 

On the organization of county government in Pendleton, Peter 
Hull was the only justice from the Highland area. Henry Fleish- 
er was appointed major of the militia regiment, Jacob Gum was 
a constable and George Nicholas was a road overseer. John 
McCoy was a constable in 1792. Michael Arbogast served on the 
first grand jury. John Wilson and John Peebles appear to be the 
only Highland representation among the first justices of Bath. 
Samuel Black, William Ryder, and Stephen Wilson served on its 
first grand jury. 

History of Highland County 109 

The section of Bath beyond the main Alleghany was given two 
constables and was one of the three districts to elect overseers of 
the poor. It was peopled quite wholly by the overflow from the 
older section to the east. The Burners, Houchins, Sharps, and 
Sharrots removed thither in a body, and were joined by branches 
of the Arbogast, Gum, and other families. John IT. Peyton, an 
attorney, visiting Huntersville in 1823, very shortly after the 
organization of Pocahontas, declares it as much out of the world 
as Tartary. The "town" consisted of two log cabins, one of these 
being the residence of John Bradshaw, who had moved here from 
Bullpasture Valley. We extract the following from his letter: 

The other hovel is called the Loom-house, for these people are self- 
sustaining. The big wheel and the little wheel are birring in every hut. 
The homespun cloth is stronger and more durable than that brought by our 
merchants from Northern manufacturers. In Bradshaw's dwelling is a 
large fireplace, which occupies the entire gable end. The chimney is enormous, 
and so short that the room is filled with light which enters this way. It 
is an ingenious contrivance for letting all the warmth escape through the 
chimney, while most of the smoke is driven back into the chamber. In the 
chimney corner I prepared my legal papers before a roaring fire, surrounded 
by rough mountaineers, who were drinking whiskey, and as night advanced 
growing riotous. In the back part of the room two beds were curtained off 
with horse-blankets; one for the Judge, the other for myself. To the left 
of the fireplace stood Bradshaw's couch. In the loft, to which they ascended 
by a ladder, his daughter and the hired woman slept, and in time of a crowd, 
a wayfarer. The other guests were sent to sleep in the three beds in the 
Loom-house. The loom was used as a hatrack at night and for sitting on. 
My clients roosted on the loom while detailing their troubles. 

Bradshaw's table is well supplied. There is profusion if not prodi- 
gality in the rich, lavish bounty of the goodly tavern. As a mark of defer- 
ence and respect to the Court, I presume, we had a table-cloth — they are 
not often seen on Western tables, and when they are, are not innocent of 
color, — and clean sheets upon our beds. This matter of the sheets is no 
small affair in out-of-the-way places, as it not unfrequently happens that 
wanderers communicate disease through the bedclothing. Bradshaw's fam- 
ily is scrupulously clean, which is somewhat remarkable in a region where 
cleanliness is for the most part on the outside. 

The support of the people is mainly derived from their flocks of cattle, 
horses, and sheep, which they drive over the mountains to market. There 
is little money among them except after these excursions, but they have little 
need of it — every want is supplied by the happy country they possess and of 
which they are as fond as the Swiss of their mountains. 

110 History of Highland County 

We have quoted this letter at length because in a considerable 
measure it was still applicable to conditions in the older county. 

In the grand juries of Pendleton during the first decade of its 
history, we find the following Highland representation : Adam, 
David and John Arbogast, John Armstrong, William Blagg, 
Thomas Duffield, Conrad and Henry Fleisher, Jacob Gum, 
Charles Halterman, James and William Janes, Henry Jones, 
Joseph Lantz, Peter Lightner, Edward Morton, George Naigley, 
George Nicholas, Garrett Peck, Henry Seybert, William, David, 
and Elibab Wilson, and Peter Zickafoose. 

Peter Hull in 1788 took a storekeeper's license, and ten years 
later Samuel Blagg took a license for an ordinary. In 1800 Peter 
and Jacob Hull had two stores. 

In 1788, George Nicholas was road surveyor from the mouth 
to the head of Straight Creek. In 1790, Charles Erwin had the 
road from Mathias Benson's to the Augusta line, James Steuart, 
the road from the Pendleton line to Joseph Gwin's, and Abraham 
Gum, the road from John Slaven's to the Pendleton line. Robert 
Carlile, David Gwin, and William Houchin were other road sur- 
veyors under Bath. In the same year Jacob Gum took the place of 
McKenny Robinson on the upper South Branch. Two years later 
John Arbogast had the road from Michael Arbogast's to the inter- 
section with the Dry Run road. Garrett Peck had the latter road 
around to the mouth of Straight Creek. The precinct of James 
Mullenax was from Peter Hull's to the mouth of Straight Creek, 
and that of Isaac Gum was from,Peter Hull's southward to the 
old Pendleton line. On the other side of the county, William 
Jordan in 1790, had the road from the head of the Cowpasture 
southward to the old Pendleton line. His assistants were Francis 
Hayworth, Thomas Douglas and three sons, Thomas Devericks 
and one son, Henry Jones, Edward Morton, William Harris, John 
Keezle and son, and John Hatton. Four years later, George 
Sheets cared for the road from Robert Malcomb's to John Hiner's, 
and Thomas Duffield, the road from Elibab Wilson's to Burnett's 
mill beyond the present Pendleton line. 

Thus we see that when the new counties were formed, the 
Highland area was quite well supplied with authorized roads. 

History of Highland County 111 

But in 1799 the Pendleton grand jury made a wholesale complaint 
on the want of index posts. 

By 1780 there was a pioneer road from the Crabbottom west- 
ward across the Alleghany. It was known as the Riffle road from 
Francis Riffle or Riggle, a pioneer of Tygart's valley. 

To provide a jail the Bath court of 1790 laid a special levy of 
13 pounds of tobacco (43 cents) per tithable. The more promi- 
nent offenses in this county during its earlier history were hog 
stealing, liquor selling, swearing and blasphemy, and obstructing 
road surveys. But in 1799, 324 citizens were presented for not 
voting, and in 1881, 332 were likewise called up. 

In 1800 the heavier landholders in the Pendleton half were 
the following: 

Michael Arbogast 1,037 Acres 

Joseph Bell 611 Acres 

John Beverage 559 Acres 

Peter HuU 2,712 Acres 

William Janes 566 Acres 

Nicholas Seybert 662 Acres 

Philip Wimer 772 Acres 

Peter Zickafoose 570 Acres 

Until 1815, and especially until 1795, the increase in population 
was very rapid. The Indian war-cloud, which had hovered so 
long in and near the Alleghanies, was by virtue of the peace of 
1815 practically removed from the eastern side of the Mississippi. 
The call of the West was now unrestrained, and the lure of its 
level and fertile lands made a steady and persistent draft on the 
valleys of Highland, as in the case of the East generally. Still the 
population had risen by 1847 to not less than 3,500. The valley 
lands and the more attractive uplands were generally cleared, 
though not to the extent they are now. The larger valley farmers 
were generally slave holders, and tillage was relatively more im- 
portant than at present. 

The outside world did not seem so far away. Cattle were 
driven to market over better roads than formerly, and the building 
of the James River canal had advanced the head of navigation to 
Scottsville, a distance from the Cowpasture valley of less than 
100 miles. There were now some churches and schools, and a few 

112 History of Highland County 

stores, but as yet no collection of dwellings which might be termed 
even a hamlet. In the habits of the people the impress of the 
pioneer days was still very apparent. Cloth was still made at 
home, and improved farming machinery was not yet known. 
Post offices were very few, and the mails came only once a week. 
Nevertheless, the region now seemed rather old and mature. The 
earliest comers had all passed away, and among the very old peo- 
ple were natives of the county. Much of the downright crudeness 
of the early pioneer period had seen its day, and the wares of a 
newer civilization had found their way into these valleys from the 
distant cities. 

The railroad age dawned about 1830. For some years before 
this date, and for some years later, the need of better highways 
for the growing American people became a very live topic. If 
actual distance could not be shortened, it was necessary to shorten 
the hours of travel. The people beyond the mountains were in 
particular need of better roads to the Eastern markets. 

In 1822, James B. Campbell, an experienced surveyor, return- 
ed from the West to Crabbottom, and soon began to plan a turn- 
pike to connect Staunton with Parkersburg. The route he select- 
ed was from the top of Shenandoah Mountain to Shaw's Fork 
nearly the same as the present pike. But from this point his own 
route followed Shaw's Fork to its mouth, and there crossed Bull- 
pasture Mountain, reaching the river of the same name near the 
mouth of Davis Run. This stream was followed to the Sounding 
Knob Gap. The next range was passed through Vanderpool Gap, 
and a course was thence traced through the Great Valley of Back 
Creek to the Townsend Draft near the Bath line. Here it began 
the ascent of Alleghany Mountain. The entire route was excel- 
lent, the grades being as easy as the contour of the country would 
permit, and three barriers wholly eliminated. 

But the survey did not become a road. In 1838 the Staunton 
and Parkersburg Turnpike was built under the supervision of 
Claude Crozet, a civil engineer of the first Napoleon, who worked 
in Russia as well as France. Influential citizens induced him 
to abandon the easier route which nature indicated, and to adopt 
the one by which the road was actually constructed. The specifi- 

History of Highland County 113 

cations of Crozet required a track twenty feet wide, exclusive of 
side ditches, and ten inches higher in the center than on the border. 
Every visible rock or stump was to be taken out, and no grade 
was to exceed four degrees. 

The road became at once the avenue of a large traffic between 
the valley and the transalleghany country, and was a large factor 
in the further development of the Highland area. Though still a 
very fair road, it has declined from its early estate and importance. 
That no bridges were ever thrown across Shaw's Fork and the 
Cowpasture is a strange and needless neglect. 

The turnpike paralleled and crossed a common road con- 
structed by the state, and the long-abandoned track is sometimes 
in full view for quite a distance. On the slope of Shenandoah 
Mountain was a still older road, apparently the one laid out by 
Wallace Estill. 

114 History of Highland County 



Desire of the Highland Area for Separate Organization - Formation of High- 
land - Its Organization. 

THE forming of Highland was one of the events which are 
perfectly natural. It was not so much that Pendleton 
and Bath were too long, although the people near their com- 
mon boundary were farther from their county seats than were 
the people at the other extremities of those counties. The new 
turnpike gave the Highland area an advantage which the 
other sections of the two counties did not possess. The cen- 
sus of 1850 was to show that Highland had more people than 
Bath, though not so many as Pendleton. And when to eco- 
nomic considerations are added the ambitions of men desirous 
of public office, a movement to create a new county becomes 
a very active force. 

Even before the completion of the turnpike there was a 
desire in the central section to be set off as a separate county. 
When, in 1837, the delegate from Bath presented a bill to move 
the county seat a mile south to Germantown, there was much 
indignation in the north, and the measure was defeated. The 
latter section charged the southern with arbitrary doings. But 
when, in 1839, there was a vote on a new county with its seat 
of government at Woodsboro — now Vanderpool — the measure 
carried by a large majority in Bath, yet was defeated in Pen- 
dleton. Another vote the following year led to the same re- 
sult. It is said there was now much pulling of wires, and as 
in many other instances a compromise led to the desired re- 
sult. Woodsboro was very near the geographic center of the 
proposed county, but the people of Bath were induced to 
assent to the choice of Bell's place on the turnpike. Pendle- 
ton yielded reluctantly, its delegate still opposing the final bill 
in the Legislature, while the delegate from Bath favored it. 

History of Highland County 115 

Finally, March 19th, 1847, the bill to create Highland was 
passed,* and in the new county it is related that the joy was 
like that caused by the surrender at Yorktown. It is signifi- 
cant that the boundary specified in the bill placed the delegate 
from Bath a few yards within the Highland line. 

In view of the exceptionally high altitude of the county 
the name selected is very appropriate. As to who was re- 
sponsible for the choice, there is some dispute. It is said to 
have been proposed by Andrew H. Byrd, delegate from Bath, 
while, on the other hand, it is claimed that it was suggested 
to Byrd by Samuel Ruckman. 

Pursuant to the Act of Assembly, the appointed justices 
met May 20th, 1847, at the house on James Bell's farm occu- 
pied by John Cook. This dwelling stood near a spring behind 
the law office of C. P. Jones and Son in Monterey. The jus- 
tices were George W. Amiss, Emmanuel Arbogast, Abel H. 
Armstrong, David H. Bird, James Brown, Andrew H. Byrd, 
James B. Campbell, Benjamin Fleisher, George Hicklin, Peter 
Hull, Thomas Jones, John H. Pullin, Samuel Ruckman, John 
Sitlington, Reuben Slaven, Adam Stephenson, Sr., and Charles 

Major Peter Hull, the first president of the board, was com- 
missioned as the first sheriff, under a bond of $30,000, his 
sureties being Andrew H. Byrd, James B. Campbell, John 
Graham, Frederick K. Hull, and Charles Steuart. Adam Ste- 
phenson, Jr., was chosen clerk under bond of $3,000, with 
James B. Campbell and William H. Terrill as sureties. John C. 
Woodson became commonwealth's attorney, Joseph Layne 
commissioner of the revenue, Thomas Campbell, surveyor, and 
John B. Steuart, coroner. The deputy sheriffs were David G. 
McClung and Peter H. Kinkead. The first jailer was Jacob 
Hiner, and the first jail was an upper room of his house. 

The overseers of the poor — elected for three years, June 
15th — were Alexander Gilmer, Jacob Seybert, Solomon Wag- 
oner, Robert H. Steuart, John T. Armstrong, Jesse Pullin, 
George Hicklin, and Jacob Hevener. Isaac Seybert was ap- 
pointed in the place of Jacob. 

*See Appendix F. 

116 History of Highland County 

The county was laid off into five constable districts, as 
follows : 

1. The territory east of Jack Mountain and north of the 

2. The territory west of Jack Mountain and north of the 

3. The territory south of the pike and west of Back Creek 

4. The territory south of the pike and between Jack and 
Back Creek mountains. 

5. The territory south of the pike and east of Jack Moun- 

The constables chosen for the respective districts were 
Andrew H. Jones, John M. Rexrode, James H. Ryder, Houston F. 
Gwin, and William S. Thompson. James Trimble was a second 
constable for the second district. The constabulary bond was 
fixed at $2,000. 

Through a committee the court accepted the offer of James 
Bell to donate one acre for a courthouse site and sell two addition- 
al acres for $150, guaranteeing the use of the spring to the north 
of the pike. The committee on building courthouse and jail was 
made up of James Brown, James B. Campbell, Samuel Ruckman, 
Adam Stephenson, and John C. Woodson. Benjamin Fleisher 
and Peter Hull were afterward added. The contract for the two 
buildings was awarded to Robert Johnson for $4,935. The court- 
house thus provided for, a brick structure forty feet square, is the 
one still in use, but a new jail has recently been built. While the 
building was going on, court was held in the house of John Cook, 
to whom was granted a tavern and liquor license, James Trimble 
also receiving a tavern license. 

For road purposes the county was divided into eight precincts. 

The first grand jury, with George Carlile as foreman, was 
made up of the following other persons : Thomas Beverage, 
George H. Bird, John Chestnut, George Colaw, William Curry, 
Adam Fox, Moses Gwin, James Gwin, John C. Gwin, William T. 
Johns, John Lightner, Jacob Newman, Thomas Parks, Loftus 
Pullin, David Steuart, David Varner, Sampson Wagoner, Samuel 
Wilson, Amos Wimer, and John Vandervender. 

History of Highland County 117 

The offenses brought before the jury pertain to bastardy, un- 
lawful gaming and liquor selling, and disturbing religious assem- 
blies. But the grand jury of 1850 found nothing to do. 

The tithables were reported as 1,136, and the first poll tax was 
$1.89, making an aggregate of $2,147,04. 

At a certain public sale in 1829, twelve gallons of whiskey at 
45 cents a gallon were deemed necessary to furnish "a dram to the 
bidder." In the 50's a more civilized sentiment had arisen, and in 
1852 no licenses were granted by the court. For about twenty 
years Highland has been "dry" territory. 

The first court ordered two voting places for each of the pres- 
ent districts : Samuel Ruckman's and Sitlington's mill for Blue- 
grass, John Cook's and John Wiley's for Monterey, and McDowell 
and William McClung's for Stonewall. In 1851, Doe Hill became 
a voting place, and another was ordered at Elkanah B. Turner's. 

The wolf bounty had risen by 1788 to $6.67, and by 1801 to $8. 
The court of 1848 fixed the bounty on an old wolf at $12, and the 
same rate was still in force in 1865. For a wolf cub the bounty 
was half as much. The bounty on wildcats was $1.50 for a grown 
animal and 75 cents for one under six months of age. In 1853 
the bounties on wildcats and foxes were $1.00 and 50 cents for 
grown and small animals respectively. At present the only bounty 
in force is that of 50 cents on hawks and owls. 

The new county thus launched as a political unit pursued a 
quite uneventful career until the early spring of 1861. 

118 History of Highland County 



The Election of 1860 - Attitude of Highland People - New Militia Companies - 
Operations in the Summer of 1861 - Battle of Camp Alleghany - Advance 
of Milroy in April, 1862 - Jackson's advance to McDowell - The 
Battle - Losses - The Confederate Pursuit and the Return to the 
Valley - Committee of Safety - Local Events - Memorial by County 
Court - A War Diary - Readjustments in and after 1865. 

THE War of 1861 is too large a topic to treat with a desirable 
degree of clearness and fullness in the pages of a county 
history. The present chapter will deal with that conflict only as 
it affected Highland. And as this county remained with the 
mother state, it is hardly necessary to take up the formation of 
West Virginia. 

The presidential contest of 1860 requires preliminary mention. 
Politically, the two great sections of the Union were arrayed 
against one another, each having a radical and a conservative 
candidate. The North presented Lincoln and Douglas. The South 
presented Breckenridge and Bell. The former were Northern 
men, while the latter were Southern. Lincoln and Breckenridge 
represented the extremes in the four-sided contest. Only a hand- 
ful of Southern men, and these in the border states, voted for 
Lincoln. Only a handful of Northern men, except in the small 
area where a fusion of the Douglas and Breckenridge followers 
was attempted, voted for Breckenridge. Yet the conservative 
Douglas had a considerable number of votes in the South, and 
the conservative Bell a considerable number in the North. Lin- 
coln won the election, because he was the successful candidate of 
the more populous section. He lacked a million votes of having a 
majority over the other three men. Lincoln, for whom only one in 
sixty of her men had voted, was as unwelcome to the South as 
Breckenridge would have been to the North, for whom only one 
in forty of her men had voted, even with fusion thrown into the 

History of Highland County 119 

The temper of the times caused the political fight to be follow- 
ed by the appeal to arms. In each section the conservative ele- 
ment then came over to a more or less complete support of the 
radical, except in portions of the border states. 

Virginia gave. a small majority to Bell, the Southern conserva- 
tive. But Highland, out of perhaps 700 voters, gave a majority of 
more than 100 to Douglas, the Northern conservative. The vote 
in Highland is significant of the feeling of the people. It was 
Unionist from the Southern viewpoint. Secession was not in 
favor. Nine-tenths of the people were white, and the organiza- 
tion of society was more Northern than Southern. Yet the politi- 
cal sentiment was Southern. The river bottoms were largely held 
by a wealthy and influential class of slave holders. The commer- 
cial outlets were eastward, where the distinctive Southern feeling 
was still more pronounced. Unlike many counties west of the 
Alleghany, its social and industrial contact with the North was 
slight. The balance of interest inclined the Highland people to 
the South. Had there been no river bottoms, there would have 
been fewer slaves. Had the county been well beyond the Alle- 
ghanies, its commercial outlet would have been toward Pennsyl- 
vania and Ohio. In either case, interest would have inclined it 
less to the South than was actually the case. When the crisis 
came, in the April of 1861, the people of Highland followed their 
honest conceptions of civic duty, just as people did in all sections 
of the Union, both North and South. These conceptions differed, 
because of the differing types of civilization in North and South ; 
yet though there was a difference, there was entire sincerity in 
each instance. 

Therefore the mass of the Highland people sided with the 
action of their state. But as elsewhere along the border line, there 
were some persons of undecided convictions. There were some 
others who could not bring themselves to uphold secession and 
either kept out of military service or went within the Federal 
lines. The former class supplied some deserters who passed from 
one army to the other. 

George W. Hull, delegate to the convention of 1861, opposed 
secession until President Lincoln's call on Virginia for 2,700 vol- 

120 History of Highland County 

unteers to help put down the revolution in the cotton states 
brought matters to a crisis. He then, though reluctantly, support- 
ed the measure. 

For the May term of court all the justices were summoned, 
and of the twenty the following were present : John Bird, Thomas 
L. Brown, Cornelius Colaw, Samuel C. Eagle, William W. Flem- 
ing, William Hevener, Josiah Hiner, Felix H. FIull, Henry C. 
Jones, Peter H. Kinkead, Franklin McNulty, John H. Pullin, 
Henry Seybert, Adam C. Stephenson, David Stephenson, Edward 
Steuart, and Zachariah Tomlinson. 

In accordance with a recent act of assembly authorizing coun- 
ties and incorporated towns to issue bonds to provide a fund for 
arming their militia, the court authorized an issue of $6,500, and 
W. W. Fleming was directed to procure 14 tents and 224 uni- 
forms. The poll tax was fixed at $3.10, and a levy of 14 cents 
per $100 was ordered on land and personalty and further levy of 
42 cents on every assessed slave above the age of twelve years, 
these taxes to be paid by the next February. 

The Highland company was mustered into service at Monte- 
rey, May 18. Its officers were Felix H. Hull, Captain, J. William 
Myers, First Lieutenant, Samuel A. Gilmor, Second Lieutenant, 
and Jesse Gilmor, Third Lieutenant. It marched the same day to 
join the army under Porterfield in its advance on Grafton. It was 
in the skirmish at Philippi and the small battles at Laurel Hill and 
Rich Mountains. The defeated army had to move down the 
Cheat to the Northwestern Turnpike, and follow that road into 
the South Branch Valley at Petersburg. Thence it marched up 
the river, reaching Monterey July 19. In this retreat the men 
suffered severely from bad weather and roads, hard marches, and 
a lack of equipment and provisions. 

By this time reinforcements had reached Monterey. The 
Highland company being over 100 strong, it was divided. 

All the men from the east of Highland were put into a sepa- 
rate company, styled B, with Robert H. Bradshaw, Captain, 
William R. Keister, First Lieutenant, Andrew S. T. Davis, Second 
Lieutenant, and Harrison H. Jones, Orderly Sergeant. At West 
View, in May of the following year, there was a reorganization, 

History of Highland County 121 

Bradshaw being reelected. W. R. Lyman, a cadet of the Virginia 
Military Institute who had acted as drillmaster and had volun- 
teered as a private, was now elected First Lieutenant. Jones was 
promoted to be Second Lieutenant, and William C. Kincaid 
became Third Lieutenant. After the death of Bradshaw at Port 
Republic, Lyman became Captain. He resigned in the early spring 
of 1864, and the company was thereafter commanded by its Lieu- 
tenants, Kincaid and Pullin. 

The other company was designated as E. Its captain was 
S. A. Gilmor, later succeeded by J. C. Matheny. The lieutenants 
were J. S. Gilmor, A. F. Swadley, and David Bird. The two 
companies were attached to the 31st Regiment, Virginia Infantry. 

General Robert E. Lee took command in this section, and 
while in Monterey his headquarters was in the old corner house 
opposite the Methodist Church. He advanced to the Greenbrier, 
whence, September 11th and 12th, he moved against General Rey- 
nolds, in position at Cheat Mountain and Elkwater. Finding the 
Federal position too strong he fell back after some skirmishing in 
which Colonel Washington was killed and some prisoners taken on 
each side. It is said that the orders of Lee were not properly 
followed. Soon afterward he returned to Richmond leaving six 
regiments and two batteries on the Greenbrier. 

Against this force Reynolds advanced October 3d with seven 
regiments, numbering 5,000 men. The action which followed was 
mainly an artillery duel. The Federals lost 8 killed and 35 
wounded. The Confederates lost 6 killed 29 wounded, and 13 
prisoners. And yet each commander estimated the loss of the 
other at 300. Reynolds returned to his position. He called this 
affair a reconnoissance in force, while his opponent understood 
it as a positive effort to drive him out. 

Portions of each army were sent elsewhere. Milroy of Indiana 
was left in command of the Federals, and Edward Johnson of 
Georgia was now in charge of the Confederates. Finding trans- 
portation to the Greenbrier too difficult, Johnson fell back up the 
Alleghany to a pass on the turnpike a mile west of the Highland 
boundary. Here he established a fortified camp and went into 
winter quarters. Possession of this important thoroughfare was 
of much interest to each party. 

122 History of Highland County 

Guided by deserters Milroy assailed Camp Alleghany at day- 
break, December 13th. His two columns of 900 men each failed to 
strike simultaneously, and were repulsed and driven back after a 
hot engagement of eight hours. Milroy's loss was 137, including 
3 prisoners. Johnson's loss was 20 killed, 98 wounded, and 28 
missing. The greater part of the missing returned to their com- 
mands. The Confederate force at this time consisted of the 25th, 
31st, and 52d Virginia Infantry, Hansborough's Battalion, the 
12th Georgia, and the batteries of Lee and Miller; in all about 
1,400 men. The respective regimental losses were 18, 37, 8, and 
47 men. Hansborough's Battalion lost 28, the batteries 6, and the 
brigade staff 2, a grand total of 146. For his victory General 
Johnson received a vote of thanks from the Confederate Congress. 

Four days after the battle the county clerk of Highland was 
ordered to remove his papers to a place of greater safety. About 
this time the court protested against the use of its jail as a mili- 
tary prison, and ordered the commandant at Monterey to remove 
therefrom a Federal soldier named Thomas Carr. 

At the beginning of April the Army of the Northwest under 
Johnson consisted of 3,000 men and 12 guns. There were six 
regiments of infantry, the 12th Georgia, and the 25th, 31st, 44th, 
52d, and 58th Virginia, and a small force of cavalry. The main 
army was at Camp Alleghany, but there were small commands at 
Franklin, Crabbottom, Monterey, and Huntersville. 

General Fremont with 19,000 men began an advance up the 
valley of the South Branch, bad weather making his progress slow. 
His purpose was to unite with Milroy, and later with Cox, who 
was moving up the New River with 7,000 men. Then he was 
going to strike the railroad that ran from Lynchburg to Bristol, 
and push still onward to Knoxville, Tenn. In the lower Shenan- 
doah was General Banks with 20,000 more Federals. 

Because of Fremont's advance Johnson abandoned his in- 
trenched camp on the Alleghany and fell back along the turnpike 
to the crest of Shenandoah Mountain. Milroy started in pursuit 
April 5th, marching in bad weather over an icy road, and reached 
Monterey the next day. Here he remained fourteen days, his 
men in much discomfort because of the inclement spring. On the 

History of Highland County 123 

12th there was a skirmish with Confederate cavalry. At the close 
of the month he advanced to McDowell and went into camp. He 
found difficulty in subsisting his force. Foraging parties scoured 
the valleys around, and one of these was waylaid near Williams- 
ville by the Bath cavalry under Lieut. Byrd. The train was 
captured and burned, and a few men were wounded. One of 
these, very badly injured, was cared for at Williams ville until he 
recovered, and some years later he revisited the people who had 
him in charge. 

While Johnson was gone to confer with General Jackson, 
his second in command, fearing he would be cut off by Banks now 
at Harrisonburg, retreated April 20th, to West View, seven miles 
west of Staunton. This retrograde movement created a considera- 
ble panic in that, town, and the sick and convalescents were sent on 
to Gordonsville. While at West View, there was some reorgan- 
ization in the army of the Northwest. 

To Milroy the way to Staunton now looked clear. But on 
May 1st Fremont sent him word to hold where he stood, and there 
was no permission to move until the 7th. He then advanced three 
of his regiments to Shaw's Ridge and Shenandoah Mountain and 
established a picket post in the valley beyond. Fremont was still 
moving up the South Branch, his force being very much strung 

Meanwhile Stonewall Jackson with his 6,000 men lay in a 
strategic position at the base of the Blue Ridge. By holding the 
southern entrance to the Luray Valley, and thus threatening the 
Federal communications, he checkmated the advance of Banks on 
Staunton. East of the Blue Ridge and within supporting distance 
was General Ewell with 8,000 more Confederates. 

General Banks had been taken from civil life and was without 
experience in matters of war. He was also unenterprising and 
was quite unfitted to cope with a student of military science like 
Jackson. The latter had but 17,000 soldiers within reach ; fewer 
men than were in either of the armies under Banks and Fremont. 
But to neutralize the Federal advantage in numbers, their leaders 
were under the direct control of the President and the Secretary 
of War, neither of whom had military training. Furthermore, 

124 History of Highland County 

though Banks and Fremont were moving in parallel routes, they 
were not under instructions to cooperate. 

Jackson decided to call up Ewell and attack Banks. But it was 
first necessary to drive back Milroy, who when joined by Fremont 
would be threatening his rear by way of Staunton. If Jackson 
marched direct to Staunton to join Johnson, he would be moving 
across Bank's front and thus advertising his purpose. Banks 
could follow, his rear no longer being threatened. Leaving Ewell 
to occupy his camp, Jackson marched by a miry road to Port 
Republic, and then crossed the Blue Ridge to Medium's River 
Depot. Here his infantry took train for Staunton, the artillery 
and baggage following by road. Arriving at Staunton he placed 
guards on every road leading toward Harrisonburg, and no person 
was allowed to pass. He thus joined Johnson without the knowl- 
edge of Banks. 

Jackson began his advance against Milroy May 7th, the regi- 
ments under Johnson leading the way, and the Third, Second, 
and Stonewall brigades following in succession. The Cadet Corps 
from the Virginia Military Institute was attached to the expedi- 
tion. The entire army was stretched out for a distance of ten 
miles. The Federal picket near West Augusta was driven in, 
and a camp on the Shenandoah Mountain was captured. Having 
learned of the junction of the two Confederate armies, Milroy 
withdrew his advanced regiments to McDowell. From Shaw's 
Ridge the 9th Ohio Battery shelled without much effect the 
advancing column. 

The morning of the 8th, the Confederate march was resumed. 
On the top of Bullpasture Mountain Johnson halted his brigade 
and rode forward with 30 men to reconnoiter from the top of 
Sitlington's hill. This was about eleven o'clock. Skirmishers 
were sent against the party on the height but were driven back. 

Jackson designed his occupation of Sitlington hill as a mere 
feint to attract Milroy's attention. He had in mind a flank move- 
ment, so as to capture if possible the force in the valley. It 
would have been easy to shell the Federals from the hill, but this 
would only push them back a few miles without inflicting material 
damage. His artillery was therefore held back for the proposed 
turning movement. 

History of Highland County 125 

To attack in front was disadvantageous. The ground below 
Sitlington's hill is extremely broken and was generally wooded. 
There was little chance to deploy troops, and columns moving 
down the narrow hollows would have been much exposed to the 
Federal guns. The pike, running eastward from the bridge in a 
direct course for nearly a mile was commanded by the battery on 
the hill behind the Presbyterian Church. Jackson wished to save 
his men for the greater struggle with Banks. 

But Milroy did not wait to be caught in a trap. The town 
could not be held against a battery on the heights. It could also be 
turned. A force striking the river above McDowell would shut 
off one line of retreat, and by extending itself behind the foothill 
range along Jack Mountain it could seige the narrow pass on 
Crab Run, and thus block the turnpike, the only other practicable 
road. Stonewall Jackson had not yet reached the zenith of his 
reputation, but he was known to be skilful and enterprising. Mil- 
roy made preparations for attack, so as to drive back his enem) 
if possible, or if this could not be accomplished to keep him busy 
until nightfall and thus gain time for an unobserved retreat. 
A lack of forage also interfered with holding his ground. 

The contour of the battlefield is quite peculiar. The turnpike 
coming down a hollow from the main axis of Bullpasture Moun- 
tain meets Sitlington hill, a long wooded ridge running parallel 
with the axis and likewise with the river. The road makes a loop 
around the north end of the ridge before resuming its direct 
course to the bridge. Where the road begins its loop an open 
hollow leads to the top of the ridge and up this avenue the Con- 
federates marched to their positions. Southward from this point 
on the summit, an arm of the ridge diverges from it on the west 
side leaving a shallow basin between. The direction of this arm is 
toward the pike a little below the lower end of the loop. But at a 
distance of about 200 yards from the road the crest bends directly 
toward the bridge, steadily losing in elevation and throwing off 
lateral spurs like the lobes of an oak leaf. The first of these 
spurs bears directly toward the lower end of the loop, and here 
the depression between the two ridges deepens rapidly toward 
the road. 

126 History of Highland County 

The outer ridge and the first spur above mentioned form a 
very open V with a crest line about 500 feet above the river and 
nearly as high above the turnpike in its deep hollow. From the 
apex of the V the narrow continuation of the ridge toward the 
river falls about 50 feet within 100 yards. A pair of offsets now 
produces a less open V, its apex pointing toward that of the upper 
V. One arm of this lower V falls toward the turnpike, the other 
toward a very deep ravine which reaches from the river to the 
outer of the two ridges first mentioned. Except at the short con- 
necting ridge the lower V is separated from the upper by ravines. 

The crest of the southward arm of the lower V is a narrow, 
curving line which constitutes a natural rampart with a top not 
over two yards broad. The ground falls away sharply enough 
to afford good cover on either side. The other arm of the lower 
V is more crooked and is less of a natural earthwork than the first. 
The upper V is still less a breastwork, the ground falling away 
too gently to afford full cover. The lower V, presented a firing 
line of 500 yards, and on either flank is a deep ravine the ground 
beyond the southward gorge being lower and open. The upper V 
was the Confederate line, the right flank touching the inner ridge 
and commanding the loop in the turnpike, while the left flank was 
refused toward the point of intersection of the two ridges. These 
ridges are of limestone formation and in the rear of the upper V 
is a small sinkhole. Then as now the higher ground was mainly 
open, the deep hollows being filled with trees and brushwood. 

Milroy's own brigade was 3,500 strong. At ten o'clock in the 
morning he was joined by General Schenck, who in 23 hours had 
marched from Franklin, a distance of 32 miles. Leaving his bag- 
gage under guard at Forks of Waters, he reached McDowell with 
1,600 men. As senior officer he took command, but did not inter- 
fere with Milroy's arrangements to fight. 

The assaulting column consisted of the 3d West Virginia and 
the 25th, 32d, and 75th Ohio of Milroy's brigade, the muster roll 
for that morning showing an aggregate of 1,768 men. To these 
were added the 82d Ohio from Schenck's brigade. A few of the 
2d West Virginia were deployed as skirmishers. Two twelve- 
pounders were planted on the plateau in the rear of the Presby- 

History of Highland County 127 

terian church, so as to cover the bridge. With much trouble a six- 
pounder was dragged through a ford and up a hollow to the top 
of a knob called Hull's hill. Here it could partially enfilade the 
Confederate line, and was the only piece of ordnance used on 
cither side. Thus the Federals taking an actual part in the 
battle numbered about 2,400. 

In Johnson's brigade were at this time about 2,800 men. The 
52d Virginia arriving first was deployed as skirmishers on the 
left wing of the upper V. The 12th Georgia was stationed around 
the apex of the same V. The 44th Virginia was on the right, on 
the side of the deep ravine leading to the turnpike. The 58th 
Virginia was moved to the support of the 52d. 

The attack began about half past four. The 25th and 75th 
Ohio turned to the right from the bridge and climbed the steep 
ridge directly toward the lower V. The advancing blue line could 
be seen from the rear of the town. The 32d and 82d Ohio moved 
along the slope to the left, the West Virginia regiment keeping 
the turnpike. 

Before long the heights were wrapped in powder smoke. The 
Confederate skirmishers were driven back from the lower V, 
which now became the Federal right. There was no attempt to 
carry the strong position of the upper V, nor did the regiments 
holding the latter charge downward from their higher ground. 
The pressure of three regiments against the Confederate right was 
such that the 25th and 31th Virginia were sent to its aid. The 31st 
had been posted on the upper section of the loop behind Sitling- 
ton's hill. Its place was taken by the 21st Virginia with orders to 
hold the pike at all hazards. On this part of the field, the 31st was 
opposed to the West Virginia regiment at a distance of a hundred 
yards. Company C of the former was composed of men from 
Harrison County as was also a part of the 3d West Virginia. 
Former companions recognized one another and hallooed across 
the lines. 

By this time, says Jackson, "the fire was rapid and well sus- 
tained on both sides, and the conflict was fierce and sanguinary." 
His Third Brigade coming up, the 10th Virginia was ordered to 
the support of the 52d, and the 23d and 37th to the support of the 

128 History of Highland County 

center. Where the two V's approached one another, the firing 
lines were near together and the engagement was especially severe. 
The Georgians on their open hilltop exposed themselves with more 
valor than prudence. They were heedless of the orders to keep 
within the shelter of the skyline, and in consequence their ranks 
were steadily thinned by the Federals lying behind the breastwork 
which nature had thrown up in their favor. On Jackson's right 
the Federal advance was checked. 

The battle raged until half past eight, the flashes of the musket- 
ry being seen after twilight from the valley below. The Federals 
had not carried the Confederate position, but they had held their 
own. Jackson's whole army was now up, and a vigorous counter- 
attack might have destroyed the Federal column. But night had 
fallen, the ground was very rough, and the Confederate line was 
confused. Cavalry could not act to advantage in the narrow de- 
files, and in the moonlight the bridge could not have been taken 
without great loss. The Federals having used up nearly all their 
ammunition fell back in good order and without being molested. 
They took with them nearly all their dead and wounded. B\ 
midnight the disabled Confederates had been cared for, and not 
until then did Jackson seek rest in a farmhouse. 

The moon looked down through the cold night air on 498 Con- 
federates and 256 Federals lying dead or wounded. The greater 
loss of the former was due to their more elevated position and the 
consequent tendency to shoot too high. The Federals were pro- 
tected by the nature of the ground in a higher degree than were 
their opponents. None of their officers were killed, although 11 
were wounded. But on the Confederate side, 16 officers were 
killed and 38 were wounded. Among the former were Colonel 
Gibbons of the 10th, striken by a nearly spent ball which flew over 
Sitlington's hill. Four captains in the Georgia regiment were also 
killed. Johnson himself was wounded in the leg near the sinkhole 
and had to turn over the command to Talia£erro. 

Other wounded officers were Colonel {Harman of the 52d, 
Colonel Smith and Major Higgenbofii^m of the 25th, Major 
Campbell of the 48th, and Captain Matheny of the 31st. 

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History of Highland County 129 

of Johnson's and Taliaferro's brigades, numbering about 4,000 
men had taken part. The Second Brigade was very slightly en- 
gaged, and the Stonewall Brigade not at all, although it arrived 
by twilight. The regimental losses were as follows : Army of 
the Northwest: 12th Georgia, 175; 25th Virginia, 72; 31st Vir- 
ginia, 19; 44th Virginia, 19; 52d Virginia, 53; 58th Virginia, 50: 
total, 388. 

Third Brigade : 10th Virginia, 21 ; 23d Virginia, 41 ; 37th Vir- 
ginia, 39: total, 101. 

Second Brigade: 21st Virginia, 1 ; 42d Virginia, 3; 48th Vir- 
ginia, 4; 1st Virginia Battalion, 1 : total, 9. 

On the Federal side, the 23d, 25th, 75th, and 82d Ohio and 3d 
W. Va. lost respectively, 56, 58, 39, 57, and 46 men. 

On each side the proportion of soldiers killed was unusually 
small except in the case of the Georgia regiment. This was in 
part due to the engagement being almost wholly one of small 
arms. The gun on Hull's hill at length had to cease firing on ac- 
count of the liability to drop shells among its own men. Judging 
from the cartridge boxes of the Ohio men there were fired in the 
battle of McDowell, 300,000 bullets, one in 400 finding a living 
target. Between the apexes of the two V's the ground was plowed 
by the passing balls and the brushwood was cut almost completely 
away. Even small trees weakened and fell. 

No prisoners are specified in the regimental returns, although 
the Federals report taking 4, and the Confederates a few. These 
may have been wounded men. The Federals left the greater 
share of their dead in the Presbyterian church. Others were left 
in the present Bradshaw Hotel and still others in the house now 
occupied by C. S. Peterson. All were buried at the low bluff on 
the west side of the street and were afterward reinterred in a 
national cemetery. The 75 slain Confederates were buried in the 
woods to the east of where the pike begins its loop around Sit- 
lington Hill, but their remains were afterward taken to Staunton. 

Under cover of the darkness and fog Milroy and Schenck 
began their retreat to Franklin, removing everything for which 
they had transportation, this item being deficient. The commis- 
sary store at the west end of the town was burned. Some boxes of 

130 History of Highland County 

ammunition were dumped into Crab Run near the bridge, where 
years later a small lead mine was discovered. The retreating 
army halted next day from eight A. M. until two P. M. at Forks 
of Waters, where it established a temporary field hospital on the 
Vandevender farm and also stood ready to meet an attack which 
seemed to be threatened. 

Jackson had countermanded the orders for his turning move- 
ment. His military insight told him his enemy would fall back 
during the night, and make the attempted flanking a waste of 
effort. In the morning his troops came into McDowell, where 
they were halted to receive rations. Captain Sheets and his cav- 
alry led the pursuit, some other cavalry and the cadets being left 
in the town. In reporting the result, Jackson took only time to 
send the following brief message, which it is said was carried by 
Andrew W. Gillett of Highland : 

"God blessed our arms with victory at McDowell yesterday." 

In its immediate result the victory was rather barren. Milroy 
could not expect to carry a strong position held by an equal and 
finally by a larger number of men as good as his own. Yet in 
forcing battle upon his adversary, he frustrated a flank movement 
which might have resulted in disaster to himself. By keeping his 
enemy busy until night had come, he deprived him, although the 
whole Confederate force was now up, of the opportunity to de- 
liver a damaging counter-attack. He inflicted twice the loss he 
received and effected a safe retreat. 

But the ultimate result of this battle, so well fought on both 
sides, was to the great advantage of the Confederates. Not only 
did the Federals evacuate Highland, but by following up his suc- 
cess, Jackson compelled Fremont to abandon the South Branch 
Valley. Staunton was delivered from danger, Jackson's rear 
remained safe, and by the time Fremont reached the Shenandoah 
he was too late to intercept his active antagonist. 

On the now deserted scene of strife the battle lines could be 
followed in the pressed and trampled sod littered with torn pieces 
of blue cartridge paper. Around the apex of the upper V, where 
so much carnage had been wrought among the brave Georgians, 
the ground was suggestive of a shambles. 

History of Highland County 131 

During the 9th and 10th Jackson pressed after the Federal 
force, but in the narrow South Branch Valley was unable to flank 
it or to inflict material damage. There was constant skirmishing as 
far as McCoy's Mill. The firing of the woods by the Federals 
wrapped the valley in a fog of smoke, making the Confederate 
advance as embarrassing as though undertaken in the night. At 
Franklin, Milroy and Schenck met Fremont's advance and took a 
strong position on the Peninger Hill above the town. From this 
vantage ground they were dislodged and drawn far away by 
marching and not by a battle. Leaving some cavalry to keep up 
a noisy demonstration on the Federal front, Jackson began a 
return to the Valley on the 12th. He was averse to marching or 
fighting on Sunday, and as McDowell had been fought on that day 
of the week, he made the first half of the following Thursday a 
substitute therefor, and issued the following order: 

Soldiers of the Armies of the Valley and the Northwest: I congratulate 
you on your recent victory at McDowell. I request you to unite with me 
this morning in thanksgiving to Almighty God for thus having crowned your 
arms with success, and in praying that He will continue to lead you from victory 
to victory until our independence shall be established and make us that people 
whose God is the Lord. The Chaplains will hold Divine Service at ten o'clock 
A. M., this day in their respective regiments. 

Mount Solon was reached the 18th, 200 miles having been 
covered in eighteen days. Banks had fallen back to Strasburg. 
Jackson led his "foot cavalry" down the Luray Valley, turned his 
enemy's flank and chased him in disorder to the bank of the Poto- 
mac. Fremont from the west and Shields from the east were 
expected to cut off his retreat. But the roads across Shenandoah 
Mountain, which Captain Hotchkiss had blockaded with fallen 
timber, had compelled Fremont to move down the South Branch 
to Moorefield before he could turn eastward. Jackson slipped 
between his pursuers, and the Massanutton Mountain keeping 
them apart, he at length worsted Fremont at Cross Keys and 
Shields at Port Republic. By his threat against the city of Wash- 
ington, he pushed four armies out of his path and kept them from 
reenforcing McClellan. He now marched where he was most 
needed — to join the army of Lee at Richmond. In these brilliant 

132 History of Highland County 

exploits the soldiers from Highland bore a due share, a consider- 
able number of them falling in battle, especially at Port Republic. 

The position at Camp Alleghany was not reoccupied, but 
although the Federals made several cavalry raids into Highland, 
the county was not permanently held by them. It was in a way left 
between the lines, yet by means of signal stations on the higher 
mountain ridges, it was possible to get prompt warning of a Fed- 
eral advance and to send a force to meet it. 

At the June session of the county court, the justices took the 
oath of allegiance to the Confederate States. They also appointed 
the following committees of safety in compliance with the Gover- 
nor's proclamation of the preceding April : 

Monterey; Benjamin B. Campbell, Samuel B. Campbell, A. Hanson 
Campbell, John Campbell, James Gay, John Gum of A., James Jones, John 
S. Pullin, John M. Rexrode, Stewart C. Slaven, William Swadley, James 

Back Creek; John C. Bird, William M. Campbell, Thomas Campbell, 
William Chestnut, Morgan Gum, David V. Ruckman. 

Jackson's River; David G. Cleek, John Hiner, David McNulty, Michael 
Wise, Elisha Wright. 

Doe Hill; John M. Armstrong, Abel H. Armstrong, Edward E. Curry, 
Joseph Hiner, Benjamin T. Hook, Andrew J. Jones, Decatur H. Jones, 
Henry McCoy, David Michael, Joseph Rexrode, Henry Ruleman, John 

Crabbottom; George Arbogast, George Beverage, Jonas W. Chew, 
William T. Kinkead, David Mauzy, John Mullinax, Benjamin Rexrode, 
James W. Siever, David Snyder, James L. Snyder, Solomon Wagoner, Henry 

Bullpasture; A. R. Ball, John Bradshaw, John T. Byrd, Jesse Chew, 
Lewis Davis, Peter Hupman, Joseph Layne, Samuel W. Marshall, James 
Moyers, Henry Pullin, Robert C. Pullin, George Revercomb, Asgal C. Steph- 
enson, Edward Steuart, William Vance, James Wright. 

At the same court W. W. Fleming was authorized to borrow 
from the Sheriff $3,000, and to purchase therewith 2,000 bushels 
of salt, any contract to be valid, which he might make. In July 
he produced a contract for 1,700 bushels of a commodity which in 
the course of the war became as scarce as it was necessary. 

At the same session county notes of one dollar and fractions 
thereof, and to the aggregate value of $5,000, were ordered to be 
issued. The poll tax for 926 tithables was placed at $3. 

In October of this year the smallpox broke out at Doe Hill 

History of Highland County 133 

and was the cause of more than twenty deaths. A hospital was 
ordered, and at the same time Joseph Layne was directed to 
purchase supplies for destitute families. The following winter 
Adam Stephenson was appointed to purchase cotton yarns and 
cloth to be delivered at cost. At this time the allowance of salt 
was fixed at two pounds per head of horses and cattle up to the 
amount of seventy-six pounds, and three pounds to each member 
of a household up to twenty-four pounds. 

In May the following agents were appointed to make personal 
examinations of the wants of soldiers' families, and to report as 
to the ability of such families to pay for provisions : Samuel C. 
Eagle, Jonathan Siron, Joseph Layne, Asgal C. Stephenson, 
Anson O. Wade, David Stephenson, John Trimble, Benjamin B. 
Campbell, William Hevener, William M. Summers. 

It is significant that the commissioner of the revenue reported 
336 deaths as against 151 births. 

August 18th, General Averill with his Federal cavalry entered 
Highland and moved up all three of its principal valleys. The 
next day he came to Monterey, where the court was in session, 
and arrested the leading officials. Some of the public records 
were destroyed by the soldiers. General Imboden had been there 
the day before to see General Jones about attacking Averill at 
Petersburg. On the tenth and eleventh of November one branch 
of Averill's army moved up Back Creek, and another up Jackson's 
River, the two wings meeting at Forks of Waters. In December 
he came again, going down Back Creek on the twelfth "in a severe 
and discouraging rainstorm," while Thoburn with 700 cavalry 
turned toward McDowell. 

The following January the sheriff was instructed to make 
full lists of all indigent soldiers who were or might be disabled, of 
the widows and minor children of deceased soldiers, and of the 
indigent families of those now in service. Layne was authorized 
to draw v$l,700 for the support of such indigents and to appoint a 
sub-agent in each magisterial district. That this sum could not 
go far will appear from the following maximum prices allowed by 
the court : wheat $10 per bushel, corn $8, rye $6, buckwheat $7, 
potatoes $3. If supplies could not be purchased at these figures, 

134 History of Highland County 

they were to be impressed, and when necessary the sheriff was to 
furnish a guard. 

In March a suspension of the fence laws was ordered with 
reference to inclosures of which the fences had been destroyed 
by either army. The soldiers' levy was fixed at $12 per tithable. 

In April of 1864 the court thus memorialized the Confederate 
war department : 

Whereas, all the men of said county between the ages of 18 and 45 years 
have been, since early in the first year of the war, in the military service of 
the Confederate States of America, and whereas, the number of slaves in said 
county, being very small at the commencement of the war, has been very 
much diminished by escaping and being enticed away by the common enemy, — 
there are not more than ten or fifteen able bodied males slaves in said county, — 
that labor has become extremely scarce, and whereas, the enemy by frequent 
raids into and through the county, and remaining for a time, by robbing, 
plundering, and wantonly destroying personal property, and carrying away 
negroes, horses, cattle, and sheep, and almost everything essential to human 
existence, and injuring human habitations, and laying waste the land and 
destroying fences and all other improvements, — and whereas, detachments of 
the Confederate cavalry are continually amongst the people without adequate 
means of transportation of supplies from a distance, under the plea of neces- 
sity impressing and taking not only what a citizen may have as a surplus, but 
the necessary support of families, — and whereas, the said county is not well 
adapted generally to grain raising on the account of cold climate and short 
summer seasons, but is peculiarly adapted to grazing and raising stock, which 
latter business has been almost entirely abandoned on account of the tem- 
porary presence and continued proximity of the enemy, together with the 
impossibility of procuring supplies beyond the limits of the county with the 
present depreciated currency of the country, has placed the said county in a 
condition almost upon a point of suffering, — and whereas, there is a large 
number of soldiers' families in said county, which families are without the 
means of support, because supplies are not in the county and cannot be pro- 
cured from abroad, — thus rendering the said families in a state of great des- 
titution, — and would tend to dissatisfy the soldiers in the army; — and whereas, 
the President has called into the military service all the men between the ages 
of 17 and 18, and 45 and 50 years, which call, if carried out and said men are 
taken from their present vocations and kept in service any length of time, a 
1 arge amount of suffering must ensue to the people and families aforesaid : 
therefore, in consideration of the foregoing statement of facts as to the scarcity 
of labor, the difficulty with the present labor in the county to produce a suffi- 
cient supply of sustenance for the people, and the suffering that must inevitably 
ensue if the men between the ages of 17 and 18, and 45 and 50 years, are put 
i nto the service, the draining and destruction of human subsistence by the 

History of Highland County 135 

ravages of the common enemy, and by the improper impressment by Southern 
soldiers, the impossibility of procuring supplies from abroad under the present 
circumstances, and an actual necessity for producing what is necessary to 
support the people of the county; it is resolved by the county court of High- 
land county, — First, that the county court aforesaid do earnestly and respect- 
fully solicit the Secretary of War to suspend the order for the enrollment and 
putting into active service the men aforesaid between the ages of 17 and 18, 
and 45 and 50, if it is at all consistent with the duties and powers of his office, 
and that if any persons included in said call should be enrolled and put into 
service, that they may be discharged. 

For its August session the court met at McDowell. It appro- 
priated the poll tax of $4,113,17 to the use of the overseer of the 
poor, $2,000 of this as a fund to hire hands on the county farm 
and provide provisions for the paupers for the coming year- 
Each head of a family was ordered to furnish the salt agent with 
two good short sacks, or one long one, to be marked and delivered' 
at specified points. The treasurer was ordered to take up within 
sixty days the county notes issued as currency. The court peti- 
tioned the governor to exempt, under plea of urgent necessity, 
the justices under the age of 45 years from military service. The 
plea cited the loss of slaves, the regular holding of courts, and the 
giving of a full quota of soldiers. The request was granted, ten 
of the fifteen justices being within military age. 

The next January the supply of grain was exhausted, and none 
could be had from without. Agent Seig was ordered to request 
the Quartermaster General to have the tithe in kind transferred 
to the county court with power to collect the same, and to distrib- 
ute it among the indigents. The Secretary of War was asked to 
release from military service Hamilton Wilson and James H. A. 
Pullin, tanners, and John Ralston, shoemaker, on the ground that 
they were of more service in their trades than in the army. 

In February only one-half pound of flour per day and one- 
half bushel of potatoes per month could be allowed the indigents, 
no member of a family above the age of twelve and able to sup- 
port himself being included. The county agent was authorized to 
pay $20 per bushel for wheat, $15 for other grain, and $10 for 

The last court under the Confederacy met March 23d. Seven- 
teen days later came the surrender at Appomattox, and the long, 

136 History of Highland County 

weary, and exhausting struggle was at an end. Presently the 
soldiers came back to their impoverished county to resume the 
work of tilling their fields and repairing their losses. 

During the forty-eight months between Fort Sumter and 
Appomattox, there were no more marriages than in the nine 
months between Appomattox and the close of 1865. The exact 
numbers recorded at the county seat are 71 and 72. 

As a further picture of the war period we append the following 
extracts from the diary of Sergeant Osborne Wilson : 


May 11. After early breakfast, get on mare, go to S. C. Slaven's, 
and wait for volunteers to come. They came bearing the Secession flag. We 
ride slowly to get to town at 10 A. M. Much log-rolling for officers. Mr. 
Myers makes a very appropriate speech after his election. W. Hull reads the 
paper on which are the names of the ladies who agree to make the uniforms. 
Cheers were given them. Dinner gratis to volunteers. 

May 17. Got to Monterey in the forenoon, ready to be mustered in. 
We left our fathers, mothers, sisters, brothers, sweethearts, and kind friends 
with sadness and grief we had never experienced before. Still we were young, 
strong, hopeful, and ready for the fray. We did not stop to count the cost 

May 18. March to the brick house for our uniforms, form in line and 
march westward. Cochran, Pullin, and Myers address the crowd. Im- 
mense cheering, waving of hats, and handkerchiefs. Halt on Alleghany at 
Wilfong's. Speeches by W. W. Fleming, Adam Stephenson, and James M. 
Seig, who then returned, but not till James Whitelaw brought word of an 
insurrection of negroes about Williamsville. 

May 19. The insurrection rumor caused by some runaway negroes. 

May 21. Got to Beverly about 1 P. M. Ladies at most of the resi- 
dences greet us with smiles and handkerchiefs. 

May 24. Reach Pruntytown. Dixie is sung at courthouse. Men com- 
plain very much of fatigue. 

May 27. Citizens of Grafton don't like our presence. 

May 28. Marching the railroad track to Webster. Train making much 
noise. Idea got out the cars loaded with enemies. Ordered to form in the 
timber and fire on them. The companies much excited. All a hoax. 

June 3. The retreat (from Philippi) tires the men very much. 

June 4. All our baggage in the hands of the enemy. 

July 6. Heavy firing about midnight in every direction, but mostly near 

July 14. Stop about 3 A. M., having marched all night and all day 
yesterday. Sleep a little and then march till sunup. Scarcely anything to 






















History of Highland County 137 

July 16. Arrive at Petersburg before noon. These marches are killing 
the men. 

July 17. Got to Upper Tract about 11 A. M. Plenty of provisions 
brought in by citizens. 

July 27. Our mess drew one tent. Have hardly anything to cook in, 
and what is more, nothing much to cook. 

July 29. Get furlough and take flour home to get baked. 


June 3. Sorry to leave the mountain country. 

June 9. Bread and raw ham for breakfast. 

June 12. At Chester Gap, ladies wave handkerchiefs, scatter bouquets 
on the road, and smile sweetly. 

June 23. At Sharpsburg and Keedysville (Md.) people look very sour 
at us. 

June 27. Pass through pleasant little town and country places. Many 
of the citizens copperheads and hope we'll be successful. 

July 15. Dinner with Union family for one dollar. 

July 20. Soap one dollar. 

August 3. Water very bad, scarce, and inconvenient. 

August 16. Go to church 11 A. M., at Mt. Pisgah, 3 miles from Rapidan 
Station, but the house is crowded and I have to stand by a window. Revival 
going on. Several come forward at close of sermon. Next day 9 persons 
baptized by immersion. 

August 27. The men are taking great pains to keep themselves clean. 

August 31. Hear that the enemy was bushwhacked in Highland. 

September 9. Review near Orange of Ewell's corps. The three divisions 
make three lines of battle, each more than a mile long. 

October 3. The idea prevails that we are to have peace soon. The 
Washington correspondent of the Chicago Tribune writes that the Army of the 
Potomac has fought its last battle and will fall back on the defenses of Wash- 

October 18. If I could only get letters more frequently, how much of 
anxiety they'd remove. What expressions of true sympathy they bear. 

October 24. Spent at a sutler's $8.50 for tobacco, soda cakes, and ground 


March 15. Flat bread, meat, molasses, and genuine coffee for breakfast. 

March 19. A man shot for desertion. 

May 27. (New book begun in convalescent ward, Chimborazo Hospital, 
Richmond.) Before this year is closed, or even this little book half- filled with 
what occurs daily in my observation, I hope and pray that this cruel war may 
be over. A battle is expected. There is confidence in Lee and Johnson falling 
back. Chicken soup, mutton soup, peas, beans, corn bread, and milk for dinner. 

138 History of Highland County 

June 3. Extracts from Northern newspapers represent the people of the 
North as growing despondent. Gold up to 184. Men in high position begin 
to acknowledge the magnitude of the task of subduing us. The slaughter on 
both sides during the last three days has been vast, but greater on the Federal 
side than on ours. 

June 5. Have as much as I can do dressing wounds. Mathias Bodkin 
and Hughart Pullin severely wounded May 30. 

May 8. Hear that Hall had raided Highland, capturing some citizens 
and doing other injury. The people destitute. 

June 11. Hopeful of Lee's ability to repel front attacks, but danger from 
raiding parties. 

June 19. A mug of genuine coffee. 

June 20. $2 for shaving me and cutting hair close to scalp. Report that 
negro troops kill Southern wounded. 

June 29. For dinner, soup, milk, onions, bacon, fresh meat, beets, col- 
lards, snaps, cucumbers, rice, arrowroot. 

July 1. Get very weary and long to be by some clear, shaded mountain 
spring. Have blackberry pie. 

July 21. "Examiner" down on Davis for removing Johnston. 

July 25. Peace will never come until we gain some decisive victories of 
large magnitude, and prove to the enemy that we are more powerful than they. 
Fearful mortality from sickness. 

August 17. $4 for peaches and melons. 

August 26. $32 for cider, peaches, and tobacco. The patients say there 
is not enough butter on our toast. 

August 30. Find no churches open. 

September 4. From Hood's defeat it is thought war will last 4 years. 

September 6. Two of us spend $11 for paper, envelopes, pens, and 

September 15. Even if McClellan is elected little hope of peace need be 
entertained. War will doubtless go on until we gain decisive victories over 
the Union armies. 

September 16. Beans and mutton for dinner; a very good meal for 
Rebel soldiers. 

October 19. $5 for two pounds of tobacco. 

October 22. $2.50 for copies of "Examiner" and "Whig." $8 fare, 
Richmond to Staunton. 

October 23. Harrisonburg full of wounded. Valley perfectly desolate. 

December 1. One dozen apples, $5. 

December 27. 100 Yankees in Highland recently. Wickham's cavalry 
there and doing worse than the Yankees ; so some of the company say. South- 
ern people very much discouraged over fall of Savannah. 

December 29. "Examiner" and "Inquirer" hint at abolishing slavery 

December 30. Sweet potatoes, $40 a bushel. 3 gallons peas and beans' 

History of Highland County 139 


January 25. Report of peace. 

January 31. $12.50 for ink, paper, envelopes, pipe. 

February 1. Sausage, buckwheat cakes, coffee, and butter for breakfast. 

February 10. Mass meeting in Richmond in favor of prosecuting the 
war to the bitter end. 

February 20. 11 of the — th desert last night. Only one man in one 
hundred is getting a furlough. 

March 3. News from South and West very discouraging. The enemy 
seem determined on driving us out of Va. 

March 8. Orders more strict and harder every day. 

March 10. Day of fasting, humiliation, and prayer appointed by the 
President. Go to church at 11. 

March 16. Our underground habitations are poorly ventilated. 

March 23. Election for House of Delegates. 

March 27. Yankees want to trade papers, but our regiment permits no 
trade in our front. 

March 28. Duty very heavy on the men. 

March 29. Wakened soon after retiring by the report of heavy artillery 
and small arms. The sight is terribly grand. A magnificient display of fire- 
works. Never saw anything to equal it. 

April 3. Our men burn stores in Petersburg and the bridge across the 
Appomattox. Enemy reported in our front. We are having a hard time and 
expect it to get harder. 

April 6. Trains move very slowly on account of poor animals. We 
march in line of battle and in column. Enemy presses in front, rear, and 
flank, and I with many others fall into their hands. 

April 10. Our boys trade all day with the enemy for rations. They say 
Gen. Lee has surrendered. 

April 1 1 . Start on our march to prison. 

April 12. A good many of the prisoners fall from exhaustion. 

April 14. Our vessel starts from City Point at dawn and gets to Point 
Lookout at 5 P. M. 

April 22. Have a pint of very poor pea soup for dinner and codfish soup 
for supper. There is plenty to eat in the prison if I only had money to buy it. 

May 5. Suffer with hunger, sore eyes, and want of tobacco, and from 
lice. Sometimes there is nothing for breakfast. 

May 17. No grapevine dispatches. 

May 26. Storm from northeast and very cold. Wonder if anybody 
pities us in this horrid place. 

May 27. Can find no place of comfort. Pea and bean soup- generally 
thin. Sometimes eat all the crackers or cornbread at one meal. Mackerel and 
pickled beef. 

June 8. It is the impression of most of the men that our Union friends 
will release us soon. 

140 History of Highland County 

June 9. Get crackers and cod. Bah! 

June 22. Mutton for breakfast. Take the oath of allegiance to the 
U. S. After long delays in the hot sun and spending 3 hours in the parole 
camp, are marched out, given hard tack and raw pork, then marched to the 
wharf and put on board the Lizzie Baker at 11 P. M., for Richmond. 

June 24. Get on the train at Richmond at 2 P. M., and arrive at Gordons- 
ville at 8. Country along the railroad enchanting. Never appreciated nature 
so much before. 

June 25. Buy paper of French coffee and some sugar, and get milk and 
boil crackers for our breakfast. Boys go to the fields for blackberries and 
huckleberries to eat with their crackers. Go at 1 o'clock to a citizen and get 
first rate dinner of vegetables, etc. 

June 27. Crops and gardens look flourishing. Everything looks de- 
lightful, especially to men out of prison. 

June 28. Ride on train from Staunton to Buffalo Gap. Reach the Cow- 
pasture by sunset and have supper of bread, milk, and butter. 

June 29. Things generally gone to ruin along the pike. 

June 30. The delightful scenery of my native land is more appreciated 
than ever since I came out of prison. 

July 1. Four years of war ought and does give one an appreciation of 
civil life. 

July 2. Get home at 1 P. M., and have corn bread, fried pork, currant 
pie, coffee, and milk for dinner. 

The first county court after the close of hostilities met Sept. 
21, 1865. Eighteen members were present. During a subsequent 
period, ending with the restoration of local state government 
in 1870, many citizens were ineligible to office, being unable to act 
because of the nature of their connection with the Confederate 
army or government. For this reason nominations were some- 
times rejected by the military commandant. Citizens on assuming 
office took the oath of allegiance to the Federal government. 

After a suspension of half a year the machinery of local gov- 
ernment was once again set in motion. W. W. Fleming, salt 
agent, was directed to give in an account at four cents a pound of 
the quantity yet unpaid for. These claims, amounting to $331,88, 
were put into the hands of the sheriff. Road overseers to the 
number of 47 were appointed during the September term. The 
county clerk was ordered to return the records to the courthouse, 
and to transcribe the records kept in manuscript after the removal 
of the old records to a place of greater safety. 

During the reconstruction era, taxes were high, especially the 
poll tax. The general loosening of restraint during the turmoil 
of war was now reflected in a greater number than usual of felon- 

History of Highland County 141 

ies, of selling liquor without license, and of illegitimate births. 
Yet a better degree of public order steadily returned, and during 
the forty years which have elapsed since the reconstruction era, 
the annals of Highland are quite uneventful. 

As early as 1872 there was a three-fifths vote in favor of a 
subscription of $50,000 to the "Washington, Cincinnati, and St. 
Louis Railroad," a wildcat line which was never built. Un- 
fortunately for itself, Highland is still paying interest on a part 
of these bonds. There is nothing to show for the fraudulent in- 
vestment but a few yards of useless embankment on Bullpasture 

Slave labor having been in vogue much less than free labor, 
there was no violent industrial shock in Highland, such as was 
experienced in the large slaveholding districts of the South. After 
the war, free labor had merely to become universal instead of gen- 
eral. The growth of the manufacturing and transportation sys- 
tems of the United States have led to a relative decline in general 
farming in Highland, but to a great expansion of its livestock 
interest. This has brought a large degree of prosperity to the 
county, as is evidenced in its better roads, dwellings, church and 
school houses, and in the high value of land, notwithstanding the 
distance to railroad outlets. 

Because of the loss of life during the war, and the inducement 
to emigration caused by its impoverished condition at the close, 
the county fell off in population during the decade 1860-70, so 
that at the end of this ten-year period there were no more people 
in Highland than when it was organized in 1848. During the next 
ten years there was a rebound, the number of people increasing 
one-fourth. The census returns of 1890 and 1900 showed a 
slower though steady advance to the highwater mark of 5,647 in 
the last named year. The shrinkage in the past decade has brought 
the number back to what it was twenty years ago. This, however, 
is not due to any lack of real prosperity. It is a result of the 
economic changes throughout the Union which became par- 
ticularly active about 1898. By greatly increasing the demand 
for well-paid labor in the industrial centers, this evolution has 
made the rural counties, to a degree greater than before, a nursery- 
ground for the cities and the industrial towns. 

142 History of Highland County 



Church Organizations Represented in Highland - Lutherans - Presbyterians - 
Other Churches - Ministers - Otho Wade - Fraternal Societies. 

THE history of church organizations in Highland is not com- 
plex, as is often the case in American communities. At 
the outset but two denominations were represented, the Pres- 
byterian by the Scotch-Irish, and the German Reformed by 
the German element. These are kindred churches, their differ- 
ences being national more than theological. 

Long years of hardship in Europe had inspired both the 
Scotch-Irish and the German immigrants with a devotion to 
their respective faiths. The later appearance in Highland of 
the Church of the Brethren and the United Brethren is due 
to its German element, both these denominations having an 
early German origin. The absence of the Episcopal Church 
is due to the very small Cavalier element in the immigration 
hither. The only nominal presence of the Catholic Church is 
due to the very meager immigration from Catholic communi- 
ties. The total absence of the Baptist and Disciples churches, 
both of which are strong in many states, is not so obvious. 

But Methodism, the most numerous wing of American 
Protestantism, is well represented. Originally, it was a society 
within the Church of England. As an independent church it 
is practically of American origin and is very unlike the com- 
munion from which it sprang. Until after the close of the 
Revolution its adherents were exceedingly few. But its sim- 
plicity, its itinerant system, and its consequent ease of adapt- 
ing itself to pioneer conditions, caused it to appeal strongly to 
the people of the frontier, and thus gave it an immense follow- 

In the upper Potomac basin the Reformed Church was 
early supplanted by the Lutheran. Within the Highland area 

History of Highland County 143 

they had but one organization, and this was in the Crab- 
bottom. Here on the site of Mount Zion, or Union Chapel, 
was already a church building in 1802. A later structure was 
built as a union church, as the name implies. Elsewhere in 
the north of Highland the German settlers attended the Lu- 
theran churches which still exist beyond the Pendleton line. 
Otterbein Chapel on Straight Creek is at present the only other 
church building used by the Lutherans. 

The first Presbyterian organization in Highland was the 
Blue Spring congregation in 1780. It had a church near J. H. 
Swope's, but a new one was built at Williamsville, the older 
lapsing into total disuse. The Stony Run congregation on 
Jackson's River dates from 1814, its present church edifice 
being erected in 1858. The McDowell church dates from 1822, 
and the Pisgah church near the head of Jackson's River dates 
from 1831. A church was built in the Crabbottom in 1837. 
The vacant building may be seen near M. M. Jack's, rather 
more than a mile west of New Hampden. The Beulah church 
on Back Creek dates from 1873, and the Monterey church from 
1878. In Bluegrass the Presbyterians now have in addition 
to Pisgah and Beulah, Baraca Chapel on Back Creek and a 
church at New Hampden which takes the place of the deserted 
one toward the foot of Lantz Mountain. In Monterey District 
is also Seig Chapel at Pinckney. On the Bullpasture are now 
two other churches, one at Clover Creek and one at McKen- 
dree, five miles above McDowell. In the Cowpasture Valley 
are two more ; one at Headwaters, and another — Southall 
Chapel — below the mouth of Shaw's Fork. The Presbyterian 
Church is strong in Highland, as, indeed, it always has been. 

Methodism appeared in Highland at least as early as 1797, 
and probably somewhat earlier. For half a century its church 
buildings were very few, private houses and school houses 
being used in their stead. The homes of zealous Methodists 
were homes also for their circuit riders as well as places of 
worship for the people of the neighborhood. Among these 
were the Davis and Curry houses on Bullpasture, the Wade 
house on Back Creek, and the Seybert house at Forks of Wa- 

144 History of Highland County 

ters, where services were held in a barn. The territory covered 
by Highland, Bath, Pocahontas, and Greenbrier formed one 
circuit, its two riders traveling from house to house and preach- 
ing every day but Saturday. Their Bible, hymn book, and 
Discipline were their inseparable companions. 

By 1832 the Methodists had a church building in Crab- 
bottom and another at the head of Straight Creek. Another 
early church was the one a little east of Doe Hill village, which 
was torn down in 1901. 

The disagreement between Northern and Southern Meth- 
odists over the slavery question, and the separation of the 
parent church into two wings has caused each to be repre- 
sented in Highland since 1866. In Bluegrass both divisions 
are perhaps evenly represented, while in Stonewall the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church South has the field to itself. The 
Methodist Episcopal organizations in Highland are Green Hill 
and Fairview in Back Creek, Brick Church and Union Chapel 
in Crabbottom, and Wesley Chapel near Pinckney. Those of 
the Church South are Rehoboth on Back Creek, Central and 
New churches in Crabbottom, Monterey, Trinity, Straight 
Creek, and Valley Bethel in Monterey District, and Doe Hill, 
McKendree, and McDowell on the Bullpasture. Thorny 
Bottom Church on Straight Creek is used jointly by the Meth- 
odist Episcopal and Church of the Brethren societies. 

The United Brethren, German in origin and Methodist in 
spirit, have at Crabbottom village a church of recent origin. 

The German Baptists, or Church of the Brethren, have a 
church in Big Valley, another three miles north of McDowell, 
and a third at Laurel Gap on the Cowpasture. Contrary to 
what we might expect, this denomination does not occur in 
Highland where the German element is most numerous. 

The Adventists have a church on Jackson's River and an- 
other in Big Valley, both of recent date. 

The liberality of a Mrs. Rynoff built a Roman Catholic 
chapel near Pinckney for the benefit of a few Irish families, 
but for three years no priest has conducted services there. 

The first Sunday School in Highland appeared at Doe Hill 

History of Highland County 145 

in 1826. Its constitution was written by Benjamin Hiner when 
a boy of sixteen. 

The campmeeting appeared among the Highland Meth- 
odists at an early day. There was a campground near E. A. 
Wade's on Back Creek before there was any church in that 
valley. Another campground lay a little north of Crabbottom 
village, and still another just east of Monterey. 

The earliest Methodist preacher in Highland of whom we 
have knowledge was the Rev. James Ward, mentioned in 1797 
and again in 1803. His namesakes are many. In 1810 the 
Methodist classes in Highland were those of Davis, Burner, 
Stephenson, Wilson, Matheny, Seybert, Wade, and Moore. 

The ministers whose authorizations appear on the county 
order book are the following and in the years specified : 

William Ervin - M. E. - 1848. 

John T. Tabler - Lutheran - 1848. 

Samuel Jones - M. E. - 1851. 

William Champion - M. E. - 1852. 

Solomon B. Dolly - M. E. - 1858. 

James L. Snyder - M. E. - 1860. 

William R. McNear - M. E. - 1865. 

E. W. Pierce - M. E. - 1867. 

J. S. Wickline - M. E. - 1868. 

Silas R. Snapp - M. E. C. S. - 1868. 

J. H. Winfree - Pres. - 1869. 

A. B. Blue - M. E. C. S. - 1879. 

S. K. Hine - U. B. - 1879. 

R. Smithson - M. E. C. S. - 1880. 

Luke R. Markwood - M. E. C. S. - 1880. 

D. L. Reed - M. E. C. S. - 1885. 

W. E. Hamilton - Pres. - 1890. 

J. Luther Kibler - Lutheran - 1890. 

J. E. Font - U. B. - 1890. 

A. R. Lambert - M. E. C. S. - 1893. 

Charles H. Dobbs - Pres. - 1893. 

R. H. Coleman - A. M. E. - 1895. 

Edmund Walton - Christian Workers - 1895. 

H. W. Linderwood - U. B. - 1895. 

The minister of greatest national reputation who ever 
served a Highland charge was William Taylor, afterward 

146 History of Highland County 

known as the "Missionary Bishop" of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. He was then little more than a youth and was on 
his first circuit, which was 75 miles long. Yet he was not far 
from home, his mother's people living in Bath. Thomas Jones, 
his host on the Cowpasture, found him too bashful and too 
slow of tongue to sustain a conversation. The young preacher 
thought he was being quizzed by what was really a well- 
intended use of miscellaneous topics. The next day was Sun- 
day and he thought his preaching so near a failure that he was 
tempted to go to parts unknown and into other work. At 
Crabbottom he was at first nonplussed by the eccentricity of 
George W. Amiss, a well-informed, fine-looking, attentive lis- 
tener, and good judge of sermonizing. On taking a place in 
the amen corner, this pillar of the church was wont to sit with 
his back to the preacher and his face on his hands. Not unless 
the discourse interested him would he turn about. But Taylor 
was not far along until Amiss took a seat in front of him, his 
countenance wearing a very appreciative look. This appears 
to have gone far toward removing the self-distrust of the 
young preacher. It is related that James McCourt, an Irish- 
man of ninety years, was converted under Taylor's preaching 
at Rehoboth. 

The Rev. Jared Morgan, another old-time preacher, has 
had namesakes almost without number, as a study of our gen- 
ealogic chapter will show. 

The Rev. Thomas Hildebrand, of Pennsylvania, joined the 
Baltimore Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 
1840. He came to Highland in 1872, and after serving the 
Crabbottom and Monterey charges, took a superannuate rela- 
tion and remained here. His son, Simpson V., is a preacher 
of the Church South. 

Highland has also furnished a number of preachers. The 
first in order of time appears to have been the Rev. Otho Wade, 
who, though not born in Highland, was reared here. He 
preached twenty-one years and united several hundred couples. 
His ordination reads as follows : 

Know all men by these presents that Francis Asbury, bishop of the 
Methodist Church in America, under the protection of ALMIGHTY GOD, 

History of Highland County 147 

and with a single eye to his glory, by the imposition of my hands and prayer, 
have this day set apart Otho Wade for the office of a Deacon in the said 
Methodist Episcopal Church, a man whom I judge to be well qualified for 
that work: and do hereby recommend him to all whom it may concern, as a 
proper person to administer the Ordinances of Baptism, Marriage, and the 
Burial of the Dead, in the absence of an Elder, and to feed the flock of Christ, 
so long as his Spirit and Practice are such as become the Gospel of Christ, and 
he continueth to hold fast the Form of sound Words, according to the es- 
tablished Doctrines of the Gospel. 

In TESTIMONY WHEREOF, I have herewith set my hand and seal, 
this 4th day of March in the Year of our Lord, One Thousand Eight Hundred 
and Nine. 

Done in Harrisonburg. 


rmong other native Methodist preachers, either traveling 
or local, have been William C. Holcomb, William J. Ryder, 
Thomas Edmond, John S. Pullin., Thomas E. Mortorj, and 
George W. Varner.- GZ+ffcdlO»J> 

Presbyterian preachers have been William and George M. 
Life and M. Ernest Hansel. Both the Lifes were graduates 
of Princeton University. The Rev. William Life was the 
founder of Rye Seminary at Rye, N. Y., and was. connected 
with it till his death. His brother preached in Iowa. 

Jerome Puffenberger is a minister of the United Brethren 
Church, and Josiah Beverage and Charles Gibbs of the Church 
of the Brethren. 

Three ladies of Highland — Misses Sarah Rexrode, Sarah 
Pullin, and Maude E. Simmons — are missionaries in Africa, 
as is also James M. Seig. 

Until a rather late day the burial ground in Highland fol- 
lowed the Scotch-Irish custom of being usually a spot on the 
family homestead. Few of the marked headstones are older 
than the War of 1861. 

The history of fraternities in Highland is not a very ex- 
tended chapter. There appears to have been no actual organ- 
ization in this line for somewhat more than a century after the 
beginning of settlement. Thomas Campbell, about the year 
1800, is the first member of the Masonic order of whom we 
have definite mention. Yet it was not until May 20th, 1860, 

148 History of Highland County 

that Highland Lodge, Number 110, of this fraternity, held its 
first meeting at Monterey. The members then present were 
James C. Newman, Austin W. Campbell, William M. Chew, 
George W. Fraley, John S. McNulty, William Kinkead, Peter 
Kinkead, Konrad Kramer, and Samuel A. Gilmor. The names 
of Thomas H. Slaven, Jesse M. Chitester, and Jesse A. Bus- 
sard were then presented, and these persons were soon after- 
ward initiated. 

Until 1881 the Lodge used the upper story of the court- 
house. In the previous year, John Trimble, a member, deeded 
to Adam F. Swadley, Joshua Lunsford, and Lucius H. Stephen- 
son, trustees for the Lodge, a lot in the northwest of the town 
for the purpose of a Masonic Temple. The cornerstone of 
this building was laid April 6th, 1881 with impressive cere- 
monies. In 1910 was begun a handsome new Temple, built of 
brick at a cost of $7,000. 

The following members have served as Masters of High- 
land Lodge : 

James C. Newman, 1869-72. 

Jacob C. Matheny, 1872-3, 1878-80, 1897-8, 1899-1900, 1905-6. 

Charles S. M. See, 1873-4. 

Jesse A. Bussard, 1874-6. 

Joshua Lunsford, 1876-8 and 1906-8. 

Henry M. Patterson, 1880-4. 

Samuel W. Sterrett, 1884-6. 

Isaac H. Trimble, 1886-8 and 1893-6. 

J. E. Williams, 1888-93. 

Sully B. Sieg, 1896-7. 

Charles S. McNulty, 1898-9. 

William W. Sampler, 1900-1. 

Walter P. Campbell, 1901-2. 

William Hevener, 1902-3. 

F. Glenn Mauzy, 1903-4. 

Harry F. Slaven, 1904-5 and 1908-9. 

J. Clifton Matheny, 1909—. 

In the decade of the SO's the Sons of Temperance, once a 
well-known order, had a division at Monterey, meeting in the 
courthouse. About 1884-8 the Good Templars had a flourish- 
ing Lodge at the county seat. 

History of Highland County 149 

At the present time the Odd Fellows have strong and pros- 
perous Lodges, both at Monterey and Crabbottom. 

There was formerly a Grange at Crabbottom, and during 
the palmy days of the Farmers' Alliance that organization was 
also represented in this county. 

The Highland Camp of Confederate Veterans has a large 
membership. Under its auspices, the anniversary of the battle 
of McDowell has several times been observed. 

150 History of Highland County 



Early Educational Conditions - School Districts of 1848 - Schools of the 
Period - Teachers - Academies - Higher Education - Attorneys - Physi 
cians - Authorship - Political Parties. 

AS to when and where the first schoolhouse in Highland was 
built we have no knowledge. Until within the recollec- 
tion of people still living our educational history is well-nigh 
a blank. However, it is safe to assume that it would be a 
meager chapter if known. 

The earliest teacher of whom we have knowledge was 
William Steuart, progenitor of the Steuart family. He taught 
quite regularly from the time of his arrival about 1755, and 
appears to have been well educated, especially in the mathe- 
matics. Another early pedagogue was John Sprowl of Ire- 
land, who was teaching at his home near the mouth of Dry- 
Branch about 1790. He was also a surveyor. It is related of 
Sprowl that he had wedded in Ireland a feeble-minded woman 
whom he thought it best to leave behind. Yet while at his 
vocation he was one day thunderstruck to see Bridget Sprowl 
step into his schoolroom. The teacher accepted the situation 
and thenceforward lived with her. But several of their off- 
spring were blighted with the inheritance of a weak mind. 

Until 1810 the state government of Virginia took no official 
notice of popular education. Everything was left to private 
effort, and except with those who were awake to the need of 
educational training, nothing was of course done. Thus John 
Beverage in 1830 wills that his boys, John and Andrew, be 
taught to read and write, and to cipher as far as interest, in- 
cluding the same ; and that his daughter Margaret be taught 
to read and spell well. In fact, there was little to read. Books 
were scarce and mostly of a religious nature. Few newspapers 
came into these valleys, and the almost prohibitive rate of 
postage was not favorable to the writing of many letters. 

History of Highland County 151 

In giving the following specimen of pioneer composition, 
dated 1797, let it be borne in mind that in our own day of 
assumed enlightenment there are persons who can do no 

Sir this is to let you Know that I am satisfied that My Daughter 
isble and James Boggs be liesoned acording to law. 

Alex Waddle 

I am satisfyed to be Joined in MatroMoney. 

isBel Waddle 

Here and there was a bookishly inclined person in spite of all 
these disadvantages. In the case of Taylor against Langdale, 
1792, the sheriff discovered the following as the property of 
the defendant: Whole Art of Navigation; Mariner's Compass; 
Life and Travels of John Portugal ; London Jests ; Voyages 
and Travels ; Schoolmaster's Assistant ; Montgomery's Poems ; 
three old shirts ; one pair of stockings. 

A law of 1820 initiated a very rudimentary school system. 
A "Literary Fund" was provided for out of certain fines and 
penalties, and other odds and ends of public moneys. Each 
county was to have an unsalaried collection agent, and it was 
entitled to a board of commissioners, one of these being a 
bonded treasurer. This board was to determine how many 
indigent children it would educate and what it would pay for 
this purpose. The board could select their indigents, but had 
to gain the consent of parent or guardian. Books and other 
necessaries were furnished, but only the three R's were taught. 
Under this law Thomas Jones was director of the Literary 
Fund for Pendleton and treasurer of the school committee. 

A law of 1845 went much further. It empowered the 
county courts, on a petition of a third of the voters, to submit 
to the people the question whether they would have public 
schools or not. A two-thirds vote was necessary to establish 
them. Such schools were to be maintained by a special tax. 
Of the three trustees in each district, two were elected by the 
people and one by the school board. The trustees were to 
build the schoolhouse and employ or discharge the teacher. 

152 History of Highland County 

Several counties, especially beyond the Alleghanies, availed 
themselves of this law, but no thoroughgoing system of public 
instruction was set on foot until after the War of 1861. 

The Highland court of October, 1850, divided the county 
into twelve school districts, with boundaries as follows : 

1. North of the turnpike and east of the top of Bullpasture Mountain. 

2. South of turnpike and east of top of Bullpasture Mountain. 

3. Bath line to Clover Creek Mill and between Jack and Bullpasture 

4. Bullpasture Valley from Clover Creek Mill to Blue Hole on Crab 
Run and Mrs. Malcomb's on Bullpasture River. 

5. Bullpasture Valley above Blue Hole and Mrs. Malcomb's. 

6. Straight Creek Valley to Forks of Waters, including Crab Run 
Valley above Blue Hole. 

7. All the northwest of county as far south as the new church in Crab- 
bottom and the lane from said church to the South Branch road. 

8. All south of District 7, as far as the turnpike and west of Monterey 

9. All south of turnpike to Abraham Gum's and west of Back Creek 
and Monterey Mountains. 

10. All south of District 9 and west of Back Creek Mountain. 

11. From turnpike to mouth of Dry Branch, including valley of said 
stream, and between Jack and Straight Creek Mountains. 

12. All the middle of county south of District 11. 

These twelve districts were the only ones till after the war. 
The commissioners, respectively, for these districts were An- 
drew J. Jones, Andrew H. Byrd, John Graham, Charles Steu- 
art, Jared Armstrong of W., Henry Seybert, Emmanuel Arbo- 
gast, John Bird, Benjamin B. Campbell, David EL B-ird, Will- 
iam W. Fleming, and David Stephenson. Each commissioner 
was bonded in the sum of $2,000. 

A schoolhouse of this date at Valley Center is described 
as a log-and-daub cabin fourteen by sixteen feet in size. The 
space left vacant by a log from the side-wall was covered with 
greased paper fastened to stays and occasionally repaired. No 
other light could enter the room except through the door. 
Heat was afforded by a fireplace and occasionally the flames 
would take hold of the jamb. The instruction was wholly in 
the three R's and geography, and even with this limited range 
there was no uniformity in the books. Head tickets were given 

History of Highland County 153 

for proficiency in spelling. After Webster's blueback speller 
and reader was outgrown, anything else was used as a reader, 
one boy bringing a copy of Daniel Boone. Instruction was 
individual. Pike's Arithmetic, with its pounds, shillings, and 
pence, was the law and gospel in mathematics. 

A school near Doe Hill of somewhat earlier date is de- 
scribed by the late James W. Blagg as having backless punch- 
eon seats. On each side of the room was a writing board sup- 
ported by pegs inserted in auger holes. The ink was of cop- 
peras and maple bark. There were some slates but no black- 
board. The books were Walker's Dictionary, Dilworth's 
Speller, the English Reader, and Pike's Arithmetic. About 
1840, geography was introduced and a few pupils studied 
grammar. The only recess was at noon. To some extent the 
studying was aloud. A large share of the teacher's time was 
spent in pounding in his instruction with the vigorous use of 
a hickory rod. Yet sundry notes would pass from one side of 
the room to the other. The tuition was one dollar a month to 
each pupil, and during his three months the teacher some- 
times "boarded around." At New Year's the pupils would 
come very early to take possession of the schoolroom, and 
unless he could dislodge the garrison the teacher was expected 
to stand treat. 

The qualifications of many of the teachers appear to have 
been better than the schoolhouses. Their severe discipline was 
upheld by the parents, yet the unsatisfactory instructor could 
be discharged. 

The ledger of John Bird shows that for a term beginning 
December 3d, 1855, and ending March 6th, 1856, his tuition 
fees amounted to $52.92, not all being paid until nearly three 
years later. One patron gave his bond for $4.28, while an- 
other paid with a half bushel of onions. In 1857, Margaret P. 
Jones received $15.65 as the tuition for her twelve indigent 
pupils, the rate per day for each being five cents. To get this 
source of income the teacher had to make oath before a justice, 
an order then being given on the superintendent of schools. 
The teacher's account specified the name of parent or guardian, 
the date of entrance, the branches studied, and the textbooks 

154 History of Highland County 

used. The mark (1) meant "attentive"; (2) meant "progress- 
ing well," and (3) meant "indicating superior genius." 

Among the "old field" schoolhouses were the Kincaid, five 
miles above Williamsville on the Cowpasture ; another south 
of Doe Hill near J. B. Wilson's; those on Back Creek at An- 
thony Wade's and J. O. Wade's; and another at Pisgah. 

Among the earlier teachers were James McNulty, William 
C. Holcomb, Jacob Bird, David H. Bird, James Slaven, William 
Lowery, Mitchell Meadows, William S. Thompson, John Brad- 
shaw, Patrick Maloy, Joel Hidy, John A. Hidy, William Life, 
James Ervine, George Dameron, and S. C. Lindsay. 

Some teaching was done by Presbyterian and Methodist 
ministers. Thus the Rev. Mr. Blaine, Presbyterian pastor at 
Williamsville, gave secondary instruction in that vicinity about 
1837. The Rev. W. T. Price also taught here. About 1852 the 
wife of the Rev. Henry Brown, a lady from Massachusetts, 
was teaching a select class of girls in the Crabbottom. 

Another effort in the direction of better schooling was the 
Highland Academy at Monterey, authorized in 1850, with a 
capital stock of not over $15,000. The trustees named in the 
Act of Assembly were W. W. Fleming, Adam Stephenson, Jr., 
Dr. G. N. Kinney, W. C. Jones, and Jacob Hiner. The Doe 
Hill Academy, established about 1872 by W. R. McNeer, com- 
prised a two-storied schoolroom and a boarding hall. Its doors 
were open a number of years and it educated many young 
people. Like the high school next to be named, its impress is 
yet in evidence in its own locality. Still another and much 
later effort was an academy under Presbyterian auspices near 
Hightown. After doing good work for several years, the build- 
ing was closed. At the present time the high schools of Mont- 
erey and Crabbottom afford broader local facilities than the 
youth of Highland have hitherto been afforded. 

Three of the veteran pedagogues of Highland have retired 
from service under the provisions of the law for pensioning 

Not a few of the young men and women of the county have 
gone without to secure a collegiate or academic training. 

History of Highland County 


Washington and Lee University, since 1796 the nearest colle- 
giate institution, has been much in favor. 

The following is believed to be nearly a full list of resi- 
dents or natives of Highland who have taken college or pro- 
fessional degrees. Where known the style of the degree is also 
given. Names with a star are not natives of Highland. 

H. H. Bi rdJLLB. 
A. M^BJrd^.D. 

Adam M. Byrd, M. D. 
H. Houston Byrd, LLB. 
Clifton E. Byrd, — . 
Miller V. Bishop, A. B. 
M. S. Campbell, M. D. 
John M. Colaw, A. M. 
Owen D. Colaw, B. S. 
John M. Cunningham*, M. D. 
J. Adam Fleisher, M. D. 
H— S. Fleisher, M. D. 
Robert H. Fleming, D. D. 
Charles B. Fox, M. D. 
M. Ernest Hansel, A. B. 
George F. Hull, M. I). 
T— R. Jones, A. M. 
Harrison H. Jones, M. D. 
E. J. Jones*, M. D. 
A— C. Jones, M. D. 
M— P. Jones, M. D. 
Thomas M. Jones, Ph. D. 
Harry C. Jones, B. S. 
Charles P. Jones, LLD. 
Edward B. Jones, A. B., LLB. 

Andrew L. Jones, A. B., LLB. 
Martha V. Jones, A. B. 
William Life, — . 
Henry Life, M. D. 
George M. Life, — . 
J. McGuinn*, M. D. 
C. S. McNulty, A. B., M. D. 
William McNulty, B. S. 
Jesse Maloy, M. D. 
H. M. Patterson*, M. D. 
J. R. S. Sterrett, Ph. D. 
Robert Sterrett, A. B. 
John W. Stephenson, LLB. 
Boyd Stephenson, LLB. 
James B. Stephenson, LLB. 
R. B. Stephenson, LLB. 
F— S. Suddarth, M. D. 
J. M. Seig, A. B. 
Joseph Snyder, B. L. 
William R. Siron, M. D. 
Charles L. Siron, A. B. 
Kenton H. Trimble, M. D. 
A. S. Vaiden*, M. D. 
I. Roy Wagoner, M. D. 

Toward the middle of the last century, the "literary" meet- 
ing in the schoolhouse during winter evenings, was a useful 
adjunct to the schoolroom in stimulating to further effort and 
especially in affording some practice in debate. A weekly jour- 
nal in manuscript was a frequent feature. One of these, of 
which copies are yet preserved, was the "Old Whig," which 
flourished about 1840 at the head of Jackson's River. 

In addition to the attorneys named in the list of graduates, 
Lucius H. Stephenson has practiced at the local bar. 

Among the attorneys from without who have practiced in 


History of Highland County 

Highland and in some cases resided here are these, given in 
the order of their mention in the county records : 

Sylvanus A. Byrd. 
William Frazier. 
Reuben D. Hill. 
Henry H. Masters. 
Jacob Shaver. 
William Skeen. 
William H. Terrill. 
John C. Woodson. 
Alexander S. Norment. 
David J. Woodfin. 
John B. Moomau. 
Thomas A. Bradford. 
Alexander H. H. Stuart. 


David Fultz. 
John B. Watts. 
Thomas J. Michie. 
John D. Imboden. 
Warwick Stewart. 
James Skinner. 
John D. Brooks. 
Adam C. Snyder. 
D. M. Auvil. 
David H. Lilly. 
George A. Blakemore. 
Charles E. Haas. 

For many years the physicians who practiced in the county 
were non-resident. The first to live here was Dr. Kenny, who 
married a Sitlington. Under him studied William C. Jones, 
who was at first a carpenter. Later physicians, given in about 
the order of their beginning to practice, are these : 

Henry M. Patterson. 

— Bird. 

Jeremiah S. Arbogast. 
Harrison H. Jones. 

— Mackey. 

— McKean. 
Leroy L. Quidore. 
J. R. Cook. 

William R. Syron. 
Isaac T. Trimble. 
Kenton H. Trimble. 
Morgan Campbell. 
E. J. Jones. 
Charles B. Fox. 
Charles P. Rexrode. 
A. S. Vaiden. 

In the field of authorship, John M. Colaw has been for eight 
years associate editor of the American Mathematical Monthly, 
and is a frequent contributor to other mathematical journals. 
He is the author of a series of mathematical textbooks well 
known throughout the South and largely used. The series 
includes arithmetics, algebras, geometry, and teachers' man- 
uals. Reuben A. S. Wade, now of California, has written one 
or two volumes of verse. 

Professor J. R. S. Sterrett has done very important work 
in the field of authorship. It includes several archaeologic 
monographs, editions of Homer's Iliad, the article on Myth- 
ology in Johnson's Cyclopedia, articles on Asia Minor in the 

History of Highland County 157 

Standard Bible Dictionary, and numerous contributions to 
Harper's Magazine, the Century, and other well-known peri- 

The "Highland Recorder," the only newspaper this county 
has ever possessed, was established at the county seat in 1877 
by Witz and Jordan. The firm came here from Franklin, West 
Virginia, with the presses and type of their defunct "Pendle- 
ton News." After passing through nine changes of ownership, 
it is now in the hands of H. B. Wood. The circulation is 1,200. 
The office is well equipped and has a power press. 

Until the rise of the Whig party in the 30's, Highland was 
Democratic. During the thirty years prior to the great war, 
the new party had a very strong following. The reconstruc- 
tion period had the effect of bringing the great mass of the 
Southern whites into the Democratic party. Accordingly there 
were few Republicans in Highland prior to the Readjuster 
movement of 1880. The subsidence of the Readjuster party as a 
distinct organization left a large share of its followers west of 
the Blue Ridge in the Republican ranks. Since then the two 
great political parties have been rather evenly represented in 
Highland, although in local elections Democratic candidates 
are more frequently chosen. 

158 History of Highland County 


McDowell - Monterey - Crabbottom - New Hampden - Doe Hill - Bolar 

WITH 4,000 people when Highland was organized in 1848, 
the only center which might be termed a village was the 
little place of McDowell; more properly a hamlet than a vil- 
lage. For that period this fact was nothing unusual. In our 
time a new county in the West, having the same population, 
is nearly sure to contain a town of at least a thousand people 
provided with electric lights and the other usual adjuncts of 
our modern civilization. Such is the difference between the 
America of to-day and the America of yesterday. 

Natural conditions foreshadowed the village which grew 
up on the Bullpasture. A gorge on the left bank of the river 
affords an easy ascent to the top of the Bullpasture plateau. 
Crab Run, meeting the river at right angles, provides a still 
more easy approach to the Straight Creek Valley. At the 
intersection of the two streams is a large area of bottom land 
and low table, wholly on the right side of the larger stream. 
In 1832, the place was known as Sugar Tree Grove. It then 
contained a Presbyterian church, a store, a schoolhouse, a saw- 
mill, a blacksmith shop, and a few dwellings. By 1860 it con- 
tained several more houses, especially the brick residences of 
Felix K. and George W. Hull. The schoolhouse was still a 
log building. The stage came every other day. The tavern 
had little custom, except from people passing through the 
county. Some years earlier it had received its present name in 
honor of one of the Virginian governors. 

The battle fought on the ridge above in 1862 gave it a 
name abroad but nothing more substantial. Yet while the 
census of 1910 registered a six per cent, decrease in the popula- 
tion of Highland, it showed a slight increase in that of Mc- 
Dowell. The place has now two churches, a schoolhouse of 

History of Highland County 159 

three rooms, three stores, a hotel, a blacksmith shop, two sad- 
dler shops, and twenty-six families. Two rising industries are 
the large, modern flouring mill at the iron bridge, and the tan- 
nery which is taking form just below. 

In the spring of 1848 the site of Monterey was an opening 
in the woods and laurel thickets on the saddle between the two 
Straight Creeks. Here was a solitary dwelling on the pike 
which followed the crown of the saddle. Yet so far back as 
1774, Samuel Black appears to have had a cabin in the near 
vicinity, and a portion of his patent is now included within the 
corporate boundary. The site of Black's cabin is unknown. 

The decision to put the county seat here was enough to in- 
sure the early appearance of a village. The log house owned 
by James Bell and occupied by John Cook became a temporary 
courthouse and also the first tavern. The turnpike, sixty feet 
broad and also quite straight, became High Street. The town 
site as laid off by Bell covered thirteen acres, including the 
public lot of three acres. The house lots were made 72 l / 2 by 
200 feet. 

Samuel Ruckman, one of the justices, proposed the name 
Highland, and it was at first adopted, yet almost at once gave 
place to that of the Mexican city where General Taylor had 
just won a victory. The meaning of the Spanish term Mont- 
erey is the same as that of the French term Montreal — Kingly, 
or Royal, Mountain. 

When the war came on, thirteen years later, Monterey was 
a village of about one dozen houses, mostly log. One of the 
very oldest of these, standing a little above the Bishop store, 
was recently torn down. The Methodists had built a little 
church on the lot occupied by their present building. On the 
rise of ground just east of the present cemetery stood the 
brick academy, afterward succeeded by an adobe structure just 
north of J. A. Whitelaw's. 

The half century since the outset of the war, but far more 
especially the last two decades have witnessed the clearing 
away of the woods in the hollow between the bordering moun- 
tains, and the steady evolution of the place itself into one of 
the handsomest small towns of the state. In descending - the 


160 History of Highland County 

slope of Jack Mountain one catches a glimpse of a seemingly 
compact village of red-roofed and white-walled houses of sub- 
stantial size embowered in rows of handsome shade trees. The 
original courthouse, now inclosed by an iron fence and flanked 
on one side by a new jail, is still in use and suffices ordinary 
needs. But the log houses of an earlier day have either been 
leveled, or their walls have been covered with weatherboard- 
ing. The town has a large proportion of very modern and 
handsome residences. 

The stores, shops, and offices of Monterey are in number 
and variety about what might be expected in a town of its 
size. The Methodist church was rebuilt about 1875 by the two 
wings of Episcopal Methodism. The Church South bought 
out the interest of the older body, and afterward built the pres- 
ent fine structure. The Presbyterians have, during the writing 
of this book, completed a new and handsome edifice of their 
own. The high school is a modern building provided with an 
auditorium. The Masonic Temple is an imposing brick struc- 
ture near the center of the town. Of the two hotels the Mont- 
erey House is a commodious three-storied building, its size 
being significant of the attractive summer climate. Consider- 
able local wealth is represented in Monterey, and the financial 
interests of the county and town are cared for by two banks. 

The situation of the county seat on a saddle extending a 
mile from one mountain ridge to another and parting the 
waters in opposite directions, is very sightly. Thus the town 
is at once on a hilltop and in a valley. In the north is a hand- 
some vista, embracing the valley of Straight Creek, but reach- 
ing well into Pendleton, and disclosing at the left the Devil's 
Backbone on the farther side of the Crabbottom Gap. In the 
south the view is dominated by Sounding Knob, rising 1,300 
feet above the town, which itself is 3,100 feet above sea level. 

It is interesting to reflect on the changes which would have 
resulted, had the turnpike followed the Campbell survey al- 
ready mentioned. Three mountain ridges would have been 
avoided, and to the greater ease of travel. Sugar Tree Bottom 
would have had to compete with a village at the mouth of 
Davis Run, and the county seat would have grown up at the 

o " 
5 .2 

£ 3 

History of Highland County 161- 

lower entrance of Vanderpool Gap. The situation on Jackson's 
River would have given the town more industrial advantage, 
though proving somewhat less sightly and picturesque. The 
steam flouring mill of Monterey would here be represented 
by a water mill. 

Ten miles nearly north of Monterey, and just above the 
upper entrance to the Crabbottom Gap is the village of Crab- 
bottom, called into being by the well-peopled and wealthy 
basin beyond and the tributary region below. Here are three 
general stores, a water mill, two churches, a high school, sev- 
eral shops, and about twenty families. Crabbottom was a long 
while known as Hull's Store, and was but a mere hamlet until 
after the war. 

A mile up the Crabbottom Valley we reach the somewhat 
newer village of New Hampden, a place half as large as the 
lower village, and also possessing a mill, a hotel, and a resi- 
dent physician, but with one church and one store. New 
Hampden was laid out about 1858 by Dr. Life and others and 
has a regular appearance, in contrast with the village which 
grows up by chance along a crooked road. 

Doe Hill, eight miles above McDowell, is at the confluence 
of the three brooks which form the Bullpasture River. It takes 
its name from the foothill ridge near by, on which many does 
could in former times often be seen. Oliver McCoy shot nine 
deer one morning before breakfast and within sight of his 
house. Doe Hill is an old place, having possessed a church and 
a store earlier than 1835. It once had a mill and a tannery. 
Its academy, which, unfortunately, had a rather short career, 
was on the border of the little village, a place with church 
and two-roomed school, two stores, hotel, and about a dozen 

Bolar lies in the narrow Bolar Gap, and is partly in Bath, 
the county line approximating the course of the highway run- 
ning through the gorge. The name comes from Colonel John 
Bollar of Bath, whose wife inherited the land from her father, 
William Wilson. The place is no more than a hamlet, there 
being only seven families, although two or three stores and 
several boarding houses are found here. The chief interest of 

162 History of Highland County 

the locality lies in its mineral springs, the largest and best 
known of which is at the county line on the land of Adam G. 
McGuffin. Here at the base of a steep hillside is a thermal 
spring with a temperature of 74 degrees and an outflow of 52 
barrels a minute. In the basin the waters have a greenish 
tinge and bubbles of gas are constantly rising. The discharge 
passes into a bath house and fills to a depth of four feet a tank 
24 by 42 feet in dimensions. 

This spring does not appear to have had a quantitative an- 
alysis. It appears to contain arsenic, iodine, chlorine, potas- 
sium, sodium, and carbonic acid gas, besides, possibly, a few 
other ingredients. In ailments of the skin and of the internal 
lining tissues the water has been found to have a very bene- 
ficial effect. Taken as a beverage it is diuretic and alterative 
and mildly aperient. At an early day it was found to be a 
speedy cure for itch and poison oak. Many people have de- 
rived great benefit in cases of eczema and other cutaneous 
affections, but in nasal catarrh its repute is even higher. 

A mile above another thermal spring was found in 1910 
on the land of J. Hamilton Burns. This spring is of less vol- 
ume, but has a temperature of 79 degrees and appears to be 
rather stronger in mineral properties than the other, in addi- 
tion to containing lithia in small amount. The curative effects 
of this spring appear to be identical with those of the lower. 

At the Eakle House is a mildly thermal soda spring, very 
wholesome as a beverage and beneficial to the digestive organs. 
Still lower down is a cold spring of sweet chalybeate water, 
and toward the mouth of Bolar Run are two sulphur springs. 

Bolar is frequented in some degree by summer guests, 
though not as much so as would be the case if it were still 
better known and more easy of access. The cool, shaded val- 
ley, swept by a downward draft of air through the gorge, is 
very comfortable during a heated term. 

History of Highland County 163 



Colonial Method of Parceling out Public Lands - The Order of Council - The 
Crown Patent - List of Early Surveys and Patents - Transfers under 
Augusta, Pendleton, and Bath. 

BY the letter of the law, the unoccupied lands of colonial 
Virginia belonged to the king, as a personification of the 
state. The public domain was parceled out to private indi- 
viduals in a way very much like the homestead law by which 
a great part of the West has been settled during the last half- 

The land-hunter had a tract set off by the county surveyor, 
this survey being the basis on which a patent was issued after 
a lapse of one, two, or perhaps more than a dozen years. The 
patent was signed by the royal governor as the king's proxy. 
The fees for the survey and patent were small. But the "head 
right," without which the land-seeker might not lawfully enter 
a selection, was dependent on his having paid his passage from 
Europe. The intent of this condition appears to have been the 
elimination of worthless persons, so that the land might be 
held by men who would make desirable citizens. Furthermore, 
the patent required that at least six per cent, of the entry be 
reduced to tillage within a specified time. The fulfillment of 
this condition was in favor of the genuine settler and against 
the land monopolist. 

The survey might be transferred, and it was often patented 
by another person. Oftentimes, the size of the entry seems 
very small, considering the unlimited appearance of the public 
domain. But in an age of hand labor, only a small tract could 
be made use of by a person controlling no labor but his own. 
The land grabber was in evidence then as now, but the times 
were less feverish than in the present ones of gilded oppor- 

164 History of Highland County 

It was then thought proper and expedient to grant a large 
body of land to an individual or a company, who in turn would 
put settlers upon it within a stated time. So the governor and 
his senate would issue an Order of Council in favor of one, but 
usually a number of persons, authorizing the grantee or gran- 
tees to select perhaps 30,000 acres from the public lands. This 
would not be taken in a single body but in choice tracts, the 
cull lands being left on the hands of the state. These choice 
selections were then sold to actual settlers at what might seem 
a nominal price, but which must have seemed none too light 
when money was not plenty and when a little would go a great 
way. But when, as in the case of the Bullpasture Valley, the 
surveyors found settlers already on the ground, their selections 
might at the pleasure of the grantee be confirmed to them 
without purchase. 

The homestead regulations of the colonial and early state 
governments were generally good. But the advantage of sur- 
veying a county by a regular system, such as was afterward 
used in the West, was not observed, and consequently the indi- 
vidual survey was likely to have some complex and perhaps 
absurd outlines. The lines run for different persons would 
often interfere with one another, and the patches of cull land 
would be left in shapes that would throw into the shade the 
figures on a crazy quilt. This utter lack of system was, there- 
fore, a fruitful source of confusion and lawsuits. 

At a later day the state was less careful of the rights of the 
actual settler, and huge areas would be conveyed to an indi- 
vidual or a company, the same being held indefinitely by ab- 
sentee owners to the disadvantage of the counties in which 
they lay. This indefensible monopoly appeared in Highland 
in the Hollingsworth survey on the west side of the county, 
and the Chambers survey on the east side. 

Before the crown government passed away in 1775, all the 
more desirable lands in Highland had passed into individual or 
corporate ownership. Thenceforward, the second-class and 
the cull lands were gradually absorbed, it being a long while 
before the entire area had come under private ownership. 

The crown patent, under which all lands were conveyed 

History of Highland County 165 

by the state prior to American independence, was a cobweb of 
finely-spun legal verbiage, as will appear from the specimen 
given below. In fact, it seems to have been the intent of the 
lawmakers of that age to throw a mystery into the processes 
of law, and to render them hard of comprehension to the un- 
informed. Under independence a much simpler method of 
wording deeds came into use. 

The crown grant given below was signed by Francis Fau- 
quier, and was issued on a survey lying on a "draft of New 
Found Land Creek" (Bullpasture River). Like all crown deeds 
of that day it is printed on parchment. The original is fol- 
lowed without change. Notice the lack of punctuation. 

GEORGE the Second by the Grace of God of Great Britain France and 
Ireland King Defender of the Faith &c. TO ALL TO WHOM these Presents 
shall come Greeting Know ye that for divers good Causes and Considerations 
but more especially for and in Consideration of the Sum of Ten Shillings 
($1.67) of good and Lawful Money for our Use paid to our Receiver General 
of our Provinces in this our colony and Dominion of Virginia WE HAVE 
Given Granted and Confirmed and by these Presents for us our Heirs and 
Successors Do Give Grant and Confirm unto Hugh Hicklin (here follows a 
description of the tract of land and its boundaries.) 

WITH ALL Woods Under Woods Swamps Marshes Cowgrounds Mead- 
ows Feedings and his due share of all Veins Mines and Quarries as well dis- 
covered as not discovered within the Bounds aforesaid and being Part of the 
said Quantity of one hundred Acres of land and the Rivers Waters and Water 
Courses therein contained together with the Privileges of Hunting Hawking 
Fishing Fowling and all other Profits Commodities and Hereditaments what- 
soever to the same or any Part thereof belonging or in any wise appertaining 
TO HAVE HOLD Possess and Enjoy the said Tract or Parcel of Land and all 
other the before granted Premises and every Part thereof with their and every 
of their appurtenances unto the said Hugh Hicklin Heirs and Assigns forever 
to the only Use and Behoof of him the said Hugh Hicklin Heirs and assigns 
forever TO BE HELD of us our Heirs and Successors as of our Manor of 
East Greenwich in the county of Kent in free and Common Soccage and not 
in Capite or by Knightly Service YIELDING AND PAYING unto us our 
Heirs and Successors for every fifty Acres of Land and so proportionably for a 
less or greater Quantity than fifty Acres the Fee Rent of one Shilling Yearly 
to be paid upon the Feast of Saint Michael the Archangel and also Cultivating 
and Improving three Acres part of every fifty of the Tract above mentioned 
within three Years after the Date of these Presents PROVIDED always that 
if three Years of the said Fee Rent shall at any time be in arrear and unpaid 
or if the said Hugh Hicklin Heirs or Assigns do not within the space of three 

166 History of Highland County 

Years next coming after the Date of these Presents Cultivate and Improve 
three Acres part of every fifty of the Tract above mentioned Then the Estate 
hereby Granted shall Cease and be Utterly Determined and thereafter it 
shall and may be Lawful to and for us our Heirs and Successors to grant the 
same Lands and Premises with the Appurtenances unto such other Person or 
Persons as We our Heirs and Successors shall think fit IN WITNESS whereof 
we have Caused these our Letters Patent to be made WITNESS our trusty 
and well beloved Fauquier our Lieutenant Governor and Commander in 
Chief of our said Colony and Dominion at Williamsburgh Under the Seal of 
our said Colony the Twelfth Day of December One thousand Seven hundred 
and fifty eight In the thirty second Year of our Reign 

Note: "Free and common soccage" was when land was held through 
certain and honorable service, as by fealty to the King and the payment of a 
nominal sum of money. The tenant "in capite" held his title immediately 
from the king, as in the case of nobles and knights. The feast of St. Michael 
is September 29, and in a liberal sense it refers to the fall of the year. 

The list of surveys and patents given below, and dating 
from before 1790, has been compiled from the records in the 
Surveyor's office of Augusta and in the Land Office of Vir- 
ginia. The name of the person for whom the tract was sur- 
veyed or patented is followed first by the number of acres, 
next by the year of the survey or grant, and then by a descrip- 
tion of its location. Unless this is followed by a capital P (for 
patent), the tract is a survey. Otherwise, it is a patent granted 
in the same year. 

The descriptions on record are often vague, and sometimes 
of little or no service at the present time. Owing to this cir- 
cumstance, doubtless a few of the tracts mentioned are really 
within the limits of Bath or Pendleton, while a few thought to 
belong to one or the other of those counties may belong really 
in Highland. 

The original descriptions have generally been followed. 
Sometimes it was evidently better to give a landmark of the 
present day. By following our plan some otherwise forgotten 
names of places and neighbors are brought to light. 

The date of patent is not in every case given. This is not 
always owing to a difficulty in identification. Sometimes the 
tract has been thrown into an inclusive survey of later date. 
Many of the surveys toward the end of the period were not 
patented till after 1790. 

History of Highland County 167 

Abbreviations: CP for Cowpasturc; BP for Bullpasture and BPMn for 
Bullpasture Mountain; JR for Jackson's River; CB for Crabbottom; BC 
for Back Creek; SC for Straight Creek; br for branch or draft; n for 
near; mo for mouth; NF for North Fork; SF for South Fork; SB for South 
Branch; h'd for head; adj for adjoining; cor for corner; NW. for northwest, 
etc., etc. "Adj. himself" refers to a tract surveyed or patented by the 
person at an earlier date. 

Arbogast, Michael: (1) 130 - 1766 - First right hand fork of Crabapple 
waters above a small survey by Cunningham - P. 1771. 

(2) 59 - 1768 - Sinkhole gully in CB. 

(3) 98 - 1772 - CB, adj. himself - P. 1773 by Bernard Lantz. 

(4) 315 - 1774 - CB, cor. to Naigley and Zickafoose. 

(5) 174- 1775- CB, adj. Cunningham. 

(6) 193 - 1785 - CB. 
Arbogast, John: 171 - 1785 - CB. 

Armstrong, Robert: 112 - 1746 - br. of BP - P. 1760 by William Wilson. 
Ashton, Wallace: 344 - 1746 - BP - P. 1750 - (L. M. McClung). 

Beathe, Joseph: (1) 127 - 1780 - Crab Run - P. 1789. 
(2) 80- 1789 -BP. 
Bell, David: (1) 152 - 1771 - SC - P. 

(2) 250 - 1771 - BP Mn between John Bodkin and Charles Hayes. 
Bell, Joseph: (1) 120 - 1787 - BPMn between John Chestnut and 
William Jordan - P. 

(2) 511 - 1786 - h'd of South SC - P. 1789 (Monterey town site). 

Benson, George: 263 - 1782 - mo. of Benson's Run - P. 1783. 

Benson, Irwin: 84 - 1789 - h'd of Dry Br. 

Benson, Mathias: (1) 115 - 1787 - Dry Br. 

(2) 95 - 1789 - h'd of Dry Br. 

Beverage, John: (1) 93 - 1780 - N. W. br. of BP. 

(2) 137 - 1782 - Carlile's Run. 

Black, Alexander: (1) 250 - 1746 - CP - P. 1750 - (J. H. Byrd's). 

(2) 34- 1782 -adj. above -P. 1784. 

Black, Samuel: (1) 167 - 1772 - SC. 

(2) 68 - 1772 - Carlile's Run. 

(3) 97- 1774 -h'd of SC. 

Blagg, William: (1) 81 - 1782 - n. Doe Hill. 

(2) 86 - 1786 - n. Doe Hill. 

Bodkin, Richard: 339 - 1746 - BP - P. 1750 - (S. M. Neil's.) 

Bodkin, Charles: 115 - 1754 - br. of BP - P. 1761 by William Johnson. 

Bodkin, John: 162 - 1782 - BP Mn - n. Doe Hill. 

Bowman, John: 63 - 1785 - NF adj. Lantz. 

Burner, Abraham: (1) 34 - 1782 - CB, adj. himself. 

(2) 180- 1786 -h'd JR. 

Burnside, James: 75 - 1767 - BP, adj. himself - (S. M. Neil's). 

168 History of Highland County 

Bush, Michael: 375 - 1766 - CB, below Hull's - P. 1768 by John Young. 

Carlile, John and Robert: (1) 304 - 1746 - BP, 1 m. S. of Clover Cr. - 
P. 1759. 

(2) 204 - 1746 - BP, below Doe Hill - P. 1760. 

(3) 224 - 1746 - BP, below Doe Hill - P. 1750 by John McCreary. 

(4) 300 - 1759 - E. side CP - P. 
Carlile, John: 50 - 1773 - BP - P. 1780. 

Carlile, James: (1) 220 - 1780 - adj. himself on N. br. of BP - P. 1784. 

(2) 44 - 1789 - BP, Jordan's Run. 

Carlile, Robert: 65 - 1773 - br. of BP, and adj. himself - P. 1780. 

Carroll, Peter, and Jacob Gaskins: 71 - 1781 - JR, n. Vanderpool - P. 

Cartwright, Jesse: 49 - 1786 - JR, above Vanderpool and adj. Roby, 
Burner, and Mullenax. 

Chestnut, William: (1) 197 - 1781 - BC. 

(2) 229 - 1784 - BC - P. 1789. 

Chestnut, John: 232 - 1782 - BP Mn, adj. himself. 

Crawford, William: 136 - 1789 - Dry Br. 

Cunningham, Agnes: 200 - 1761 - CB - P. 1765. 

Davis, John: 44 - 1781 - br. of BC, opposite Cunningham - P. 

Davitt, Tully: (1) 58 - 1773 - BP, n. Doe Hill. 

(2) 43 - 1780 - adj. himself - P. 

Delamontony, Samuel: 200 - 1746 - BP, below Doe Hill - P. by John 
McCreary, 1759. 

Denison, John: 400 - 1783 - BC, adj. Lewis - P. 

Devericks, Thomas: 34 - 1766 - Shaw's F'k, just below Headwaters. 

Dinwiddie, James: (1) 173 - 1781 - JR, n. Vanderpool and adj. himself . 

(2) 172 - 1782 - JR. 

Dinwiddie, John: (1) 115 - 1769 - above Vanderpool Gap - P. 1781 by 
Abraham Ingram. 

(2) 201 - 1780 - JR, cor. to Estill and below Vanderpool Gap - P. 1781. 

Dinwiddie, Robert: (1) 98 - 1769 - in Vanderpool Gap. 

(2) 210- 1772 -NF of JR. 

(3) 97 - 1781 - h'd of JR, adj. himself - P. 
Dinwiddie, William: 149 - 1773 - h'd of JR - P. 1781. 
Dixon, Thomas: 50 - 1788 - Dry Br. - JR. 

Douglas, Thomas: (1) 200 - 1781 - Crab Run - P. 1787 by Edward 

(2) 146 - 1782 - Brushy F'k. 

Duffield, Robert: (1) 49 - 1773 - n. Doe Hill. 

(2) 107 - 1780 - BP, n. Doe Hill - P. 1787. 

Elliott, Archibald: 364 - 1746 - source of Blackthorn - P. 1756 by James 

History of Highland County 169 

Ervine, Charles: 49 - 1781 - CP - P. 1783. 
Ervine, Henry: 99 - 1784 - BP, and adj. Knapp, n. Doe Hill. 
Ervine, James: 140 - 1782 - BP Mn, n. Clover Cr. Mill. 
Ervine, Jared: (1) 122 - 1782 - CP, adj. himself. 
(2) 100 - 1787 - h'd of CP, adj. himself - P. 
Ervine, John: 150 - 1788 - h'd of Clover Cr. Mill Run. 
Estill, Wallace: (1) 94 - 1761 - opposite Vanderpool Gap - P.? 1770 by 
William Preston. 

(2) 100 - 1786 - SC at a beaver dam. 

Estill, John: 150 - 1766 - br. of BP - P.? 1783 by Thomas Hicklin. 

Ferguson, Samuel: 125 - 1754 - BP, above McDowell - P. 1767. 
Fleisher, Henry: (1) 53 - 1788 - SC. 

(2) 60 - 1788 - SC n. Forks of Waters. 

(3) 82 - 1787 - SB and adj. himself - P. 
Fleisher, Palsor: 93 - 1784 - SB and adj. himself - P 
Frame, David: (1) 98 - 1767 - WF'k of JR. 

(2) 50 - 1770 - h'd of JR - P. 

(3) 286- 1771 -h'd of JR- P. 1773. 

(4) 76- 1775 -CP. 

(5) 194 - 1780 - JR. 

Gaines, John: 90 - 1782 - BP, W. of Doe Hill. 
Galford, Thomas: 288 - 1780 - n. Dinwiddie. 
Given, William: (1) 329 - 1771 - JR - P. 

(2) 83 - 1780 - h'd of JR, adj. himself - P. 1787. 

(3) 48 - 1780 - JR. 

Good, Conrad: 44 - 1766 - h'd of SF. 

Graham, Christopher: 127 - 1782 - BP - P. 1789. 

Graham, John: 44 - 1782 - BP, on Jordan's Run. 

Green, John: 66 - 1786 - h'd of BP. 

Gregory, Mary: 188 - 1780 - BC - P. 

Gregory, William: 104 - 1780 - BC - P. 

Griffen, Benoni: 288 - 1782 - Meadowdale - P. 

Gum, John: (1) 72 - 1766 - CB - Wimer Run - P. 1769. 

(2) 144 - 1769 - CB. 

(3) 41 - 1780 - CB, adj. Arbogast - P. 1784. 

(4) 19 - 1783 - CB. 

(5) 12 - 1784 - h'd of JR. 

(6) 220 - 1784 - BC, S. of Meadowdale - P. 1784. 
Gum, John, Jr.: 218 - 1780 - CB, adj. John Gum, Sr. 

Gum, Isaac: (1) 220 - 1774 - BC, S. of Meadowdale - P. 1784. 

(2) 200 - 1780 - adj. himself. 

(3) 193- 1787 -h'd of SB. -P. 

Gwin, David: (1) 48 - 1780 - JR - P. 1787. 
(2) 380 - 1780 - n. h'd of BC - P. 1786. 

170 History of Highland County 

(3) 56 - 1781 - BC, adj. Sam'l Gregory - P. 1787. 

(4) 100 - 1789 - JR. 

(5) 268 - 1789 - Dry Br. - P. 

Gwin, Joseph: (1) 100 - 1781 - CP - P. 1784. 
(2) 83 - 1783 - CP. 

Halterman, Charles: 200 - 1786 - SC. 

Harper, Matthew: 220 - 1746 - BP, 1 m. S. of McDowell - P. 1758. 

Hays, Charles: 114 - 1768 - BP Mn, n. Doe Hill - P. 1772 by Thomas 

Heath, William: 200 - 1780 - BP - P. 

Hempenstall, Abraham: 60 - 1773 - adj. himself at Doe Hill - P. 1784 by 
William Wilson. 

Hicklin, Thomas: (1) 68 - 1756 - BP, adj. Lewis - P. 

(2) 85 - 1773 - br. of BP, adj. Bradshaw. 

(3) 82 - 1782 - BP, adj. himself. 

(4) 150 - 1783 - BP, adj. himself. 

Hicklin, Hugh: (1) 100 - 1758 - br. of BP - P. 
(2) 130 - 1769 - CP - P. 

Hicklin, James: 100 - 1783 - adj. John Hicklin. 
Hines, Edward: (1) 50 - 1768 - BP - P. 1770. 
(2) 174 - 1780 - Crab Run, adj. his late father's place - P. 1784. 
Holman, William: 265 - 1746 - BP, adj. McCreary. 
Hughart, Thomas: (1) 200 - 1788 - Big Valley, h'd of Bolar Run - P. 

(2) 95- 1780 -Big Valley -P. 
.Hull, Peter: (1) 97 - 1772 - h'd of JR, at "Osten's Camp" - P. 1773. 

(2) 160- 1781 -CB, adj. himself -P. 

(3) 341 - 1782 - CB, adj. himself - P. 

(4) 198 - 1783 - CB. 

(5) 198 - 1783 - CB. 

(6) 157 - 1785 - Straight Fork? 

(7) 115- 1785 -CB. 

(8) 32 - 1787 - h'd of N,F. on an "old path". 

Hull, George: 270 - 1781 - adj. himself and Isaac Gum. 

Ingram, Abraham: (1) 176 - 1780- h'd of JR, adj. Lewis - P. 1781. 

(2) 115 - 1781 - above Vanderpool and Frame's - P. 

(3) 258 - 1782 - h'd of JR. 

(4) 139 - 1786 - CB. 

Janes, William: (1) 131 - 1781 - SC. 

(2) 192- 1783 -SC. 

(3) 190- 1788 -SC. 

(4) 190 - 1788 - SC, between himself and Evick. 
Johnson, William: 115 - 1761 - br. of BP. 

History of Highland County 171 

Johnston, Bartholemcw: 93 - 1783 - h'd of JR, adj. Ingram. 
Jones, Henry: 131 - 1789 - br. of CP. 
Jordan, Andrew: 188 - 1786 - SF, adj. himself. 

Killingsworth, Richard: 93 - 1782 - BP Mn, adj. John Graham - P. 1784. 

Kilpatrick, William: 121 - 1782 - Harper's Run, E. side BP. 

Kilpatrick, Andrew: (1) 36 - 1782 - JR, at King's bottom - P. 

(2) 69 - 1783 - JR, adj. Wiley. 

Kilpatrick, James: 111 - 1783 - JR, adj. Wiley. 

Knapp, Moses: 155 - 1781 - BP, W. of Doe Hill. 

Knox, Robert: 88 - 1775 - BP, adj. first Bodkin place. 

Lantz, Bernard: (1) 98 - 1766 - SB, above homestead - P. 1773. 

(2) 56- 1769- CB- P. 1771. 

(3) 84 - 1769 - CB, between himself and Gum - P. 

(4) 50 - 1772 - CB, adj. himself. 

(5) 395 - 1774 - CB, adj. William Cunningham and Jacob Tress - P. 

(6) 98- 1774- CB- P. 1781. 

(7) 54 - 1785 - CB, at "Fallen Timbers." 

Lantz, Conrad: 56 - 1785 - CB, adj. Bernard Lantz and Bowman. 

Largent, James: 212 - 1746 - BP. 

Lewis, Andrew: (1) 348 - 1746 - BP (W. P. B. Lockridge's) - P. 1750. 

Lewis, Thomas: 1300 - 1763 - the "Valley" of BC, opposite John Miller - 

Lewis, William: (1) 110 - 1763 - BC, opposite Stephen Wilson's and on 
an "old road that leadeth to Greenbrier" - P. 

(2) 270 - 1763 - Vanderpool - P. 

Lockridge, Andrew: 32 - 1784 - BP. 

Lowe, Christopher: 98 - 1766 - h'd of CP - P. 1769 by James Young. 

Malcomb, Joseph: (1) 161 - 1780 - BP, adj. Robert Carlile. 

(2) 24 - 1782 - BP, adj. himself. 

(3) 130 - 1784 - BP, h'd Carlile Run - P. 1787. 

Martin, Lewis: 131 - 1781 - CP, adj. himself - P. 1789 by Henry Jones. 
Martinearly, James: 70 - 1785 - BP, at Blue Spring. 
Matheny, Luke: 130 - 1789 - BC. 
Mathew, David: 184 - 1773 - BP - P. 

Mathews, Sampson and George: 232 - 1773 - BP, adj. Bodkin - P. 
McCamie, James: 161 - 1787 - N. W. br. BP - P. 
McCandless, Alexander: 144 - 1754 - br. of BP. 

McCandless, William: 73 - 1782 - BP, opposite John Bodkin - assigned 
(1) to John Painter, (2) to Tully Davitt in 1785. 

McClellan, William: 96 - 1768 - Cross Run at h'd of BP. 
McCoy, John: (1) 118 - 1782 - BP, adj. himself - P. 1784. 
McCoy, Oliver: 100 - 1789 - Crab Run. 
McCreary, John: (1) 280 - 1746 - BP, below Doe Hill - P. 1760. 

172 History of Highland County 

(2) 224- 1750 -BP - P 

(3) 200 - 1759 - BP - P. 

McCreary, Robert: 30 - 1783 - CP - P. 1784. 

McDougall, John: 66 - 1773 - Straight F'k of BP - P. 1773. 

McMullen, Robert: (1) 125 - 1773 - BP, adj. Duffield. 

(2) 150 - 1782 - BP, adj. Andrew Yeager. 

Miller, James: 250 - 1746 - BP, between Bodkin and Harper. 

Miller, William: 130 - 1754 - Crab Run - P. 1763 by William Preston. 

Miller, Hugh: (1) 220 - 1767 - br. of BP - P.? 1784 by James Carlile. 

(2) 75 - 1767 - Carlile Run. 

Miller, Patrick: (1) 45 - 1771 - CP, adj. himself - P. 1773. 

(2) 58 - 1783 - CP - P. 1787. 

Miller, John: (1) 96 - 1780 - Shaw's Fork. 

(2) 58 - 1780 - BP, adj. himself and Hines - P. 1784. 

(3) 232 - 1782 - BP, adj. himself - P. 1784. 

(4) 286- 1760- CP- P. 

Montgomery, John: 30 - 1765 - BP - P. 1769. 

Montgomery, James: 54 - 1757 - JR. 

Moore, David: 200 - 1759 - Bolar Run. 

Moore, Benjamin: 150 - 1789 - Crab Run. 

Morrow, James: 210 - 1769 - JR, above Vanderpool. 

Morton, Edward: 200 - 1787 - Crab Run, adj. Joseph Bates - P. 

Mullenax, John: (1) 110 - 1781 - CB, adj. Arbogast - P. 1784. 

(2) 196 - 1785 - JR, adj. Roby and Dinwiddie. 

Murce, Robert: 116 - 1782 - BP Mn, h'd of Burdie Run. 

Naigley, Palsor: 68 - 1768 - CB - P. 1773. 

Naigley, George: 142 - 1774 - CB. 

Newell, William: 32 - 1784 - BP, below John Davis - P. 

Nicholas, George: (1) 67 - 1770 - SB. 

(2) 123 - 1780 - SB, at Spruce Run - P. 1782. 

(3) 43 - 1784 - SC. - P. 1789. 

Oliver, John: 125 - 1782 - JR - P. 
O'Neil, Thomas: 80 - 1789 - Carlile's Run. 

Parsons, Thomas: 200 - 1757 - SB. (W. E. Fleisher's) - P. 
Patton, Matthew: (1) 17 - 1774 - JR, adj. himself - P. 1781. 
(2) 82 - 1773 - Mill Run of NF, opposite CB - P. 
Peebles, John: (1) 88 - 1780 - br. of CP - P. 1781. 

(2) 193 - 1782 - BP, at Clover Cr. - P. 1783. 

(3) 281 - 1782 - BP Mn, opposite George Benson - P. 1783. 
Pender, John: 73 - 1783 - n. Doe Hill and adj. Hiner. 
Penn, Matthew: 250 - 1782 - Shaw's F'k - P. 1784. 

Poage, John: 153 - 1780 - BC, adj. William Cunningham - P. 
Preston, William: 94 - 1770 - JR, at Stony Lick - P. 

History of Highland County 173 

Price, William: (1) 130 - 1754 - CP, at a big spring - P. 1769 by 
Hugh Hicklin. 

(2) 50 - 1754 - BP Mn - P.? 1780 by John Carlile. 

Pullin, Loftus: (1) 321 - 1746 - BP (Saunders place) - P. 1758. 

(2) 400 - 1782 - Crab Run, adj. himself - P. 1783. 

Redmond, Samuel: (1) 120 - 1781 - PB Mn between John Chestnut 
and William Jordan. 

(2) 92 - 1786 - CP, adj. Morton and Martin. 

Redmond, John: 8 - 1787 - CP. 

Reynolds, Job: 200 - 1775 - h'd of CP. 

Richardson, Robert: 55 - 1787 - CP. 

Rider, William: 176 - 1780 - BC - P. 1789. 

Robertson, Peter: (1) 95 - 1786 - JR. 

(2) 65 - 1789 - BC - P. 

Robinson, Henry. James Wood, Thomas and Andrew Lewis: (1) 175 - 
1746 - BP, above Harper - P. 1750 by John Brown. 

(2) 281 - 1746 - BP, 2 m. below Clover Cr. P. O. - P. 1750 by William 

(3) 286 - 1746 - CP - P. 1750 by Peter Wright. 
Roby, Patrick M.: 70 - 1789 - JR, above Vanderpool. 

Schoolcraft, John: 53 - 1766 - SC - P. 1771 by Bernard Lantz. 
Schoolcraft, Mathias: 130 - 1766 - SB, below CB - P. 1771 by Michael 

Seybert, Nicholas: (1) 233 - 1780 - SC, adj. himself. 

(2) 180 - 1780 - SC, adj. himself - P. 1781. 

(3) 294 - 1781 - SC. - n. Monterey - P. 1782. 

(4) 317 - 1781 - SC. - P. 1782 - sold to Geo. Evick. 

(5) 1420 - 1786 - at Hightown. 

(6) 110- 1788 -SC. 

(7) 530 - 1788 - CB. 

(8) 300 - 1788 - SC. - n. Evick. 

(9) 130 - 1789 - Crab Run. 

Skillern, George: 95 - 1768 - Bolar Run - P. 1780 by Thomas Hughart. 

Slaven, John: 191 - 1781 - Meadowdale. 

Smith, Abraham: (1) 82 - 1769 - h'd of CB - P. 1771. 

(2) 170- 1773 -CB- P. 1774. 

(3) 198- 1780- CB- P. 

Smith, Abraham and Joseph Skidmore: (1) 390 - 1775 - CB, adj. Hul 1 

(2) 193 - 1775 - CB, adj. Hull - P. 1787 by Isaac Gum. 

(3) 290 - 1775 CB - P. 1781 by John Skidmore. 

(4) 400 - 1775 - CB, above a cold spring - P. 1784 by Abraham 

(5) 39 - 1780 - CB - P. 

Snedicore, Christopher: 172 - 1784 - Carlile Run - P. 1788. 
Steuart, William: (1) 65 - 1769 - CP, 2 m. above Williamsville. 

174 History of Highland County 

(2) 122 - 1782 - BP Mn on road to John Hicklin - P. 1784. 

(3) 177 - 1786 - BP, at Ferguson's Run. 

(4) 115 - 1786 - BP, at Ferguson's Run. 

Summers, Paul: 50 - 1781 - BP, adj. Hughes - P. 1782. 

Sweet, Timothy: 32 - 1768 - SC, above Frame's cabin - P. 1784 by 
Abraham Hempenstall. 

Townsend, Ezekiel: 42 - 1780 - BC, and cor. to Ephraim Bates - P. 1789. 

Townsend, John: 6 - 1784 - BC, n. Alexander Hamilton and Roger 

Trimble, James: (1) 364 - 1756 - h'd of BP - P. 

(2) 300 - 1761 - CB - P. - sold to Peter Hull. 

(3) 330 - 1761 - CB - P. - sold to Peter Hull. 

(4) 85 - 1766 - CB - P. - sold to Peter Hull. 

Vandyne, Jacob: 90 - 1780 - BP, above Hempenstall - P. 1782 by John 

Wade, Dawson: (1) 24 - 1767 - BP, adj. himself. 
( (2) 125 - 1767 - br. of BP - P. 
V Wade, John: 136 - 1781 - BC - P. 1783. 
V Wagoner, Christian: 89 - 1780 - CB, Middle F'k. - P. 

Weron, Abijah: (1) 125 - 1783 - BC, adj. John Gum. 

(2) 116 - 1783 - JR, adj. Ingram. 

Wiley, Robert: (1) 78 - 1773 - Dry Br., and adj. himself. 

(2) 29 - 1780 - JR - P. 

Wiley, Alexander: (1) 200 - 1780 - Dry Br. - P. 1782. 

(2) 91 - 1782 - JR, above King's Bottom - P. 1782. 

Wilson, Hackland: 74 - 1754 - h'd of CP - P. 1765 by George Wilson. 

Wilson, William: (a) 281 - 1750 - BP - P. 

Wilson, William: (b) (1) 100 - 1754 - JR - P. 1765. 

(2) 304 - 1760 - JR - P. 

(3) 92 - 1773 - Bolar Run. 

(4) 149 - 1773 - JR, adj. himself. 

(5) 400 - 1781 - JR, adj. himself. 

Wilson, William: (c) (1) 112 - 1760 - n. Doe Hill - P. 

(2) 112- 1761- n. Doe Hill -P. 

(3) 112 - 1781 BP, at Carlile Run - P. 1782. 

(4) 44 - 1781 - BP, n. Doe Hill, adj. Elibab Wilson. 
Wilson, Samuel: (1) 167 - 1768 - SC n. Monterey. 

(2) 63- 1768 -Carlile Run. 

(3) 97 - 1768 - h'd of South SC - P. 1773 by Peter Hull. 

(4) 66 - 1768 - h'd of Crab Run - P. 1773 by John McDougall. 

(5) 62 - 1768 - h'd of SC and Crab Run - P. 1782 by Ralph Wilson. 

(6) 86 - 1773 - at Doe Hill and adj. himself - P. 
Wilson, Stephen: (1) 234 - 1760 - JR - P. 

(2) 350 -1770 -JR. 

History of Highland County 175 

(3) 102 -1780 -JR. 

Wilson, John: (1) 60 - 1773 - JR, adj. himself - P. 1780. 

(2) 380 - 1788 - h'd of Bolar Run - P. 1788. 

(3) 130- 1789 -Bolar Run -P. 

(4) 175- 1789 -Bolar Run -P. 
Wilson, George: (1) 316 - 1758 - CP - P. 
(2) 74- 1765 -h'd of CP- P. 

Woods, John: 82 - 1786 - BP Mn - (assignee of Robert McMullen). 
Wright, Thomas: 114 - 1772 - BP Mn E. of Doe Hill - P. 

Yeager, George: (1) 144 - 1782 - BP, at Burdie Run and cor. to Robert 
McMullen - entered by William Gwin, 1767. 
(2) 45 - 1787 - CB, cor. to Adam Harper. 
Young, John: 375 - 1768 - CB, below Hull - P. 
Young, James: 98 - 1769 - h'd of CB. 

Zickafoose, Peter: (1) 250 - 1772 - CB, cor. to Arbogast - P. 1789. 

(2) 218 - 1781 - BP, adj. Robert Carlile. 

(3) 106 - 1782 - BP, adj. himself. 

(4) 112- 1785 -CB- P. 1789. 

(5) 40- 1786 -adj. himself. 

(6) 78 - 1786 - n. Doe Hill. 

(7) 82 - 1786 - Crab Run, n. Beathe. 

(8) 250 - 1789 - CB - P. 


(The tract may often be identified in the list of surveys. Buyer, seller, 
acreage, price, locality, and date are given in consecutive order). 

Bell: David of George Wilson - 74 - $50 - CP - 1767. 

Bell: Joseph of Ralph Wilson - 62 - $66.67 - h'd of Crab Run - 1782. 

Benson: George of William Renick - 170 - $216.67 - CP - at mouth of 
Benson Run - 1776. 

Bodkin: John of John McCreary - 200 - $50 - BP - 1760. 

Bodkin: Richard of John McCreary - 280 - $135 - BP - 1763. 

Bodkin: James of Charles Gilham - 216 - $136.67 - CP - 1763. 

Bodkin: John of James Shaw - 100 - $86.67 - CP - 1766. 

Bodkin: John of Thomas Wright - 114 - $366.67 - PB Mn - 1781. 

Burnside: James of Samuel Given - 339 - $133.33 - BP (Bodkin Home- 
stead) - 1765. 

Burnside: James of Robert Scott - 224 - $140 - BP - 1768. 

Carlile: Robert of James Bodkin - 216 - $166.67 - CP - 1767. 

Carlile: John and Robert to John, Jr. - 300 - $233.33 - BP - 1773. 

Carlile: John and Robert to George - 204 - $566.67 - BP -1773. 

Carlile: John, Jr. to John - 152 - $666.67 - BP - 1773. 

176 History of Highland County 

Carlile : Robert to John - same tract as above for same price and in same 

demons: James of George Wilson - 100 - $17 - CP - 1762. 

Clemons: James of Samuel Black - 167 - $216.67 - close to Monterey - 

Cunningham: Robert of James Trimble - 300 - $74.17 - CB - 1761. 

Dinwiddie: Robertof David Frame - 50 - $16.67 - above V'pool Gap - 

Duffield: Robert of John Bodkin - 200 - $71.67 - n. Doe Hill - 1762. 

Erwin: Henry of John Bodkin - 100 - $200 - CP - 1772. 

Erwin: Jared of James Clemons - 100 - $666.67 - CP - 1779. 

Erwin: William of George Carlile - 204 - $33.33 - BP - 1786. 

Estill: Boude of Wallace - 133 - $133.33 - BP - 1761. 

Fleisher: Peter of Thomas Parsons - 200 - $166.67 - S. Br. - 1765. 

Fleisher: Conrad of Henry - 200 - $333.33 - CB - 1787. 

Frame: David of Benjamin Lewis - 215 - $500 - CP - 1772. 

Given: Samuel of Richard Bodkin - 339 - $526.67 - BP - 1762. 

Given: Samuel of Hugh Hicklin - 68 - $66.67 - BP - 1772. 

Harper: Hans of John Brown - 175 - $66.67 - BP - 1753. 

Harper: Michael of John Justice - 224 - $100 - BP - 1754. 

Hempenstall: Abraham of James Trimble - 140 - $35.83 - n. Doe 
Hill (Hiner Homestead) - 1766. 

Hempenstall: Abraham of William Wilson - 112 - $153.33 - Doe Hill - 

Hicklin: Thomas of John - 217 - $166.67 - BP - 1761. 

Hicklin: Thomas of Andrew Lewis - 348 - $200 - BP - 1766. 

Hicklin: John of Samuel Given - 239 - $500 - BP - 1768. 

Hicklin: Thomas of Thomas, Jr. - 131 - $333.33 - BP - 1770. 

Hiner: John of Tully Davitt - 140 - $366.67 - n. Doe Hill - 1775. 

Hull: Peter of James Trimble - 630 - $380 - CB - 1765. 

Hull: Peler of James Trimble - 85 - $50 - CB 1767. 

Ingraham: Abraham, Sr. of George Naigley - 68 - $200 - CB - 1787. 

Jackson: Francis of William - 170 - CP (Benson Run) - $300 - 1765. 

Jordan: William, Jr. of Anthony Johnson - 90 - $100 - h'd of CP - 1781. 

Knox: Robert of James - 100 - $66.67 - CP - 1765. 

Lantz: George of Joseph - 230 - $166.67 - CB - 1787. 

Lockridge: Andrew of Samuel Given - 679 - $900 - BP - 1774. 

Malcomb: Joseph of Richard Bodkin, Jr. - 280 (with mill) - $166.67 - 

Martin.- Hugh of Matthew Harper - 220 - $266.67 - BP - 1764. 

McCandless: William of James Burnside - 224 - $140 - BP - 1770. 

McCoy: John of Samuel Wilson - 146 - $500 - n. Doe Hill - 1773. 

McCreary: John, Jr. of John: 260 - $400 - CP - 1765. 

Miller: Patrick of James Knox - 160 - $233.33 - CP (Floyd Kincaid 
place) - 1769. 

Miller: John of William Martin - 220 - $400 - BP - 1778. 

History of Highland County 177 

Naiglcy: George of Michael Arbogast - 19 - $33.33 - CB - 1773. 

Parsons: James of James Trimble - 200 - $50 - SB (Fleisher place) - 

Patton: Matthew of David Frame - 286 - $433.33 - n. V'pool Gap - 1773. 

Patton: Matthew of Wallace Estill - same tract and price - 1774. 

Peebles: John of Wallace Estill - 211 - $666.67 - BP (McClung farm) - 

Redmond: John of David Bell - 74 - $333.33 - h'd of CP - 1779. 

Redmond: Samuel of Henry Erwin - 250 - $450 - CP - 1779. 

Redmond: Samuel of Charles Ashe - 125 - $233.33 - BP Mn - 1787. 

Renick: William of Francis Jackson - 170 - $140 - CP (mouth of Benson 
Run) - 1769. 

Robertson: Peter of Matthew Patton - 180 - $333.33 - V'pool Gap - 1782. 

Shannon: William of Michael Harper - 224 - $116.67 - BP - 1760. 

Shaw: James of George Wilson - 100 - $33.33 - Shaw's F'k. - 1759. 

Stephenson : James of Matthew Patton - 286 - $283.33 - n. V'pool Gap - 

Steuart: William of George Wilson - 105 - $66.67 - CP - 1759. 

Steuart: William of Dawson Wade - 125 - 83c - BP - 1773. 

Wilson: George of James Trimble - 364 - $183.33 - BP - 1757. 

Wilson: Samuel of George - 200 - $133.33 - Doe Hill - 1758. 

Zickafoose: Peter of Samuel Black - 175 - $3333.33 (depreciated money) - 
BP- 1779. 


Arbogast: John of Michael - 4 - $10 - CB - 1793. 

Arbogast: Michael of Abraham Ingraham - 68 - $200 - CB - ?. 

Armstrong : William of Robert Duffield - 200 - $ 1 000 - n. Doe Hill - 1 794. , 

Bell: Joseph of James Jones - 26 - $66.67 - SC - 1796. 

Benson: George of John Carlile - 216 - $333.33 - CP - 1783. 

Beverage: John of Joseph Moore - 75 - $426.67 - SC - 1793. 

Beverage: John of Nicholas Seybert - 75 - $56.67 - SC - 1793. 

Carlile: James of John Graham - 137 - $133.33 - BP - 1794. 

Davis: John of Edward Morton - 60 - $150 - h'd of CP - 1796. 

Evans: John of Peter Hull - 395 - $400 - CB - 1795. 

Fleisher: Henry of Pulsor - 61 - $333.33 - SB - 1796. 

Fleisher: Henry of George Nicholas - 178 - $1,333.33 - (Vandeventer 
place) -SC- 1793. 

Fleisher: Conrad of Adam Wagoner - 54 -$200 - SB, at "the Fallen 
Timber"- 1793. 

Fox: Michael of Nicholas Seybert - 193 - $290 - CB - 1794. 

Hevener: Jacob of Nicholas Seybert - 180 - $200 - CB - 1794. 

Hevener: Jacob, Jr. of Nicholas Seybert - 154 - $183.33 - CB - 1794. 

Huffman: Christian of John Mullenax - 52 - $116.67 - CB - 1796. 

Hull: Peter of Adam Arbogast - 157 - $500 - CB - 1796. 

178 History of Highland County 

Hull: Peter of John Gum - 390 - $200 - h'd of SB - 1795. 

Hull: Adam of Nicholas Seybert - 113 - $10 - CB - 1797. 

Hull: George of Nicholas Seybert - 55 - $6 - CB - 1797. 

Hull: Peter of Conrad Lantz - 115 - $266.67 - CB - 1788. 

Janes: William of Joseph Bell - 154 - $140 - SC - 1797. 

Janes: James of William - 131 - $100 - SC - 1791. 

Janes: William of Nicholas Seybert - 125 - $150 - SC - 1792. 

Jones: Henry of Edward Morton and James Woods, executors of Thomas 
Douglas - 80 - $133.33 - h'd of CP - 1795. 

Leach: John of Samuel Redmond and Edward Morton - 132 - $291.67 - 
BP Mn - 1796. 

Lightner: Peter of Pulsor Fleisher - 32 - $333.33 - 1796. 

Lightner: Peter of Peter Hull - 120 - $150 - 1794. 

Malcomb: Joseph of John Beverage - 137 - $183.33 - SC - 1794. 

Maurer: George of Robert Duffield - 200 - $1,000 - n. Doe Hill - 1794. 
. Mifford: John of Richard Thomas - 80 - $56.67 - SC - 1781. 

Morton: Edward of Anthony Johnson - 38 - $133.33 - h'd of CP - 1794. 

Moore: Benjamin of Nicholas Seybert - 130 - $150 - SC - 1792. 

Moore: Joseph of Nicholas Seybert - 75 - $58.33 - SC - 1790. 

Nicholas: George of Nicholas Seybert - 72 - $66.67 - SC - 1792. 

Peck: Jacob of Garrett - 106 - $333.33 - SC - 1796. 

Peck: John of Nicholas Seybert - 197 - $200 - CB - 1797. 

Seybert: Henry of Nicholas - 175 - $250 - SC - 1790. 

Siron: John of William Wilson - 112 - $133.33 - BP, Carlile Run - 1795. 

Smalley: Benjamin of Henry Fleisher, attorney for Benjamin Moore, 
N. J. - 130 -$133.17- 17— 

Swadley: Nicholas of Nicholas Seybert - 115 - $153.33 - CB - 1794. 

Thomas: John of Joseph Bell - 50 - $50 - SC - 1793 - consideration paid 
by Benjamin Moore. 

Whiteman: William of Joseph Bell - 67 - $66.67 - SC - 1793 - consider- 
ation paid by Benjamin Moore. 

Wimer: Philip of Michael Arbogast - 118 - $133.33 - CB - 1791. 

Wimer: George of George Nicholas - 130 - $266.67 - 1794. 

Wilson: William of Abraham Hempenstall - 112 - $133.33 - Doe Hill - 


Bird: Valentine of Thomas Denison - 205 - $166.67 - BC - 1799. 
Black: James of Reuben George - ? - ? - BP - 1794. 
Bradshaw: John of James - 100 - $1,333.33 - BP - 1790?. 
Burner: Abraham of James McCarty - 215 - $166.67 - G'brier River. 
Cunningham: James (of Hardy) of Matthew Patton - 360 - $1,000 - 
V'pool Gap - 1795. 

Davis: Paschal of George Benson - 48J< - $33.33 - CP - 1793. 

History of Highland County 179 

Gall: George of Peter Robertson - 174 - $333.33 - V'pool Gap - 1796. 
Gwin: David of Stephen Wilson - 234 - $5,333.33 - JR - 1797. 
Hicklin: James of John - 281 - $211.67 - BP - 1794. 
Hinkle: Isaac Hinkle of Edward Morton - 200 - $200 - Crab Run - 1793. 
Ruckman: Thomas of Edward Morton - 80 - $100 - n. mouth of Crab 
Run - ?. 

Seybert: Nicholas of Abraham Burner - 212 - $33.33 - h'd of JR - 1793. 

180 History of Highland County 


Highland Legislators - Justices - Other County Officials. 

OWING in part to the newness of Highland as a separate 
county, the roll of legislators from its territory is a short 
one. It is rendered all the shorter from the circumstance that 
the Senate and House rolls preserved in the state capitol are 
defective, even in recent years. 

From the portion formerly in Pendleton the following 
names appear: 

Sessions of 1789-91 and 1793-1805 Col. Peter Hull 

Session of 1794 Oliver McCoy 

Sessions of 1805-6 and 1813-5 Nathaniel Pendleton 

Sessions of 1807-16 Maj. Peter Hull 

Sessions of 1816-7 Harmon V. Given 

Sessions of 1819-24, 1827-9, and 1833-5 Thomas Jones 

Sessions of 1825-6, 1829-33, and 1839-42 Harmon Hiner 

Sessions of 1842-4 J ohn Bird. 

Sessions of 1844-6 and 1848-50 Benjamin Hiner 

From the section formerly in Bath, no names appear to 
occur until Andrew H. Byrd became a Delegate in the ses- 
sions of 1836-8, 1841, 1843, 1846, and 1848. Thus when the 
new county was formed, he was the Delegate from Bath. 

Bath and Highland were now in one legislative district 
until 1853, William Hevener being Delegate in 1852. From 
1853 until 1891, Highland was a district by itself, yet for this 
period we find only the following names : 

Session of 1853 Andrew H. Byrd 

Sessions of 1857-8 John Bird 

Session of 1859 William W. Fleming 

Session of 1877-8 Harmon Hiner 

Session of 1889-90 John T. Byrd 

In 1891, Alleghany, Bath, and Highland were put into one 
district, which was represented in 1904-8 by Samuel W. Ster- 

History of Highland County 181 

rett, and since then by John W. Stephenson, a resident of Bath 
but native of Highland. 

Charles P. Jones, the only State Senator from this county, 
served as such from 1885 till 1897. George W. Hull sat in 
the State Convention of 1861. 

Under the Constitutions of 1776 and 1829, the following 
Justices of Pendleton appear to have come from the Highland 
section, their appointments being found in the years desig- 
nated : 

George W. Amiss 1822 Peter Hull, Jr 1825 

Emmanuel Arbogast 1843 Nicholas Seybert 1800 

James B. Campbell 1831 Adam Sitlington 1807 

Benjamin Fleisher 1820 John Sitlington 1807 

Benoni Hansel 1840 John Slaven 1797 

Thomas Jones 1831 James Stephenson 1797 

Peter Hull, Sr 1788 Thomas Wilson 1797 

Among the earlier Justices from Bath the following High- 
land names appear: 

William Dinwiddie 1796 William Lockridge 1797 

John Erwin 1794 John Peebles 1790 

James Hicklin 1795 Stewart Slaven 1815 

Timothy Holcomb 1795 John Wilson 1790 

Bartholemew Johnston 1795 

Highland Justices (presidents indicated by a star) : 

Appointed, 1848; George W. Amiss, Abel H. Armstrong, Emanuel Arbo- 
gast, David H. Byrd, James Brown, Andrew H. Byrd, James B. Campbell, 
Benjamin Fleisher, George Hicklin, Peter Hull*, Thomas Jones, John H. 
Pullin, Samuel Ruckman, John Sitlington, Reuben Slaven, Adam Stephen- 
son, Charles Steuart. 

Felix H. Hull was appointed 1854, vice Peter Hull. 

Elected 1856: John Bird, John C. Bird, Thomas L. Brown, Cornelius 
Colaw, Samuel C. Eagle, William W. Fleming*, Adam L. Gum, Henry Hevener, 
William Hevener*, Josiah Hiner, Felix H. Hull, Jacob Hull, James Hupman, 
Samuel Jones, John C. Marshall, Franklin McNulty, George T. Robson, 
Henry Seybert, David Stephenson. 

Elected 1860: John Bird, Thomas L. Brown, Cornelius Colaw, Samuel C. 
Eagle, William W. Fleming, William Hevener*, Josiah Hiner, Felix H. Hull, 
Jacob Hull, Henry C. Jones, Peter H. Kinkead, Adam Lightner, John C. 
Marshall, Franklin McNulty, John H. Pullin, Henry Seybert, Adam C. 
Stephenson, David Stephenson, Edward Steuart, Zachariah Tomlinson. 

1 82 History of Highland County 

Marshall, Pullin, and the two Hulls died in 1861. Joseph Layne was 
elected in the place of Felix H. Hull. 

Elected, 1864: Jared G. Armstrong, John H. Byrd, Austin W. Campbell, 
Cornelius Colaw, Samuel C. Eagle, Adam H. Fleisher, William D. Gibson, 
William Hevener, John M. Hook, Henry C. Jones, Peter H. Kinkead, James 
Moyers, Stewart C. Slaven, David Snyder, Robert A Steuart, James M. 
Terry, Anson O. Wade. 

Elected, 1865: John Bird, Thomas L. Brown, John H. Byrd, Benjamin 
B. Campbell, William M. Campbell, Samuel C. Eagle, William W. Fleming, 
John E. Gum, Benoni Hansel, John M. Hook, Henry C. Jones, Peter H. 
Kinkead, Samuel M. Marshall, Jonathan Siron, Adam C. Stephenson, David 
Stephenson, Edward Steuart. 

Fleming and Gum were declared ineligible. John Trimble was chosen in 
place of the former and John S. Newman in place of the latter. Later in the 
year, Henry Seybert and George Hammer were added to the board. 

Election of 1868: Thomas L. Brown, John H. Byrd, Benjamin B. Camp- 
bell, William M. Campbell, George Eagle, Benoni Hansel, John M. Hook, 
Henry C. Jones, Peter H. Kinkead, Samuel M. Marshall, John S. Newman, 
Henry Seybert, Jonathan Siron, David Stephenson, Edward Steuart, John 

Appointed by General Canby, 1869: Benjamin Arbogast, Joseph A. 
Beathe, William Brown, Anderson P. Devericks, C. H. Harouff, Robert S. 
Hook, Joseph Hull, Robert R. Hull, John Lamb, Michael Mauzy, Robert S. 
Miller, Charles H. Slaven. 

Elected, 1870, length of term being given in figures: 

Bluegrass; Rollin Campbell (3), Andrew T. Newman (2), Anson # 
Wade (1). 

Monterey; William W. Fleming (3), David McNulty (2), Job Puffen- 
berger (1). 

Stonewall; John S. McNulty (3), Harrison H. Jones (2), William Lock- 
ridge (1). 

Supervisors, those for Bluegrass, Monterey, and Stonewall 
being given in the order indicated. 

1873; B. B. Campbell, William D. Gibson, R. Turk. 

1879-81; Charles Wade, William D. Gibson, John S. McNulty. 

1881-5; same persons. 

1885-7; Samuel W. Sterritt, William D. Gibson, John S. McNulty. 

1887-9; same persons. 

1891-3; Charles Wade, Harmon H. Seybert, John S. McNulty. 

1893-5; Samuel W. Sterrett, James M. Terry, John S. McNulty. 

1895-7; Oscar A. Stephenson, James M. Terry, John S. McNulty. 

1897-9; Oscar A. Stephenson, Allen C. Judy, John S. McNulty. 

1899-1901; same persons . 

1901-1904; Oscar A. Stephenson, Allen C. Judy, Joseph B. Hiner. 

History of Highland County 183 

1904-6; Oscar A. Stephenson, Allen C. Judy, J. H. Hincr. 

1906-8; same persons. 

1908-10; G. Lee Chew, Allen C. Judy, William M. Vance. 

1910-12; same persons. 

County Superintendents: James K. Campbell, 1870; Sydney Ruckman 
O. Pierce Chew; B. Hiner Hansel, 1897-1905; Jared L. Jones, 1905-09. 

Sheriffs under Pendleton and Bath: Peter Hull, St., 1798; William Din- 
widdie, 1812; Harmon Hiner, 1817-9; Peter Hull, Jr., 1821; John Sitling- 
ton, 1826; George Hicklin, 1832; Thomas Kinkead, 1833; Benjamin Fleisher, 
1839; Samuel Ruckman, 1839; Reuben Slaven, 1843; Charles Steuart, 1844; 
John Graham, 1846. 

Sheriffs of Highland: Peter Hull, 1848-9; Andrew H. Byrd, 1849-51; 
John Sitlington, 1851-2; Washington Stephenson, 1852-7; Andrew J. Bird, 
1857-8; John M. Rexrode, 1858-63; William M. Summers, 1863-5; John A. 
Fleisher, 1869; William M. Summers, 1870-09; William M. Arbogart, 1879- 
99; J. Edward Arbogast, 1899.- 1911. 

County Clerks: Adam Stephenson, Jr., 1848 -; Jacob C. Matheny, 1864- 
1908; J. Clifton Matheny, 1908-10; William H. MatHeny, 1910 - . .- 

Andrew J. Jones, filled the office a "short while, beginning in 1865, J. C 
Matheny, acting as deputy. 

Surveyors: Thomas Campbell, 1848-58; John Bradshaw, 1858-76; Jesse 
A. Bussard, 1876-91; Stephen B. Bradshaw, 1891-1904; Henry A. Slaven, 
1904-10; Isaac L. Beverage, 1910 - . 

Commonwealths' Attorneys: John C. Woodson, 1848; John W. Myers, 
1856; Adam C. Snyder, 1864; J. M. Seig, 1866; John R. Popham, 1869; 
Lucius H. Stephenson, 1870-93; John M. Colaw, 1893-1905; E. B. Jones, 1905 - . 

Treasurer: John S. McNulty, 1870; Jared A. Jones, 1879-1910; Willis 
Gibson, 1910 - . 

Commissioners of the Revenue: Joseph Layne, 1848; Daniel McNulty; 
1852-7; Jonas W. Chew, 1859-61; Loran D. Evick, 1863; Samuel A. Wilson, 
1864; Osborne Wilson, 1865; Francis M. Bird, 1869; Osborne Wilson, 1870, 
Walter P. Campbell, 1879-1900; John A. Whitelaw, 1900 - 1911. 

184 History of Highland County 


Early Militia Organization - Officers - Muster Rolls of 1794. 

COLONIAL VIRGINIA had a militia organization, which 
under independence was systematized. The state was 
divided into five division districts and eighteen brigade dis- 
tricts, each of the former being under the supervision of a 
major general and each of the latter under a brigadier general. 
Each county furnished at least one regiment. 

To each division were attached one regiment of cavalry 
and one of artillery. The regiment, consisting of at least 400 
men and commanded by a colonel, was divided into two bat- 
talions, one commanded by the lieutenant colonel and one by 
the major. Each battalion had a stand of colors. In each com- 
pany were one captain, two first lieutenants, two second lieu- 
tenants, five sergeants, and six corporals. The ensign, a com- 
missioned officer having charge of the colors and ranking be- 
low the first lieutenant, was dispensed with after the war of 
1812. On the staff of the colonel were one quartermaster, one 
paymaster, one surgeon, one surgeon's mate, one adjutant with 
the rank of captain, one sergeant major, one quartermaster 
sergeant, two principal musicians, and drum and fife majors. 
To each company was one drum and also a fife or bugle. 

Officers received their commissions through recommenda- 
tion to the governor from the county court. It would seem, 
however, that the captains and lieutenants were primarily 
chosen by the privates. A rigid anti-duelling oath was exacted 
of the officers. The best men to be found were appointed to 
office under the militia system. A position therein was con- 
sidered very honorable and as a stepping stone to something 

Company musters took place in April and October, bat- 
talion musters in October or November, and regimental mus- 

UJ .2 >• 
■^ — -Q 



History of Highland County 185 

ters in April or May. Non-attendance led to a fine, usually 
of 75 cents, and this was turned over to the sheriff for collec- 
tion. Fines were numerous, whether or not they were gener- 
ally collected. Excuses for cause were granted by a court 
martial, the clerk of the same having in 1794 a yearly salary 
of $6.67. In the same year we find one man excused for an 
impediment in his speech, and another for "a deficiency in 
intellect." Others are excused until "in a better state of health." 

During the later years of the militia system, musters were 
less frequent, the men went through the evolutions without 
arms, and the practical value of the drill was not very great. 
The officers did not pay much attention to costume, the regi- 
mental and some of the company officers wearing coats of the 
pattern of 1812; a dark-blue garment with long swallow-tail, 
epaulettes, and brass buttons. 

The Highland regiment was the 162d Infantry. No muster 
rolls appear to be existent, and there is almost no record of its 
commanders. George W. Hull was its colonel in 1860. The 
old militia system did not survive the war of 1861 and is now 
a feature of history. The regimental muster was an event of 
the year, and drew a crowd of spectators, much as a circus does 
at the present time. We append a list of Highland men recom- 
mended to official position in the regiments of its brigade dis- 
trict. These recommendations by the county court were almost 
always acted upon by the governor. But where appointment 
is definitely known to have taken place, or when in some par- 
ticular year we find a certain man holding office, a star indi- 
cates such fact. 

At the end of the chapter are given the muster rolls of 1794 
of the two Pendleton companies which were almost wholly 
within the Highland area. The district of Captain Janes com- 
prised Crabbottom and Straight Creek. That of Captain Mc- 
Coy included the northern end of Stonewall District. 


Arbogast, Adam - Ensign, 1793. 
Armstrong, John - Lieut. 1793.* 

186 History of Highland County 

Bird, William - Ensign, 1801. 

Bird, Valentine - Ensign, 1800. 

Blagg, John - Lieut. 1814. 

Bodkin, John - Capt. 1810. 

Bradshaw, James - Ensign, 1803. 

Burner, Abraham - Ensign, 1810* - Lieut. 1810. 

Carlile, John - Capt. 1803. 

Chestnut, John - Capt. 1815. 

Cunningham, James - Capt. 1812.* 

Dinwiddie, William - Major, 1801.* 

Edmond, Thomas - Lieut. 1810. 

Ervine, John - Capt. 1795.* 

Fleisher, Henry - Major, 1788. 

Fleisher, Benjamin - Cornet, 1811.* 

Fleisher, John - Capt. 1817.* 

Gall, John - Ensign, 1817.* 

Gum, Jacob - Ensign, 1789.* 

Gwin, Robert - Capt. 1799. 

Ham, William - Lieut, 1802 - later, Capt.* 

Hevener, Jacob - Capt. 1817.* 

Hiner, John - Capt. 1814.* 

Hull, Adam - Capt. of Cavalry, 1817.* 

Hull, Jacob - Capt. of Cavalry, 1800. 

Janes, William - Capt. 1793. 

Jones, John - Ensign, 1810. 

Lightner, Peter - Lieut. 1795. 

Pullin, Jonathan - Lieut. 1801. 

Seybert, Jacob - Lieut. 1817.* 

Beybert, James - Ensign, 1817.* 

Slaven, John - Capt. 1795.* 

Slaven, Reuben - Lieut. 1797. 

Summers, Paul - Ensign, 1793. 

Wiley, William - Ensign, 1799. 

Wilson, Isaac - Ensign, 1814. 

Wilson, John - Lieut. Col. 1792.* 

Wilson, Thomas - Lieut. 1795. 

Wood, Joshua - Cornet, 1817. 

Yeager, Jacob - Lieut. 1817.* 

Zickafoose, Elias - Lieut. 1814.* 

Zickafoose, Sampson - Lieut. 1817.* 


Captain William Janes' Company 

Arbogast, David. Arbogast, Henry. 

Arbogast, George. Arbogast, John. 

History of Highland County 


Arbogast, Michael. 
Arbogast, Peter. 
Beverage, David. 
Bussard, Michael. 
Coo vert, Peter. 
Eagan, John. 
Fleisher, Conrad. 
Fleishcr, Palsor. 
Fox, Michael. 
George, Reuben. 
Grogg, John. 
Grogg, Philip. 
Gum, Abraham. 
Gum, Jacob. 
Halterman, Charles. 
Hammer, Balsor. 
Harper, Adam. 
Huffman, Christian. 
Hull, Adam. 
Hull, George. 
Jones, James. 
Keitz, George. 
Lambert, John. 
Life, Martin, Jr. 
Lightner, Andrew. 
Lightner, Peter 
McMahon, John. 
Michael, William. 
Moore, David. 
Markle, George. 
Mullenax, Archibald. 

Mullenax, James. 
Murray, Edward. 
Peck, Jacob. 
Peck, John. 
Peck, Michael. 
Radabaugh, Henry. 
Rexrode, George. 
Rexrode, John. 
Richards, Basil. 
Rymer, George. 
Seybert, Jacob. 
Simmons, Henry. 
Simpson, Alexander. 
Smalley, Benjamin. 
Smith, William. 
Swadley, Nicholas. 
Thomas, John. 
Wagoner, Christian. 
Wagoner, Joseph. 
Wagoner, Michael. 
Walker, Joseph. 
Wamsley, Joseph. 
Waybright, Martin. 
Waybright, Michael. 
White, John. 
Whiteman, William. 
Williams, Robert. 
Wimer, Henry. 
Wimer, Jacob. 
Wimer, Philip. 


Blagg, Samuel. 
Bodkin, James. 
Bodkin, John. 
Bodkin, John. 
Bodkin, John. 
Bodkin, William. 
Burnett, Henry. 
Burnett, Robert. 
Burnett, Samuel. 
Chesling, John, Jr. 
Curry, James. 
Davis, John. 

Devericks, Thomas. 
Douglas, James. 
Duffield, Abraham. 
Duffield, Isaac. 
Duffield, John. 
Duffield, Robert. 
Duffield, Thomas. 
Dunn, Aaron. 
Fox, John. 
Gamble, John. 
Gamble, William. 
Harris, William. 

History of Highland County 

Hiner, Jacob. 
Johns, Jeremiah. 
Jones, Henry. 
Jones, John. 
Jordan, Andrew. 
Lamb, Henry. 
Lamb, Jacob. 
Lamb, Nicholas. 
Lamb, William. 
Lewis, Jonathan. 
Lewis, Joseph. 
Long, William. 
Malcomb, Alexander. 
Malcomb, James. 
Malcomb, John. 
Malcomb, Joseph, Jr. 
Malcomb, Robert. 
McCoy, Benjamin. 
McCoy, John. 
McCrea, James. 
McCrea, John. 
McCrea, Robert, Jr. 

McQuain, Alexander. 
Morton, Edward. 
Mowrey, George. 
Mowrey, George, Jr 
Mowrey, Henry. 
Neal, John. 
Neal, Thomas. 
Parker, Thomas. 
Scott, John. 
Sheets, George. 
Sims, James. 
Siron, John. 
Smith, Caleb. 
Smith, William. 
Varner, Jacob. 
Vint, William. 
Whiteman, Henry. 
Wilson, Elibab. 
Wilson, James. 
Wood, James. 
Wood, John. 

History of Highland County 189 



Wars Wherein Highland Men Have Been Represented - Confederate Regi. 
ments Containing Highland Men - Muster Roll of 1756 - Soldiers in 
Dunmore War - Soldiers of the Revolution - Soldiers of 1812 - Federal 
Soldiers - Roster of Confederate Soldiers. 

MEN of Highland birth or residence have fought in several 
American wars with honor and with no little loss of 
life and limb. 

In the Indian War of 1754-64 the county was on the very- 
frontier, and the possibility was before every settler of having 
to do battle in company with his fellows or in defense of his 
very cabin. The muster roll of 1756 which is given in this 
chapter shows a large proportion of Highland names. 

In the Dunmore War of 1774, Highland men must have 
constituted the greater part of two companies of the Augusta 
militia that marched to Point Pleasant. Unfortunately, we 
have not at hand the muster rolls of these companies, nor do 
we know how many of them were included among the 77 Au- 
gustans who were killed or wounded in that one battle. 

Soldiers of the Revolution were quite numerously repre- 
sented among not only the then settlers of Highland, but also 
among the families who came here after the war. Here again 
our information is very fragmentary. 

It is highly possible that several of the Highland militia 
were in the Pendleton company that marched with Governor 
Henry Lee to put down the Whiskey Insurrection of 1794. 
But in this instance there was, happily, no fighting. 

In the War of 1812, a number of Highland men marched 
to the defense of Norfolk. Some of the soldiers enlisting for 
that war saw no actual service, news of peace arriving about 
the time they reached the front. 

For the war with Mexico, no company was recruited from 

190 History of Highland County 

Highland, although a very few residents saw service therein. 
Substantially the same remark became true of the war with 
Spain in 1898. 

But in the war of 1861, more than 500 Highlanders, out of 
the white population of 3,890 (1860), were enlisted soldiers, 
serving almost exclusively in the armies of the Confederacy. 
Of these soldiers of Lee and Jackson, 101 are known to have 
lost their lives in the service, and many more were wounded 
or captured. One considerable engagement was fought on 
Highland soil, and men were killed in the same who were 
within a few miles of their homes. Highland men were prompt 
to enlist, and their first organization marched to Grafton before 
a hostile shot had been fired. Several were likewise among 
those who stacked arms in the final surrender at Appomattox. 
One of these brought home and set out a cutting from the his- 
toric apple tree. 

Nearly all the Confederate soldiers from Highland served 
in the 25th, 31st, and 62d regiments of Virginia Infantry. A 
few were in the 38th and 51st Infantry regiments and in the 
batteries of McClanahan, Carpenter, and Shumate. A larger 
number were in the 11th, 14th, 18th, 19th, 20th, and 26th regi- 
ments of Cavalry. One man was in naval service on board 
the "Patrick Henry" in James River. 

The 25th Infantry took part in the battles of Philippi, Camp 
Alleghany, McDowell, Front Royal, Newtown, Winchester 
('62), Cross Keys, Port Republic, Peninsula, Cedar Mountain, 
Second Manasses, Chantilly, Harper's Ferry, Sharpsburg, Fred- 
ericksburg, Brandy Station, Winchester ('63), Gettysburg, 
Mine Run, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Cold Harbor. It was 
one of the commands surrendered at Appomattox. An inspec- 
tion of the list shows that it was with Stonewall Jackson in 
his Valley Campaign, and that it subsequently formed a part 
of the main army under General Lee. 

The 31st Infantry, at first under Edward Johnson, had 
Jubal A. Early as a brigade commander after the battle of 
McDowell. It was still under Early after his promotion to the 
command of a Division in Ewell's Corps. It was with Jackson 
in his Valley Campaign, and then formed a part of the Army 

History of Highland County 191 

of Northern Virginia. It had a share in nearly all of Lee's 
battles except Chancellorsville, being at that time with Im- 
boden on his raid into West Virginia. In the fall of 1864 the 
regiment was with Early in his own Valley Campaign. It was 
one of the commands to surrender at Appomattox, at which 
time it numbered only about 60 men. At Port Republic it 
lost nearly one-half its numbers, Company B alone losing more 
than 50 men. 

The 25th, 31st, and 62d Infantry regiments formed with 
the 18th Cavalry, White's Battalion, and McClenahan's Bat- 
tery, the brigade under the command of General John D. Im- 
boden. It was in these regiments that nearly all the Highland 
men served. In the May and June of 1863, the brigade raided 
beyond the Alleghanies, penetrating as far as Weston and 
Sutton. At Williamsport, the 62d helped to cover the retreat 
of Lee, and afterward guarded the 4,000 Federal prisoners who 
were marched to Staunton. After suffering heavily at New 
Market it took part in Early's campaign in Maryland and the 
Valley. When it disbanded at Fincastle, April 15th, 1865, it 
numbered only about 45 men, one company being represented 
only by its captain. 

The above outline together with the casualties enumerated 
in the roster will fully indicate the long and severe campaign- 
ing experienced by the Confederate soldiers of Highland 
County. They constituted a portion of the "foot cavalry" under 
Jackson, and shared the luster of that leader's energetic and 
brilliant exploits. 

A few Highlanders served as enlisted soldiers in the Federal 
Army. Several of these had removed from the county before 
the war. 

Roll of Captain George Wilson's Company, August 11th, 

George Wilson Captain 

Hugh Hicklin Lieutenant 

Thomas Hughart Ensign 

Charles Gilham Sergeant 

Wilham Johnson Corporal 


History of Highland County 


Adair, Robert. 
Barton, James. 
Bell, Joseph. 
Black, William. 
Bodkin, James. 
Bodkin, John. 
Bodkin, Richard. 
Bright, Samuel. 
Burnett, William. 
Carlile, John. 
Carlile, Robert (1). 
Carlile, Robert (2). 
Davis, Patrick. 
Deckert, Simeon. 
Delamontony, Samuel. 
Duffield, Robert. 
Elliott, Andrew. 
Estill, Benjamin. 
Estill, Boude. 
Gilbert, Felix. 
Hall, Robert. 
Harper, Hans. 
Harper, Matthew. 
Harper, Michael. 
Hicklin, John. 

Hicklin, Thomas. 
Jackson, James. 
Jackson, John. 
Jordan, Adam. 
Jordan, John. 
Knox, James. 
Lewis, George. 
Lewis, John. 
Long, Stephen. 
Mayse, James. 
McClenahan, Elijah. 
McClenahan, William. 
Miller, James. 
Miller, John. 
Miller, Patrick. 
Miller, Valentine. 
Miller, William. 
Phegan, Philip. 
Price, William. 
Sprowl, William. 
Stull, Frederick. 
Warrick, William. 
Wilfong, Michael. 
Wilson, Samuel. 


The only names we possess are the following - , and it cannot 
positively be affirmed that all were Highlanders: 

Bradshaw, — . 

Burnside, James. 

Carlile, Robert. 

Dinwiddie, James - killed at Point Pleasant. 

Hempenstall, Abraham. 

McCoy, — a Lieut. 

Wiley, Robert, Sr. 

Wiley, Robert, Jr. 

Wilson, John. 

Wilson, Samuel - Capt. - killed at Point Pleasant. 

History of Highland County 193 


The following list has been gathered from a variety of 
sources. The persons with starred names were surviving pen- 
sioners in 1840, George Rymer, the oldest, being 90 years of 
age, and Edward Morton, the youngest, 75 years. 

Bradshaw, John - served in Yorktown campaign. 

Briscoe, Isaac - on Washington's body guard at Yorktown. 

Campbell, Samuel - officer. 

Carlile, James - severely wounded at Guilford and taken home by his 

Curry, Richard. 

Devericks, Thomas.* 

Eagle, Michael*. 

Gillespie, James. 

Gilmer, Samuel - very severely wounded in the Waxhaw massacre, 1780. 

Graham, Christopher - in Henry Lee's Legion. 

Gum, Isaac - at Yorktown. 

Gwin, David - Capt. - at Guilford. 

Hicklin, Thomas - Captain under Maj. John Wilson - conveyed prisoners 
from Yorktown to Winchester. 

Jones, Henry. 

Kincaid, Thomas.* 

McClintic, William - severely wounded at Guilford. 

McCoy, Robert - at Guilford. 

McGlaughlin, John - in garrison under Capt. William Smith at Hinkle's 
Fort, 1781. 

Morton, Edward* - at Cowpens when 16 years old. 

Rymer, George.* 

Sharp, John. 

Slaven, John - at Yorktown. 

Steuart, James - guarded Augusta frontier at Clover Lick, about 1779 - 
marched to Jamestown, 1781, under Col. John McCreary and Capt. Peter 
Hull - substitute for James Carlile, 1781. 

Steuart, Edward - in Capt. Thos. Hicklin's company - substitute for 
Joseph Beathe, 1778 - in garrison at Vance's Fort, Back Cr. to guard frontier 
against Indians - helped convey prisoners from Yorktown. 

Steuart, John - in Capt. Thos. Hicklin's company - sword wound in 
hand at Yorktown. 

Steuart, William. 

Towberman, Henry. 

Wilson, John - Major - conveyed prisoners from Yorktown to Winchester. 

Wilson, Elibab.* 


194 History of Highland County 

The muster roll now given, which contains Pendleton as i 
well as Highland names, was copied from the original paper 
in the handwriting of Nicholas Seybert. 

Muster Roll, Captain Hull's Company, Second Battalion, 
Augusta Militia, 1779: 

Peter Hull Captain 

Nicholas Seybert First Lieutenant 

Henry Fleisher Second Lieutenant 

Jacob Hoover Ensign 


Arbogast, Adam. Lantz, Conrad. 

Arbogast, David. Lantz, Joseph. 

Arbogast, John. McQuain, Alexander. 

Arbogast, Michael. Mullenax, John. 

Benoett, Jacob. Mullenax, James.* 

Bennett, John. Noll, Henry. 

Benoett, William. Peninger, John. 

Bliazard, Thomas. Pickle, Christian. 

Bodkin, Hugh. PufTenberger, George. 

Bowman, John. Rexrode, George. 

Burner, Abraham. Sheets, George, 

r^onxad, Ulrich, Jr. Simmons, George. 

Crummett, Frederick. Simmons, John. 

Duffield, Abraham.* Simmons, Leonard. 

Eckard, Abraham. Simmons, Mark. 

Eckard, Philip. Simmons, Michael. 

Ellsworth, Jacob. Simmons, Peter. 

Eye, Christopher. Sinder, John. 

Fleisher, Conrad. Smith, Mark. 

Graham, Francis. Smith, Sebastian. 

Gum, Isaac. Stone, Sebastian. 

Gum, Jacob. Stout, George. 

Gum, William. Summers, Paul. 

Hammer, Balsor. Summerfield, Thomas. 

Harper, Nicholas. Wagoner, Adam. 

Hoff, James. Wamsley, John. 

Hogg, John.* Wamsley, William. 

Hoover, Michael. Wamsley, James.* 

Huffman, George. Whiteman, Henry. 

Hull, Adam. Wilfong, Jacob. 

Ingram, Uriah. Wimer, Philip. 

Jordan, Andrew. Yeager, John. 

*Under 18 Years of Age. ^^Z 

History of Highland County 



A few of the Highland settlers had served in the British army during the 
Revolution. Among these were Charles Halterman, George Keitz, James 
Trimble (surrendered at Yorktown), and John White. 

WARS OF 1811 AND 1812 
The following names have been taken from incidental sources: 

Armstrong, Jared. 

Bird, David. 

Blagg. John - Capt. 

Brown, Thomas. 

Byrd, Andrew H. 

Cunningham, John. 

Erwin, William. 

Graham, John. 

Graham, Thomas - taken prisoner. 

Gwin, James. 

Hiner, Jacob. 

McCoy, John - killed at Tippe- 
canoe, 1811. 

Mullenax, James. 

Pullin, Loftus, Jr. 

Rexrode, Christian. 

Robertson, William. 

Seybert, William - died in service 
at Norfolk. 

Varner, George. 

Wade, William - died in service. 

Roll of Captain Jacob Hull's Company, 1814 

Arbogast, Daniel. 
Arbogast, George. 
Arbogast, Jonathan. 
Arbogast, Joseph. 
Arbogast, Michael. 
Arbogast, William. 
Armstrong, John. 
Benson, Mathias. 
Beverage, David. 
Bird, Jacob, Jr. 
Bird, John. 
Bird, Valentine. 
Bright, Jacob. 
Burner, Abraham. 
Burner, Daniel. 
Burner, George. 
Burner, Henry. 
Colaw, Jacob. 
Curry, James. 
Gall, Jacob. 
Gall, John, Sr. 
Gibson, Samuel. 
Gothard, John. 
Grim, John. 

Gum, Abraham. 
Gum, Adam. 
Gum, Jacob. 
Gum, McBride. 
Hammer, Leonard. 
Hardway, Andrew. 
Hardway, John. 
Hays, George. 
Hevener, Samuel. 
Hidy, Jacob. 
Hidy, John. 
Hidy, William. 
Houchin, Charles. 
Huffman, Daniel. 
Johnson, Jesse. 
Lantz, Jonas. 
Life, Christian. 
Life, Samuel. 
McCan, Henry. 
McNulty, John. 
Mullenax, Jacob. 
Mullenax, Joseph. 
Mullenax, Samuel. 
Nicholas, Francis. 

196 History of Highland County 

Nicholas, George. Stephenson, James. 

Peck, John. Sutton, Cornelius. 

Rexrode, Adam. Wagoner, George. 

Roby, Thomas. Wagoner, Joseph. 

Sharrot, John. Wagoner, Michael. 

Simmons, Henry, Sr. White, George. 

Simmons, Henry, Jr. Wimer, Jacob. 

Simmons, Joseph. Wimer, Henry. 

Simmons, Michael. Wood, Samuel. 

Stephenson, Adam. Zickafoose, Sampson. 


The only name we find is that of William Wade, a substi- 
tute for John Wade. Morgan Harrow, who married a Griffen, 
and Abijah Waring came to Highland after their service. 


The names we here discover are the following: 

Bird, Francis M. - W. Va. Reg't. 

Helmick, George W. - Penn. Reg't. 

Jones, Thomas J. 

Lowery, Newton. 

McNett, William. 

Rexrode, Leonard - W. Va. Reg't.- died in Andersonville. 

Rexrode, Nathan - W. Va. Reg't. 

Rexrode, John - W. Va. Reg't. 

Rexrode, William - W. Va. Reg't. 

Wooddell, W. Va. Reg't. 


Each name in the following list is followed, so far as the particulars have 
been found obtainable by; (1) his time or period of enlistment in parentheses; 
(2) the company and regiment in which he served; (3) his rank if an officer; 
(4) his casualty in the service, if any; (5) his postoffice address, if living. 
Regiments are designated by number and are to be understood as infantry 
commands, unless otherwise specified. The word "Militia" refers to the 
162d Regiment, and the person named as belonging thereto was in actual 
service. When the soldier was in more than one command, the name of the 
second is placed in brackets. When the soldier died or was wounded in service, 
the place and manner of death or injury are indicated. The names "Elmira,'' 
''Fort Delaware," "Point Lookout," and "Camp Chase," refer to Federal 
war prisons. 

History of Highland County 197 

No person is included in the list who is known to have deserted from the 
Confederate Army. 

Abbreviations : — 

Co company. 

k killed. 

w'd wounded. 

m. w'd mortally wounded. 

c'p taken prisoner. 

p'r prisoner of war. 

disch'd discharged from service. 

D died of illness while in service; but at right hand mar- 
gin of the page, it means the person has died since 
the war. 

Alexander, James 

Allen, Erasmus - F, 25 - p'r P't Lookout and Elmira D 

Arbogast, Jeremiah E - C, 14 Cav. - Ass't Surgeon D 

Arbogast, Jesse - F, 25 (D, 62) D 

Arbogast, John W. - C, 14 Cav D 

Arbogast, Samuel - F, 25 Lewis Co., W. Va. 

Arbogast, William S - D, P't Lookout. 

Armstrong, Abbott L - (62-5) - H, 19 Cav. - c'p, Malvern McDowell 

Armstrong, Alfred - (62-5) - F, 25 - c'p, Williamsport and Wilderness . . D 
Armstrong, Gideon - F, 25 - D, diphtheria, '62. 

Armstrong, Hudson - (62-5) - F, 25 - p'r, Elmira D 

Armstrong, Jared, of J. T. - F, 25 - k. Cross Keys. 

Armstrong, Jared W. - F, 25 - w'd in thigh D 

Armstrong, Joseph H. - 18 Cav D 

Armstrong, Josiah - F, 25 - D, Elmira. 

Armstrong, Oliver - D, 62 Fauquier Co. 

Armstrong, Peter - F, 25 - k. in W. Va. 

Armstrong, William, of S. - I, 19 Cav McDowell 

Armstrong, William H. - F, 25 - k. Port Republic. 

Baker, William - k. 

Beathe, Peter H. - B, 31 - k. Port Republic. 

Beathe, William - B, 31 - w'd, Lynchburg D 

Benson, James - B, 31 - disch'd, over age Patna 

Benson, Lewis C. - B, 31 - w'd, McDowell D 

Benson, William W. - E, 31 - 2d Serg't - p'r, Camp Chase D 

Beverage, Andrew J. - (62-5) - A, 18 Cav. - w'd, Harrison- 
burg Monterey, R. F. D. 

Beverage, Harvey - ('62) - E, 31 - m. w'd, Spottsylvania. 

Beverage, Henry - F, 25 - w'd, lost thumb D 

Beverage, Jacob - ('61) - E, 31 - k, Williamsport D 

Beverage, John - ('62) - E, 31 D 

198 History of Highland County 

Beverage, John B. - D, 62 D 

Beverage, Josiah - A, 62 - w'd in Valley Monterey, R. F. D. 

Beverage, Robert - D, 62 - D, pneumonia, '64. 

Beverage, S. Clark - D, 62 D 

Beverage, William A. - D, 62 Monterey 

Beverage, Thomas M. - D, 62 D 

Beverage, William C. - D, 62 - k. at Beverley. 

Beverage, Wesley - ('61-5) - C, 14 Cav D 

Bird, Aaron - F, 25 - k. at Sharpsburg. 

Bird, Anson G. - ('62) - k, 31 - k, Port Republic. 

Bird, Charles W. - Jackson's Cav., Mo. 

Bird, David - E, 31 - 3d Lt. - D, of disease, '62. 

Bird, Jacob - ('61) - E, 31 - D, of disease, '62. 

Bird, James - ('62) - E, 31 - disch'd as over 45 D 

Bird, John - ('62) - E, 31 - lost arm, Second Manassas D 

Bird, John W. - ('61) - E, 31 - w'd, Camp Alleghany Monterey 

Bird, Morgan S. - E, 31 - m. w'd, Port Republic. 
Bird, Otho M. - ('61) - E, 31 - k. at Liberty, '63. 
Bird, Otho W. - E, 31 - k. 

Bishop, Joseph - ('61) - G, 18 Cav. - w'd, arm D 

Blagg, Benami H. - ('64-5) - D, 62 Monterey 

Blagg, James H. - ('61-5) - F, 25 - (G, 18) D 

Blagg, J. Marshall - ('61-5) - F, 25 - p'r, Elmira D 

Blankenship, William A. - F, 25 - Capt. - lost leg, Gettysburg D 

Blundell, Americus R. - ('62) - E, 31 unknown 

Botkin, Eli C. - K, 62 Doe Hill 

Botkin, George W. - F, 25 McDowell 

Botkin, Israel - F, 25 - p'r, P't Lookout and Elmira D 

Botkin, John - F, 25 D 

Botkin, John L. - Jackson's Cav D 

Botkin, Mathias B. - ('61) - E, 31 - 1st Corp. w'd Port Republic D 

Botkin, Newton - B, 31 - D, at home, '62. 

Botkin, Robert - ('62) - E, 31 - w'd, hand D 

Botkin, Samuel - K, 62 - p'r, P't Lookout - D, at home, '64. 

Boude, Joseph T - B, 31 D 

Bowers, Ezra C. 

Bowers, Solomon - F, 25 - D. in service. 

Bowyer, Leonard. 

Bradshaw, Franklin - ('62-5) - B, 31 - w'd, McDowell D 

Bradshaw, James B. - F, 11 Cav McDowell 

Bradshaw, Jasper N. - F, 11 Cav Williamsville 

Bradshaw, Robert H. - B, 31 - Capt. - k. Port Republic. 

Briscoe, J. Brown - ('61-2) - Militia Naples 

Britton, Henry G - B, 31 - Serg't Color Guard - w'd, Lynchburg. 
Brown, Samuel - G'brier Co. - Capt. - w'd, First Manassas and D. 

History of Highland County 199 

Bussard, Arthur W. - ('64-5) - E, 31 - w'd, Appomattox, two days 

before surrender Bolar 

Bussard, Jesse A. - E, 31 - L't D 

Byrd, John T. - G, 18 Cav. - First L't Williamsville 

Byrd, William C. - E, 31 - Fifth Serg't Oregon 

Caldwell, Isaac B. - ('61). 
Campbell, Ananias - E, 31 - D, '61. 

Campbell', Caleb - I, 14 Cav Newport News 

Campbell, Charles L. - I, 14 Cav Gilroy, Col. 

Campbell, David H. - ('61) - E, 31 - Fourth Corp. - c'p, Alleghany 

Mtn West Va. 

Campbell, J. Brown - F, 25 - Third L't - w'd, Second Manassas D 

Campbell, J. Kenny - I, 14 Cav D 

Campbell, Milton - E, 31 - D. at Whitehall, '62c. 
Campbell, Morgan B. - ('61) - E, 31 - w'd, Cold Harbor and Wilder- 
ness - p'r, Elmira Meadowdale 

Campbell, Newton - Bath Sgd, 14 Cav. - w'd, - D. in sevice. 
Campbell, Oscar J. - A, 20 Cav. - 16 days in service Monterey- 
Campbell, Rollin - I, 14 Cav D< 

Campbell, William A. - A, 20 Cav Franklin, W. Va- 

Carpenter, David W. - ('61-5) - McClenahan's Battery D* 

Carpenter, J. Morgan - McClenahan's Battery D> 

Carpenter, Peter N. - (*61) - E, 31. 

Carroll, Charles A. - ('62-5) - B, 31 - p'r, Camp Chase Naples 

Carroll, Henry H. - B, 31 - k. Spottsylvania. 

Carroll, J. D. - B, 31. 

Carroll, John W. - B, 31 - k. Port Republic. 

Carroll, William J. - F, 25 Richmond 

Carver, Francis H. - B, 31 D 

Chew, Jonas W. - B, 31 - c'p D 

Chew, William M. - ('62) - E, 31 D 

Chewning, Albert - B, 31 D 

Chewning, Charles - B, 31 D 

Chewning, John W. - B, 31 - w'd, Petersburg D 

Clendennin, A. S. 

Clendennin, Henry - E, 31 - k, Petersburg, '65. 

Clendennin, Jacob F. - E, 31 - w'd, Port Republic D 

Cobb, John A. - G, 18 - p'r, Wheeling D 

Colaw, Anderson N. - C, 14 Cav Crabbottom 

Corbett, Charles P. - G, 18 Pinckney 

Corbett, Mustoe H. - I, 25 Pinckney 

Corbett, William - E, 31 - D, Alleghany Mtn. 

Corrigan, James - ('63-5) - Capt. Hutton's Mt'd Inf. - British sub- 
ject VanderpooL 

Cross, Charles G. - A, 18 Cav Monterey 

200 History of Highland County 

Cunningham, William A. - ('61-5) - F, 25 (A, 18 Cav.) - w'd Pied- 
mont and near Richmond Monterey 

Curry, Amos C. 

Curry, Benami - ('61-5) - B, 31 - p'r, Camp Chase and Rock I'd D 

Curry, Benjamin - ('61-5) - B, 31 - p'r, Camp Chase and Rock I'd D 

Curry, Edward E. - B, 31 - D, at home, '62. 

Davis, Andrew S. T. - ('61-5) - B, 31 - Sec. L't - transferred D 

Davis, James - B, 31 - Corp. - K. Spottsylvania. 

Dever, Allen A. - E, 31 Soldiers' Home, Richmond 

Dever, Ewing - Reserves D 

Dever, Hugh - F, 25 Grand Island, Neb. 

Dever, Jasper N. - ('61) - E, 31 (G, 18 Cav.) - c'p, Laurel Hill D 

Dever, Reuben K. - ('61) - E, 31 - Serg't So. America 

Dever, Samuel G. - ('62-4) - C, 20 - w'd, Shepherdstown Mill Gap 

Devericks, Thomas M. - ('61-5) - B, 31 - w'd, near Winchester - Headwaters 

Doyle, George W. - I, 19 Cav D 

Doyle, John C. - B, 31 - m. w'd, Port Republic. 

Eagle, Harmon - D, in prison. 

Eagle, John N. - Hull's Co. and Ware's Cav. - w'd, Ream's Station - unknown 

Eckard, Job - H, 38 D 

Edmond, John W. - E, 31 Bath 

Ervine, Augustus - ('61-3) - B, 31 - disch'd for disability D 

Ervine, Eldridge V. - D, 31 - First Serg't - w'd. Port Republic, Peters- 
burg, Spottsylvania D 

Ervine, Henry H. - ('61-3) - B, 31 - w'd, Port Republic D 

Ervine, John S. - ('61) - E, 31 - Serg't - w'd, Gettysburg and Win- 
chester - c'p, Laurel Hill and Strasburg McDowell 

Ervine, John V. - E, 31 - Sec'd Serg't unknown 

Ervine, William M. - ('61) - E, 31 D 

Ervine, William R. - ("61) - E, 31 D 

Euritt, Frank - F, 25 - k, McDowell. 

Eye, Samuel H. - I, 62 - Serg't D 

Fitzwater, William - ('61-4) ? 62, - c'p D 

Fleisher, Henry H. - Militia - Col D 

Fleisher, Solomon - D, 62 - Capt D 

Fleming, Robert H. - ('64-5) - Navy, "Patrick Henry" Lynchburg 

Floyd, Edward - C, 14 Cav Augusta? 

Floyd, William H. - C, 14 Cav Augusta? 

Folks, Adam. 

Folks, Anderson - F, 31 Bath 

Folks, Henry - ('62) - E, 31 : D 

Folks, Noah - ('62) - E, 31 - k. Port Republic. 

Folks, William - ('62) - E, 31. 

Folks, William A. ('62) - E, 31 - D. at Charlottesville. 

Fox, Charles H. - C, 14 Cav Crabbottom 

Fox, Jasper L. - I, 19 Cav W. Va. 

History of Highland County 201 

Gardner, James A. - B, 31 - lost at Wilderness. 

Gibson, John L. 

Gibson, William D. 

Gilmor, Jesse S. ('61) - E, 31 - Sec'd L't - D. fever, '61. 

Gilmor, Samuel A. - ('61) - E, 31 - Capt Mill Gap 

Griff en, J. S. - B, 31 - lost at Winchester. 

Griffen, John S. - E, 31 - lost leg, McDowell Poca. 

Griff en, Robert H. ('62-4) - McClenahan's Battery- w'd, White Post - Trimble 
Grogg, Ami - C, 14 Cav. - D, service. 

Grogg, John - ('62) - E, 31 D 

Grogg, Samuel - F, 25 W. Va. 

Grogg, William - ('62) - F, 25 - Sec'd L't - k, Gaines' Mill. 

Grogg, William - E, 31 - k, Sec'd Manassas. 

Gum, Aaron D. - ('61-2) - Hutton's Mt'd Inf. (C. 20 Cav.). . . .Meadowdale 

Gum, Abisha R. - F, 25 - D, in hospital. 

Gum, Adam F. - B, 31 - Serg't. - w'd, McDowell - p'r P't Lookout. ... D 

Gum, Adam L. - Militia D 

Gum, Clark - F, 25 Poca. 

Gum, Cornelius D 

Gum, George W. - k, New Market. 
Gum, James E. - D, '61 in service. 
Gum, Jared - D, in service. 

Gum, John - F, 25 D 

Gum, John E. - I, 19 Cav D 

Gum, Josiah - ('62) - E, 31 - m. w'd., Port Republic. 

Gum, Otho - ('61) - F. 25 - c'p. Wilderness - p'r, Elmira D 

Gum, Peter - F, 25 - lost leg, Cedar Mountain Meadowdale 

Gum, Thomas G. - F, 25 D 

Gum, William W. - ('61-2) - F, 25 - Serg't Mill Gap 

Gwin, Blackburn - B, 31 - w'd Port Republic - disch'd D 

Gwin, David - not a soldier, but D, in prison. 

Gwin, Houston F. - ('62) - E, 31 - w'd Port Republic D 

Gwin, Morgan. 

Gwin, Moses - E, 26 Cav Trimble 

Gwin, Samuel - E, 26 Cav D 

Hamilton, James - Militia - D. '62. 

Hamilton, John G. - Hutton's Inf Vanderpool 

Hamilton, William A. - ('62) - E, 31 D 

Hammer, George - H, 31 D 

Hansel, John H. - E, 31 - w'd in neck D 

Hansel, Matthew W. - Capt. Robert's Co. - w'd, D, fever, '62. 

Harold, Miles - Pendleton Rifles - w'd Rich Mtn D 

Harouff, Jacob - B, 31 - D, in hospital. 

Helmich, Jonathan - K, 25 Augusta 

Helmick, Philip - D, 62 Monterey 

Helms, James W. - ('61-5) - B, 31 D 

202 History of Highland County 

Helms, Strother - B, 31 - w'd Spottsylvania D 

Hetzel, William A. - B, 31 - w'd, Port Republic - disch'd, disability. ... D 

Hevener, George W. - E, 31 Hightown 

Hevener, Jacob G. - D, 62 - w'd, Strasburg and New Market D 

Hevener, Jacob P. - ('62) - E, 31 D 

Hevener, Peter S. - ('61) - E, 31 - lost on exchange. 

Hevener, William D. - ('62) - E, 31 D 

Hicklin, George W. - ('64-5) - Thompson's Battery Clover Creek 

Hicklin, James - B, 31 - Corp. - w'd, Port Republic - disch'd D 

Hicklin, John S. - ('61-5) - B, 31 - w'd, Port Republic Clover Creek 

Hidy, Jacob H. - C, 14 Cav West 

Hill, Joseph W. - ('62) - E, 31 D 

Hinegardner, Henry B. - ('61) - E, 31 D 

Hiner, A. Bird - G, 18 Cav D 

Hiner, Gideon J. - D, '62 - w'd, Winchester Monterey 

Hiner, Hardin - ('64-5) - A, 62 D 

Hiner, Harmon - E, 31 - D, fever, near McDowell. 
Hiner, Harmon A. - ('61) - E, 31 - k, Peninsula, '62. 

Hiner, James P. - ('63-5) - A, 62 D 

Hiner, John W. - ('61) - E, 31 - k, below Richmond, '65. 

Hiner, William of J. - F, 25 Mo. 

Hiner, William H. - ('64-5) - C, 20 Cav. - w'd Smithfield and 

Winchester Mill Gap 

Hite, Allen - ('61) - E, 31 Hively 

Hite, Erasmus H. - E, 31 - Fourth Serg't D 

Hite, Isaac H. - ('62) - E, 31 D 

Hodge, James A. - B, 31 Headwaters 

Hook, Robert N. - B, 31 D 

Hoover, Michael - E, 31 D 

Huff, John T. - Surgeon W. Va. 

Hull, Felix H. - ('61-2) - E, 31 - Capt. - transferred to Brigade 

Qm'r. Dept. D, '62. 
Hull, George W. - Militia - Col. D, 62 

Hupman, George H. - Reserves D 

Hupman, James H. - B, 31 - w'd, Port Republic D 

Hupman, J. V. - B, 31 - m. w'd, near Winchester. 

Hupman, Peter H. - ('61-5) - B, 31 - w'd Patna 

Hupman, Robert S. - ('61-5) - F, 25 D 

Jack, Cain - F, 25 D 

Jack, Jacob - F, 25 '. D 

Jack, Levi S. - A, 18 Cav D 

Jack, Martin M. - F, 25 Crabbottom 

Johnston, John K. - ('61-5) - K, 14 Vanderpool 

Jones, Charles P. - ('63-5) - E, 18 Cav Monterey 

Jones, Harrison H. - ('61-5) - B, 31 - Sec'd L't - w'd, Gaines Mill.. . . Doe Hill 
Jones, Henry C. - Militia D 

History of Highland County 203 

Jones, Jared A. - ('64-5) - G, 11 Cav D 

Jones, John S. - ('61) - E, 31 Illinois? 

Jones, John W. - H, 31 - D, in service. 

Jones, John W. of D. H. - F, 25 - D, in service at Whitehall. 

Jones, Joseph - E, 31 Monterey 

Jones, Joseph M. - H, 31. 

Jones, Silas B. - ('61) - E, 31 D 

Jones, Thomas C. - F, 25 - p'r, Elmira and P't Lookout D 

Jones, William - H, 31 - D, in prison. 

Karicofe, Benjamin I. - ('61-5) - Carpenter's Battery - w'd, at 

Spottsylvania D 

Karicofe, Madison - F, 25 - Capt. - D, smallpox. 

Keister, William R. - B, 31 - First L't. - transferred D 

Kelly, Andrew J. - F, 25. 

Kelly, William D. - E, 31 - p'r, Elmira, 11 mo. - D, in service. 

Ketterman, H, 31 - k, on raid. 

Kincaid, Floyd - ('62-5) - G, 18 Cav. - L't - p'r, F't Delaware and 

P't Lookout Williamsville 

Kincaid, S. Brown - B, 19 Cav Williamsville 

Kincaid, Warwick C. - ('61-5) - B, 31 - L't - w'd, Bunker Hill and 


Kincaid, Wesley B. - C, 26 Cav Bolar 

Kirby, James W. - B. 31 D 

Koontz, George W. - Shumate's Battery Woodstock 

Kramer, Adam - F, 25 - m. w'd. 

Kramer, Anthony - F, 25 W. Va. 

Kramer, Henry - Jackson's Cav. - k, in battle. 

Kramer, Philip - F, 25 W. Va " 

Leach, Elijah S. - B, 31 - w'd, Port Republic D 

Leach, James - B, 31 - c'p, near Petersburg D 

Leach, John M. - B, 31 - m. w'd, Port Republic. 

Leach, John T. - B, 31 - m. w'd, Spottsylvania. 

Leach, Robert D. - ('61-5) - B, 31 - w'd near Manassas and Port 

Republic D 

Leach, Sylvester — B, 31 - transferred D 

Leach, Timothy - B, 31 - D, Camp Chase. 

Lightner, Anthony - I, 19 Cav Valley Center 

Lightner, John H. - ('62) - E, 31 D 

Lightner, Samuel - ('61) - E, 31 D 

Lightner, William S. - ('61) - E, 31 - w'd, Cross Keys Fauquier 

Lockridge, Andrew J. - B, 31 - w'd, twice - disch'd D 

Lockridge, John W. - B, 31 D 

Lockridge, Stephen D 

Long, Robert S. - E, 31 D 

Lowrey, Newton, G. G. - C, 26 Cav Mill Gap 

Lunsford, Joshua - H, 31 - w'd, Cedar Mtn Monterey 

204 History of Highland County 

Lunsford, Noah - ('61) - E, 31 Bartow, W. Va. 

Lyman, William R. - B, 31 - Capt. - drillmaster from Va. Military 

Institute New Orleans, La. 

Malcomb, Balsor - B, 31 - w'd, Petersburg D 

Malcomb, Baxter - B, 31 - w'd, Petersburg D 

Malcomb, Jared M. - B, 31 - D, in service. 

Malcomb, Martin V. - ('64-5) - B, 31 McDowell 

Malcomb, Renick - B, 31 - D, in service. 
Malcomb, William R. - D, in service. 

Manley, David F. - B, 31 - c'p, South Mtn D 

Manley, James - B, 31 D 

Marshall, Franklin - H, 31 - w'd, Sec'd Manassas - c'p, Cedar 

Mtn - p'r, P't Lookout - Crabbottom . 

Marshall, John A. - E, 31 D 

Marshall, John L. ('62-5) - G, 11 Cav D 

Marshall, Thomas J. - ('62-5) - H, 31 D 

Marshall, Warren - F, 25 - Serg't D 

Masters, Andrew M. - ('61-5) - B, 31 - disch'd, over age D 

Masters, Dewitt - c'p, near Petersburg D 

Masters, Robert C. - B, 31 D 

Matheny, Daniel ? D 

Matheny, Jacob C. - E, 31 - Capt. - w'd, McDowell and Spottsylvania. D 

Matheny, John G. ? 

Matheny, Levi - E, 31 - D, fever. 

Mauzy, George W. ('64-5) - I, 19 Cav New Hampden 

McAllister, George A. - ('61-5) - E, 31 - w'd, Cross Keys D 

McAllister, J. William - G, 18, Bath Squadron - p'r, F't Delaware. . . McClung 

McAllister, Thomas S. - ('61-5) - E, 31 - p'r, F't Delaware Valley Center 

McClintic, Andrew B. - 1 1 Cav D 

McClung, Lewis M. - ('62-4) - C, 14 Cav. - lost leg, Winchester . . Clover Creek 

McClung, Silas B. - C, 14 Cav Upper Tract, W. Va. 

McCoy, Andrew J. - F, 25 D 

McCoy, Henry - D, in prison. 

McCoy, William - F, 25 - k, Port Republic. 

McCray, Joseph - B, 31 - k, Port Republic. 

McCray, Joshua - B, 31 D 

McCray, Sinclair - B, 31 - k, Gaines Mill. 

McDannald, Samuel J. - ('63-5) - B, 31 D 

McGlaughlin, Ewan A. - ('63-5) - C, 20 Cav D 

McGlaughlin, Robert - E, 31 - w'd, Alleghany Mtn - D, Elmira. 
McGuffin, Adam G. - ('61-5) - E, 25 - L't - c'p, Rich Mtn - w'd, 

Chancellorsville Bolar 

McNulty, John S. - Ordnance Dept. - L't - c'p, Waynesboro - 

p'r, F't Delaware McDowell 

Mitchell, Thomas - C, 20 Cav D 

Morton, Edward - K, 62 - k, Williamsport. 

History of Highland County 205 

Mowrey, Samuel - D, '62 West 

Mullenax, George - ('62) - E, 31 D 

Mullenax, Henry A. - ('61-5) - B, 62 D 

Mullenax, William A. - Nelson's Co., P, 62 D 

Newman, Andrew T. - C, 14 Cav Crabbottom 

Newman, John - C, 14 Cav D 

Newman, Salisbury - C, 14 Cav Crabbottom 

Oaks, William R. - B, 31 - k, Hatcher's Run. 

Page, Curtis - H, 31 - w'd, foot, Cedar Creek Marion Co., W. Va. 

Page, John C. - ('62) - E, 31 ( I, 19 Cav.) - w'd, Bunker Hill Naples 

Palmer, Josiah H. - ('63-5) -1,11 Cav New Hampden 

Patterson, James F. - ('61) - E, 31 - First Serg't Poca. 

Patterson, S. Pruyne - E, 31 D 

Peck, Enos. 

Peck, Jacob - H, 31 D 

Pence, H. D. - B, 31 D 

Pence, Reuben D. - E, 31 D 

Perry, John O. - B, 31 - Qm'r. Serg't - w'd, Greenbrier River D 

Propst, Eli - F, 25. D 

Propst, Henry - B, 31 D 

Propst, James K D 

Propst, Jeremiah J. - B, 31 - w'd, Winchester and Gettysburg D 

Propst, John - F, 25. 

Propst, S. Edward - Reserves D 

Propst, Valentine - F, 25 - (?, 62) - k, Winchester. 

Pruitt, John C. - I, 1st, Md. - w'd, in W. Va Pinckney 

Puffenberger, Benjamin. 

Puffenberger, Jonas. 

Pullin, Adam. 

Pullin, George W. - B, 31 - D, P't Lookout. 

Pullin, Henry B. - ('61-5) - B, 31 - L't - w'd, Cedar Cr D 

Pullin, Hughart M. - ('61-5) - B, 31 - w'd, Gettysburg and Cold 

Harbor - disch'd D 

Pullin, James, H. A. - E, 31, - c'p, near Farmville - p'r, P't Look- 
out Sunrise 

Pullin; James W. - E, 31 - k, Alleghany Mtn. 

Pullin, Jesse B. M. - ('62) - E, 31 - m. w'd, Cedar Cr. 

Pullin, Jesse H. - ('61-5) - E, 31 - p'r, Elmira D 

Pullin, John E. C. - E, 31 D 

Pullin, John M. - E, 31 D 

Pullin, Melville N. - E, 31 - c'p, Cedar Cr. - p'r, P't Lookout D 

Pullin, Robert C D 

Rader, Claudius G. - E, 31 D 

Ralston, James A. - B, 31 - w'd, Port Republic and Wilderness. . .McDowell 

Ralston, John - B, 31 - disch'd, over age D 

Ralston, Josiah - Reserves D 

206 History of Highland County 

Ralston, Samuel - Reserves D 

Ralston, Samuel A. - ('61) - E, 31 - w'd, Wilderness D 

Ralston, Thomas J. - ('61) - E, 31 - w'd, Gettysburg - p'r, F't 

Delaware and P't Lookout D 

Revercomb, Archibald, k. 
Revercomb, Charles. 

Revercomb, George B D 

Revercomb, John R D 

Revercomb, Tippecanoe Williamsville 

Rexrode, A. M D 

Rexrode, Addison - ('64) - K, 62 - w'd, Winchester - p'r, P't 

Lookout Doe Hill 

Rexrode, Daniel H. ('62) - E, 31 D 

Rexrode, George A. - ('61-2) - E, 31 - w'd, McDowell Hightown 

Rexrode, George J. - ('61-4) - K, 62 D 

Rexrode, George M. - K, 62 Hightown, R. F. D. 

Rexrode, Soloman, Jr. - ('61) - E, 31 D 

Rexrode, Sylvester W. - ('61-5) - E, 31 - w'd, Gettysburg - p'r, 

P't Lookout and F't Delaware Hightown 

Rexrode, Washington - ('63-5) E, 62 Crabbottom 

Rexrode, William J. - ('62) - E, 31 D 

Reynolds, Stephen J D 

Reynolds, William - G, 11 Cav D 

Reynolds, Winfield S. - provost guard D 

Rider, J. S. 

Rider, Richard - B, 31 - k, Port Republic. 

Robertson, Jesse - Reserves D 

Robertson, John S. - E, 31 D 

Robinson, William - E, 31 - p'r, Elmira D 

Rogers, John B. - McClenahan's Battery - lost leg D 

Ross, John A. - B, 31 D 

Rowe, John W. 

Rusmisell, John I. - F, 25 - Serg't D 

Rymer, Thomas J. - ('61-5) - D, 62 - w'd, Patterson's Cr. and 

Fisher's Hill - p'r, P't Lookout and F't Delaware D 

Seiver, John A. - C, 14 Cav D 

Seiver, Samuel - Jackson's Cav. 

Seybert, Andrew D 

Seybert, Eli D 

Seybert, John W. - ('62) - E, 31 - c'p D 

Seybert, William - E, 31 - k, Winchester. 
Shafer, Davis A. - B, 31. 

Shafer, George W. - B, 31 D 

Shafer, J. W. - B, 31 - Cor'p. - k, Port Republic. 

Shirley, Jonathan - D, 62 D 

hrader, Solomon - F, 25 D 

History of Highland County 207 

Shultz, John - ('61-5) - F, 11 Cav D 

Shumate, Jacob L. - ('61-5) - C, 6 Cav. - c'p Gettysburg - p'r, 

P't Lookout and F't Delaware McDowell 

Simmons, Andrew J. - ('61) - E, 31 Doe Hill 

Simmons, Christian - F, 25 - p'r, P't Lookout and Elmira Doe Hill 

Simmons, Eli - F, 25 - k, near Richmond. 

Simmons, Emmanuel. 

Simmons, George - F, 25 - D, in service. 

Simmons, Granville D. 

Simmons, John W. ('62-5) - D, 62 - Serg't - p'r, Camp 

Chase Monterey, R. F. D. 

Simmons, Wesley. 

Simmons, William H. - F, 25 D 

Sipe, John E. - C, 14 Cav D 

Siple, Joseph - Franklin Guards, A, 25 - (I, 18 Cav.) Jennings Gap 

Siron, Abel C - ('61-5) - B, 31 - p'r, P't Lookout Doe Hill 

Siron, Gilbert - ('64-5) - G, 11 Cav McDowell 

Siron, Joel - Signal Corps D 

Siron, John - B, 31 - k, Port Republic. 

Slaven, Stewart C. - A, 20 Cav. - twice captured D 

Smith, Levi - F, 25 Upshur Co., W. Va. 

Smith, Martin V. - C, 20 Cav Valley Center. 

Smith, Simeon - B, 31 D 

Snyder, Adam C ,. D 

Snyder, Calvin C Crabbottom 

Snyder, F. Josephus - E, 31 D 

Snyder, Henry - I, 62 W. Va. 

Snyder, Washington C. - E, 31 - Serg't D 

Sommers, William M. ('62) - E, 31 - First Serg't D 

Sponangle, William J. - ('62) - E, 31 D 

Sprouse, Jacob - p'r, P't Lookout D 

Stephenson, A. Tyler - C, 14 Cav. - Commissary Serg't D 

Stephenson, Lucius H. - C, 14 Cav. - First L't D 

Stephenson, Oscar A. - ('63-5) - C, 14 Cav Meadowdale 

Sterrett, Samuel W. - H, 14 Cav D 

Steuart, Charles C. - B, 31 - m. w'd, Wilderness. 

Steuart, Edward J. - B, 31 Valley Center 

Steuart, Henry C. - B, 31 - k, Hatcher's Run. 
Steuart, James M. - B, 31 - k, Port Republic. 

Steuart, John E. - C, 14 Cav. - Serg't. - p'r, P't Lookout D 

Steuart, Martin V. - B, 31 - Brigade Ordnance Serg't McDowell 

Suddarth, Frank - ('61-5) - B, 25 - w'd, Rich Mtn and Wilderness D 

Swadley, Adam F. - ('61) - E, 31 - L't D 

Swadley, John S. - ('62) - (Reserves) Burnsville 

Taylor, Emmanuel , . . . D 

Townsend, W. D.. ('61) - E, 31 - w'd D 

208 History of Highland County 

Trainor, Ami - F, 25 - w'd, hand, Cedar Mtn D 

Trainor, Brown - F, 25 Dunmore 

Trainor, Jehu - F, 25 - Orderly Serg't Rimel, W. Va. 

Trimble, Francis M - ?, 31 Staunton 

Trimble, George W. - k, Winchester. 
Trimble, Harvey - D, '62. 

Vance, William H. - ('61-5) - B, 31 - Co. Commissary McDowell 

Vanpelt, A. M. - B, 31 - detailed to Richmond Arsenal. 

Vanpelt, Sinclair - B, 31 D 

Varner, Benjamin - H, 31 - w'd, Fredericksburg. 
Varner, Daniel S. - ('62) - E, 31 - m. w'd. 
Varner, David - E, 31 - k, Port Republic. 
Varner, George - F, 25 - m. w'd, McDowell. 

Varner, Henry - ('62) - E, 31 D 

Varner, John - E, 31 Fullerton, Neb. 

Varner, Peter - D, 62 D 

Varner, Washington - ('62) - E, 31 - lost leg, Port Republic D 

Varner, William H. - H, 31 D 

Vint, Hamilton D 

AWade, Charles - Militia - p'r, Camp Chase D 

\Wade, Howard - C, 20 Cav. - c'p, Smithfield D 

Wagoner, David - k, Port Republic. 
Wagoner, George - k, McDowell. 
Wagoner, Henry - k, by guerrillas. 

Wagoner, Jacob D 

Wagoner, John B - D, 62 D 

Wagoner, John M. - ('61) - E, 31 - D, in service. 

Wagoner, Uriah - ('64-5) - D, 20 Monterey 

Wallace, John S. - ('63-5) - G, 18 - w'd, Darkesville Valley Center 

Waybright, Andrew J. - ('62-5) - C, 14 Cav D 

Waybright, Morgan - A, 18 Cav Nebr. 

Waybright, Peter - ('62) - E, 31 D 

Weese, Haman - A, 18 Cav. - c'p, Gettysburg Monterey 

White, Allen — A, 18 Cav. - c'p, Piedmont D 

White, George D 

White, Harmon - Reserves D 

White, Peter D 

White, Solomon D 

Whitelaw, Nicholas A. - ('62-4) - E, 31 - disch'd Hightown 

Wiley, Marcellus F. - I, 19 Cav Bolar 

Wilson, Charles W. - F, 25 - p'r, P't Lookout and Elmira D 

Wilson, Eldridge R. V. - D, 62 - w'd, Cold Harbor Doe Hill 

Wilson, Hamilton - B, 31 D 

Wilson, Hezekiah - B, 31 - c'p and missing. 

Wilson, James C. - F, 25. 

Wilson, Jared M. - F, 25 D 

History of Highland County 209 

Wilson, John A. - B, 31 - D, in hospital. 

Wilson, John E. - ('62) - E, 31 Monterey 

Wilson, Josiah - ('62-5) - F, 25 - w'd, Wilderness - p'r, P't 

Lookout and Elmira. 
Wilson, Osborne - ('61-5) - E, 31 - Sec'd Serg't - c'p, Five Forks 

p'r, P't Lookout Monterey 

Wilson, Samuel A. - provost guard D 

Wilson, Samuel B. - D, fever. 

Wilson, William H. - F, 25 Sheldon, Mo. 

Wimer, Benjamin - C, 62 - D, in service. 

Wimer, Cornelius - C, 14 Crabbottom 

Wimer, Emmanuel - C, 62 D 

Wimer, Ephraim - ('61-5) - I, 62 - L't - w'd, New Market - c'p D 

Wimer, George - C, 62 - k, Williamsport. 

Wimer, Jacob - C, 62 Crabbottom 

Wimer, Joseph - C, 62 Crabbottom 

Wimer, Nathan - C, 62 D 

Wise, Jonathan - Bath Sgd'n, 11 Cav. - m. w'd, near Richmond. 

Wiseman, Thomas J. ('64-5) - B, 31 Clover Creek 

Woods, Amos - Militia - m. w'd, G'brier River. 

Woods, David - F, 25 - D, Elmira. 

Woods, John B. - E, 31 - w'd, Gettysburg - D, in prison. 

Woods, Newton B. - E, 46, Bath Cav Hightown 

Woods, Peter - C, 20 Cav Mill Gap 

Woods, Thomas J. - A, 20 Cav. - p'r, Camp Chase and Rock Island.. . . D 

Wright, Charles - ('61-5) - B, 31 D 

Wright, James H. P. - ('61) - E, 31 D 

Wright, William - B, 31 - w'd, McDowell D 



Barkley, Henry - K, 62. 

Beverage, Josiah. 

Cross, Charles G. - A, 18 Cav. 

Carrichoff, Lewis A. - K, 62. 

Corbett, Mustoer H. - I, 25. 

Corrigan, James. 

Eckard, Job - H, 38. 

Eye, Samuel H. - I, 62 D 

Harold, Daniel H. - K, 62 D 

Houlihan, Michael - I, 25 - lost arm, Gettysburg - c'p. 

Johnston, John K Vanderpool 

Jones, Charles P. - E, 18 Cav Monterey 

Lowman, John I. - w'd, McDowell. 
Maloy, Patrick - in Augusta Company. 

210 History of Highland County 

McClintic, Andrew B. - Bath Cav D 

Pruitt, John C Pinckney 

Sipe, Joseph - Franklin Guards, I, 18 Cav. 

Sterrett, Samuel W. - H, 14 Cav D 

Suddarth, Frank. 

Vandevender, W. H. 

Vint, William - G, 18 Cav. 

Wallace, John S. - w'd. 

Wees, Haman. 

Wimer, Ephraim - I, 62 - w'd, New Market. 

Wimer, Jacob - C, 62. 

Wimer, Nathan - C, 62. 

Wimer, Joseph - C, 62. 

History of Highland County 211 



Slavery in Highland - Values of Slaves - Slavery Regulations - Slaveholders in 
1800 - Manumission - Free Negroes - The Negro To-Day. 

THE negro appeared in Highland within ten years from the 
settlement, if, indeed, one or more members of the race 
did not come with the first pioneers on the Bullpasture. The 
first known individual was a girl or young woman who was 
purchased for Ann Jane Usher by her guardian before the 
Indian War. It is very possible that she was the one whom 
Mrs. Loftus Pullin (nee Usher) set free by her will in 1805. 

By this date there was a considerable number of slaves in 
the Highland area. In 1801, Loftus Pullin owned nine. In 
1802, John Peebles also had nine, while his neighbors, Robert 
and James Carlile, had seven and three, respectively. The 
Bensons, the Lockridges, and the Wilsons on Bolar Run were 
also considerable slave owners. 

The better agricultural lands of Highland which had been 
reduced to tillage were mainly the fertile river bottoms. These 
were held in tracts of considerable size, and thus caused the 
plantation system to gain a foothold. Consequently the slaves 
were held almost exclusively by the well-to-do river farmers. 

The slave population was not evenly distributed. Pendle- 
ton never owned slaves in anything like the same degree as 
Bath, and the number in Highland north of the central divide 
seems always to have been much less than to the southward. 
Here again, the laws of physical geography come into play. 
The northern half of Highland has a much smaller proportion 
of river bottom than the southern. Furthermore, the people 
of that section were largely of German origin, and this element 
was never inclined to make much use of slavery. 

The limestone belt which runs the whole length of the 
Bluegrass Valley is a fine substitute for river bottom, yet it 

212 History of Highland County 

was esteemed better suited to grazing than tillage, and slavery 
was never much in vogue where field agriculture was not 
largely followed. Accordingly it had a small representation in 
this valley. It was on the Bullpasture and on the lower courses 
of Jackson's River and the Cowpasture in Highland that the 
most slaves were to be found. 

The slave had but one name, which was often borrowed 
from the celebrities of old Rome or from its mythology. Thus 
Lancelot Graham had a slave named Neptune. The woman 
whom Mrs. Pullin freed was Daphne. The field hands were 
lodged in small log cabins. But few indeed are the visible 
relics of slavery in Highland at this day, and while here and 
there a slave cabin still exists, it is never, perhaps, as a dwell- 
ing, but only as a truck room, hardly suggestive of its former 

In the earlier days of our local history, slaves were less 
valuable than in the period before the great war. The ten 
slaves of David Gwin in 1822 were valued at $250 to $400 each. 
The fourteen of George Benson in 1816 were rated at $2,895. 
The nine of Loftus Pullin in 1801 were worth $2,070. An in- 
fant would be worth but $50, while an old man or woman had 
scarcely any value at all. At the William Sitlington sale in 
1825, the boys and girls from three to thirteen years old sold at 
$100 to $300 each, according to age. A man of twenty-four 
sold at $450, while another of fifty-five brought but $150. A 
woman of forty years was still rated at $200, but the value of 
one of fifty had significantly dropped to $100. A woman of 
seventy and a demented man of thirty found no bidders. 

In 1840 slaves were worth $250 to $600, and in the decade 
of the 50's they became still more valuable. It was this en- 
hancement of value which made the South so tenacious in its 
support of the institution. Slavery is not voluntarily aban- 
doned so long as slaves rise in value. Had the tendency been 
the other way in America the emancipation bill which came 
before the Virginia Legislature of 1832 would probably have 
carried. It was lost by only one vote. Had it become a law, 
the border slave states would have followed the example of 
Virginia, and the war of 1861 might not have occurred. 

History of Highland County 213 

While slavery continued, repressive laws and regulations 
were found necessary. If a slave gave a poisonous drug with 
intent to kill, the penalty was death without benefit of clergy. 
It was a misdemeanor with a penalty of not more than thirty- 
nine lashes for a slave to prepare or administer any medicines, 
unless by permission of the master. 

Slave districts were regularly patroled. Highland was di- 
vided into patrol districts, each with a captain and his party 
of five to seven men. It was the duty of such patrol party to 
visit all negro quarters at stated intervals, usually weekly or 
bi-weekly, and all other places which might fall under sus- 
picion of unlawful assembly. Negroes were whipped by the 
patrol when found straying away without permission. 

Occasional crimes were committed by the blacks and some- 
times of serious nature. Chainey, a slave of Jane Lafferty of 
Bath, was hanged in 1800 for the murder of her two-year-old 
child, the owner being indemnified by the county in the sum 
of $233.33. Such was a requirement of the criminal code. Sam, 
a slave of William Wilson, was hanged at Monterey in 1856 
for the murder of Francis W. Sheridan on Jackson's River. 

Although under slavery repressive rules toward the black 
people were unavoidable, the institution was not the pitiless 
tyrant it was represented to be by uninformed Northern Abo- 
litionists. An occasional master was harsh toward his slaves, 
but in the main the relations between master and slave were 
kindly. When a man was hired out, as was often done, he 
was permitted to be at home from Saturday noon till Monday 
morning. A master on the Bullpasture required a man slave 
to perform work on Sunday, which the latter objected to doing, 
he as well as his master being a member of church. The 
master had his man "churched" for disobedient behavior, yet 
the latter was acquitted by a jury of slaveholders. 

While the Southern men were so generally at the front 
during the war of 1861, it was in the power of the negroes to 
work immense harm both positive and negative. A general 
uprising on their part would at once have disbanded the South- 
ern armies, yet nothing of the sort occurred. The especial 
crime for which so many negroes have been lynched since the 

214 History of Highland County 

war was very rare in slavery days, though, indeed, not un- 

Free labor being much more general in Highland than slave 
labor, there was a division of sentiment with respect to the 
latter. Slaves were every now and then set free by their own- 
ers, especially by will. The widow of Alexander Hamilton 
freed forty slaves. Barbara Wilson freed a number, and the 
following paper appears to relate to still another, an infant 
which did not come within the provisions of her will. 

Know all men by these presents that I, Barbara Wilson, of the County of 
Bath and Commonwealth of Virginia, being upon principle opposed to holding 
any person in slavery, and for other good causes me thereunto moving, have 
liberated, emancipated, and forever quit claim, and by these presents liberate, 
emancipate, and forever quit claim to and discharge from my service my white 
child slave named Sarah Jane, aged about five months, and I do hereby bind 
myself, my heirs, executors, and administrators forever, to release and dis- 
charge from my own or their service the said white child slave, Sarah Jane and 
her future increase. In testimony whereof I have hereunto subscribed my 
name and affixed my seal the fifth day of January in the Year of our Lord 


Yet the free negro was an embarrassment, even to himself. 
His presence was not very welcome in communities where 
there were slaves, and he was very likely to lead an idle, worth- 
less existence. If he became unable to work, the estate of the 
former master became responsible for his support. His so- 
journ in a given county of the state was dependent on the will 
of the county court. He had to be registered by the county 
clerk, a certificate thereof being given him for preservation. 
An objectionable freedman might be prohibited from entering 
a county, and a misbehaving freedman already in might be 
ordered out. If he were delinquent in his taxes he could be 
hired out by the county until the shortage was thus made 
good. The last mention of ante-bellum freedmen on the rec- 
ords of Highland was when, in the summer of 1864, Madison 
Douglas was allowed to remain. 

A year later, slavery in America was a thing of the past. 
It was unsound in principle, and on moral and economic 
grounds it was bad in practice. It was a mildew, which, in 

History of Highland County 


the words of an eminent Virginian, "has blighted every region 
it has touched from the creation of the world." 

During the war the small slave population of Highland be- 
came demoralized and scattered. Some of the slaves were 
enticed away by Federal soldiers. At the close of the struggle 
the white people went to work without much reference to the 
help formerly derived from the colored race. Under freedom, 
the negro population of Highland is smaller than under slavery. 
In Bluegrass District there is only one family. In Monterey 
District the representation is very slight in number and is 
wholly at the county seat. Stonewall District contains by far 
the largest share, the most of it being massed in the vicinity 
of McDowell, where, along the pike near the battlefield, there 
is a settlement called Stringtown. 

For the year 1800, the following slaveholders are recorded 
in the Pendleton section of Highland : 

Armstrong, Mary. 
Benson, Mathias. 
Bodkin, John. 
Chew, Ezekiel. 
Curry, James, Sr. 
Devericks, John. 
Devericks, Thomas. 
Ervine, George. 
Ervine, William. 
Fleisher, Catharine. 

Fleisher, William. 
Gum, Isaac. 
Hull, Adam, Jr. 
Hull, Peter. 
Hull, Samuel B. 
Malcomb, Robert. 
Rymer, George. 
Seybert, Jacob. 
Sims, Silas. 
Sitlington, John. 

216 History of Highland County 



The Call of the West - Extent of Emigration from Highland - Prominent Emi- 
grants - Letter by a Highland Emigrant. 


T goes without saying that the older states of the Union 

peopled the newer ones. But the Old Frontier, which 
rested along the entire Alleghany front, was foremost in this 
movement, and contributed very heavily to the settlement of 
the Mississippi basin. 

In 1783, after Highland had been settled almost forty years, 
there were yet but 10,000 people west of the Alleghanies. Seven 
years later there were 100,000 beyond the mountains, three- 
fourths of them in Kentucky, and nearly all these from Vir- 
ginia. Up to 1847 it is estimated that a third of the emigration 
to the West had gone from the Old Dominion. The census of 
1860 found 400,000 people of Virginia birth dwelling in other 
states. This was equal to a third of the white population re- 
maining in the state. 

A study of the genealogic chapter of this book is abundant 
evidence that the people of Highland have swarmed outward 
in great numbers. Families once quite numerous are now 
slimly represented or not at all. Occasionally a family name 
has scarcely more than maintained a foothold, even from the 
coming of the pioneer himself. The few have remained. The 
many have gone outward. 

The very slow and at times imperceptible growth in num- 
bers of the resident population is another point in evidence. 
Had a line of guards been kept all along the county boundary, 
permitting any person to come in, but no person to go out 
and stay out, the rate of natural increase that has been true of 
Highland County would have given it 40,000 people in the last 
census year instead of a little over 5,000. 

For many years the outflow from Highland was almost 

History of Highland County 217 

exclusively westward. The number moving in the opposite 
direction was scarcely worthy of notice. The westward cur- 
rent first occupied the upper section of the Greenbrier Valley. 
It then moved onward in a widening stream, scattering High- 
land surnames very widely in what is now West Virginia. It 
crossed the Ohio, keeping step with the opening of the country 
to settlement, and never halted, except for the waves of the 
Pacific Ocean. Another early current helped to swell the rush 
into Kentucky, whence with steady reinforcements from home, 
it has dispersed widely over the Southwest. The depleting of 
the East and the ultimate exhaustion of desirable land in the 
West, together with the changes wrought by the new industrial 
conditions, have caused the seaboard states to present a meas- 
ure of attraction which once was unthought of and, in fact, 
did not truly exist. As a consequence, Highland people have 
of late been moving somewhat numerously into the Valley, 
some pushing across the Blue Ridge into the counties of Pied- 
mont and Middle Virginia. 

There is not a Highland family but has kinsfolk abroad. 
Many of these were born abroad, have never seen their ances- 
tral county, and are strangers to its people. But there are 
nearer relatives, native to the county, who have migrated in 
all directions. Thus Highland is represented without by two 
classes of people ; those of Highland birth and those of High- 
land ancestry only. They are to be found from New York to 
San Francisco and from Chicago to the Mexican border. Some 
of them have amassed wealth in industrial occupations. Some 
have gone into professional careers. Some have been judges 
and legislators. Even a governor's chair or a seat in Congress 
with a national reputation has not proved beyond the reach 
of the man of Highland birth or parentage. At the present 
time Highland is furnishing at least two missionaries to the 
Dark Continent. 

It would thus appear that in the broader field of oppor- 
tunity which lies outside of these little mountain valleys, the 
emigrant from Highland has "made good." He has shown the 
capabilities of his stock, and has competed on even terms with 
Americans of other localities. 


218 History of Highland County 

It is, of course, the Highlanders by parentage only of whom 
the residents of the county know the least. The larger share 
of these have been quite lost sight of. Yet several are known 
to have attained eminence. The late John G. Carlisle of Ken- 
tucky, senator and cabinet officer, was a son of Robert and 
grandson of James, of the Bullpasture. His father left here in 
childhood and married a wife of Connecticut birth. Joseph 
Benson Foraker, ex-governor of Ohio and ex-senator, is of the 
Bensons of Highland and has near relatives here. Professor 
Robert A. Armstrong, of the University of West Virginia, so 
well and favorably known in the educational circles of his 
state, is a scion of the Armstrongs of Doe Hill. Benjamin 
Estill, Jr., of Washington County, Virginia, possessed an elo- 
quence that matched his commanding presence. He served in 
Congress in 1824-6. His father's name is commemorated in 
Estillville, a town of this state, as an uncle's name is in that of 
Estill County in Kentucky. The name of General Knox, reared 
on the Cowpasture, was given to the metropolis of East Ten- 

But Highland has furnished a congressman who grew to 
manhood on its own soil. General William McCoy removed 
from Doe Hill to Franklin about 1800, where he went into the 
mercantile business. He was also a large landholder, and 
possessed a well-stocked farm. In 1811 he was elected to 
Congress for the district comprising the counties of Augusta, 
Rockingham, Bath, Pendleton, and Hardy. His majority was 
135, although he carried but his own county and Rockingham. 
He was reelected for ten more terms, serving until 1833. He 
was a trusted friend of Andrew Jackson, and in Congress was 
a man of influence. For a number of years he held the im- 
portant position of chairman of the Committee on Ways and 
Means. He was likewise a member of the Constitutional Con- 
vention of Virginia in 1829. General McCoy is scarcely re- 
membered by any person now living, and no portrait exists, 
although he is known to have been tall and spare, and of com- 
manding presence. 

To select a few varying instances of the success of High- 
land men abroad, we would name the following: Adam C. 

History of Highland County 219 

Snyder is a judge of the Court of Appeals of West Virginia. 
Doctor J. R. S. Sterrett, an accomplished scholar and a pro- 
fessor in a leading American university, has traveled exten- 
sively in Europe and the Orient. He knows thirteen tongues 
and converses in several, his mastery of German being so com- 
plete as to cause him to be taken for a native German by the 
Germans themselves. The Rev. Robert H. Fleming, D. D., is 
at the head of the Presbyterian Orphanage at Lynchburg. 
William and George M. Life were also thoroughly educated 
divines, and the former founded Rye Seminary in New York. 
Professor Thomas H. Jones holds a prominent position in the 
Randolph-Macon system of secondary schools. Clifton E. 
Byrd and William H. Keister are superintendents of city 
schools at Shreveport, La., and Harrisonburg, Va., respect- 
ively. Charles S. McNulty is a leading attorney of Roanoke. 
Henry Jones, who went to Texas about 1825, left a million to 
his daughter. Jacob W. Byrd, an original "Forty-niner," nar- 
rowly escaped being lost in his journey across the western 
plains. Yet he reached El Dorado in safety and dug a com- 
petence out of its golden sands. Edward C. Rexrode is a high- 
salaried salesman in a produce house of the city of New York, 
and Charles A. Bradshaw is a very successful insurance- agent 
of Bluefield, W. Va. 

We conclude the chapter with a letter from a Highland 
man who had gone West. 

Franklin Co. Mo. Aug., 2, 1829. 
Dear Friend 

I Rec'd your friendly letter on the 31 of July bearing date June 1st which 
gave rise to every sensation of old friendship and caused them to Reverberate 
through all the faculties I possess as though we were personally Present. I 
hope we will have the pleasure of spending some time together yet and our 
latter days may Be our best ones, these leaves me well thank god and hope 
they will find you all the same. I have many things to Communicate But 
Being in one of John homespun's Bustles I must omit Part of them, tomorrow 
I start for Campmeeting on the Illinois a distance of 100 miles. I have been 
at 2 Campmeetings one Methodist 6 miles from home and the other was a 
Cumberland Presbyterian meeting one mile from home. The one in Illinois 
is a methodist meeting, Where I will see your mother's Cousins and Cynthia's 
uncle and Cousins. It appears uncertain whether Cynthia will come with 

220 History of Highland County 

the old people or not. present my compliments to her. tell her Now is the 
time to exercise Sound Judgment. She Is of age. Let her Speak for herself, 
my opinion is made on the Subject, therefore the prayer of her ever unthankful 
friend is that She may be enabled to Rejoice evermore, Pray without Ceasing 
and in every thing give thanks and be kept Blameless till the Coming of our 
lord and Saviour. 

my love to father and mother pendleton and family, tell phebeann I 
want to see her and susan very bad. I want to see Betsy ann and infant, all 
of you. Sir if you write about the time you Start I will meet you in Illinois 
and assist you the Balance of your Journey as you will Be wore out by that 
time, write and let me know all the news. I Must Return thanks for the 

last Being So Satisfactory. Give my love to and family, tell him to 

send me some money all if he can By you or your father as he has the Papers. 

I rote to them both last June. I also sent a note of $8.00 on the to your 

father for collection. I hope he will not neglect to Collect Principal & Interest 
to a fraction. 

I think hard of *s not writing, also of your father and mother. I 

have written Several times to them and they have turned a deff ear to all my 
entreaties. Is this Christian love? No, god forbid. Is this friendship. No. 
If ye only love them that love you how much more do ye than the Pharisees. 

You expect to winter in Boone. You will not like it as well as some other 
counties I think. George & Thomas B — & family are well and all the Moses 
Galls & families are well. John and Betsey are Single, the People are in per- 
fect health, a few shaking with the ague a sign of good health. 

I never expect to see Virginia, my mind is firmly fixed on a Residence 
for life if things cooperate with the present flattering Prospect. 

I am Sir Respectfully Yours &c. 


P. S. my unremitted love to Miss Rebecca — . let me know where she 
is and how her health is. My Compliments to old Mr. tommy R and family, 
tell Polly I was in hopes to have heard that her and friend — have Been 
Spliced Before this. Remember me to all Enquiring friends — to uncle John 
and aunt Betsy Cunningham In Particular and the family & to Nancy Camp- 
bell, her Brother thomas was well not long since. I conclude By sending my 
Compliments to old Miss Martha. 

Note: the postage on this letter, from Union, Mo. to Hull's Store 
(then) Pendleton county, was 25 cents. 

History of Highland County 221 



Particular Mention of Highland Men of More or Less Prominence. 

THE particular mention of certain individuals, which other- 
wise would appear in the chapter on family history, is 
reserved for the present one. 

Several of the Highland families may boast, if they choose, 
that their ancestors possessed coats of arms. A person of 
democratic impulse is inclined to scorn such a matter, yet it 
indicates a once honored social rank, whether or not such rank 
has been maintained. Again, certain families may point, if 
they see fit, to more or less illustrious connections. For in- 
stance, the wife of the pioneer Sullenberger was a cousin to 
General Winfield Scott. 

John Bradshaw, son of the pioneer, was county surveyor 
eighteen years and was also a veteran teacher, a number of 
persons of some prominence being his pupils. He wrote the 
will of John Graham, which, through no fault of his, led to a 
noted lawsuit. Eighteen hours of rigid cross-examination 
failed to bring out any flaw in his testimony. His son, Captain 
Robert H., had a promising career cut short by his death at 
Port Republic. 

Thomas Brown — Tomaso Bruno in Italian — merits mention 
as our only pioneer of that nationality. He is said to have been 
a sea captain in the War of 1812, about which time he came to 
America. He lived a while near the city of Washington. 

Andrew H. Byrd, the legislative father of Highland County, 
served twelve years in the House of Delegates. His son, 
John T., was in the legislature one term, but declined a renom- 
ination. In the great war, he served with much ability as a 
leader of Confederate cavalry. Prior thereto he was a major 
of militia. As a farmer, he is one of Highland's best. His 
sons, Clifton E., Adam M., and H. Houston, are graduates of 



222 History of Highland County 

the University of Virginia, and all are in professional life, the 
last named being the present Commonwealth's Attorney of 

The father and paternal grandfather of the pioneer Camp- 
bell were Presbyterian divines. His son Thomas possessed 
fine mathematical ability and was the first surveyor of High- 
land. Austin W. was one of its best read citizens and perhaps 
the first one to join the Masonic Order. Walter P., now en- 
gaged in the real estate business at Roanoke, was Commis- 
sioner of the Revenue for 21 years. Still other members of the 
connection have held positions of honor and trust. 

Cornelius Colaw was a justice of the war period. His son, 
John M., received the Master's degree from Dickinson College 
in 1892, and after taking his Bachelor's degree from the same 
college studied law at the University of Virginia. For three 
years he was principal of the Monterey High School. Though 
an active attorney, Mr. Colaw has cultivated his strong mathe- 
matical gift. He is a member of the American Mathematical 
Society, a frequent contributor to mathematical journals, and 
the author of mathematical textbooks. 

Collingwood A. Dickson, a well-read merchant of Trimble, 
is a son of General Sir Collingwood Dickson of the British 

William W. Fleming, a native of Nova Scotia, came to 
Highland shortly before the formation of the county. He was 
a man of strong intellect cultivated by constant reading. His 
personality was felt in every phase of public enterprise, and 
in particular he was a sturdy friend to the cause of education. 
He was recognized as an honest, upright, and intelligent citi- 

Captain David Gwin, a wealthy landowner of Jackson's 

•o^ji River, was a steadfast soldier in the wars with the Indians and 

v ^ British. He was one of the men who went to the relief of the 

Wilson family, and his military career continued until the close 

of the Revolution. 

Jacob Hevener, Jr., was a wealthy and prosperous stock- 
grower of Crabbottom, as have been his sons also. 
/- Benjamin H. Hiner graduated in law in 1892, but even be- 


History of Highland County 223 

fore his admission to the bar he was nominated as Prosecuting 
Attorney of Pendleton, holding that office eight years. In 1908 
he was a candidate for Congress, and though defeated he ran 
ahead of his ticket by 1,500 votes. Mr. Hiner is a very active 

The Hull family was very prominent in our early annals. 
The pioneer himself was a man of large means for his day. 
Peter, his oldest son, increased the estate, owning a large por- 
tion of the Crabbottom, his possessions in 1818 including 16 
slaves, 19 horses, 43 cows, and 60 sheep. He was an officer in 
the Revolution, a colonel of militia subsequent thereto, and a 
legislator also. He was very influential, but also domineering^ 
Major Peter Hull, his son, lived at McDowell, where he was a 
heavy landholder. He also sat in the Legislature and held 
various local offices. This branch of the Hull family is locally 
extinct in the male line. The late Joseph, a well-to-do farmer 
and upright citizen, is kindly remembered by his associates. 

The Jones connection has included quite a share of names of 
ability, education, and financial competence. Thomas, son of 
the pioneer Henry, was a prominent public man of Pendleton. 
Charles P., a grandson, took his LL. B. degree from the Uni- 
versity of Virginia and has been in active practice since 1868 
in this and adjoining counties. He has been leading counsel 
in numerous important civil and criminal cases. He has served 
in both branches of the State Legislature, and has been the 
only State Senator from Highland. From 1898 till 1906 he 
was Rector of the State University.* He is President of the 
Citizens' Bank of Monterey. Since 1900, his son, Edwin B., 
present Commonwealth's Attorney, has been associated with 
him in legal practice. Dr. Harrison H., senior physician of 
Highland, has been a practitioner since 1867, and has given all 
his children a liberal education. He is well known as a Sun- 
day School worker. His brother, Jared A., a popular, influen- 
tial, and well-to-do citizen, was County Treasurer from 1879 
until his death in 1910. Clarence A., son of Jared A., is a 
physician of Staunton, and Andrew L., another son, is an attor- 
ney of Monterey. 

*See Appendix T. 

224 ] History of Highland County 

William H. Keister is the very popular and efficient Super- 
intendent of the Harrisonburg schools. 

Joseph Layne was a well-informed person, and very useful 
in public life, especially during- the war period. 

The sons of Samuel Life were of superior attainments and 
three were college graduates. William and George M. took 
theological courses at Princeton and became Presbyterian di- 
vines in New York and Iowa. The former was likewise an 
educator. He founded a seminary at Rye, N. Y., and remained 
connected with it until his death. Abraham, lately deceased, 
had an inventive gift and constructed several useful appliances. 

Paul Lightner took the Master's degree from Dickenson 
College and practiced law in Illinois. Returning he repre- 
sented Bath and Highland in the House of Delegates and was 
considered one of the best educated men in Virginia. 

Captain Jacob C. Matheny, twice wounded in the Confed- 
erate service, was County Clerk 44 years. The office has since 
been held by his sons. 

Daniel G. McClung, a merchant more than 40 years, con- 
ducted a mercantile house at Richmond during the war and 
supplied the Confederate Army with uniforms. The latter 
part of his life was spent at Franklin, W. Va., where he organ- 
ized and was President of the Farmers' Bank. 

As Supervisor and the holder of other local offices, John S. 
McNulty has seen more public service than any other living 

Samuel Ruckman was a prominent and useful man, and had 
much to do with the organizing of Highland. His son, John H., 
invented a sewing machine. 

_ The R ev. William J. Ryder is remembered as a man of high 
character and sterling qualities. Stewart Ryder was also a 

Charles L. Siron, a graduate of Washington and Lee, spent 

two years in the Philippines as a teacher. He there collected 

a large number of the folklore tales of the natives, and it is his 

design to prepare these for publication. 

wjohn Sitlington, son-in-law to Colonel Peter Hull, was a 

History of Highland County 225 

large landowner and cattleman, first in Crabbottom and after- 
ward at McDowell. He was also in local public life. 

Washington Stephenson, who succeeded to the ownership 
of the Wilson farm at Bolar Run, held the office of Sheriff 
longer than anyone else. 

Lucius H. Stephenson took up the study of law at Lexing- 
ton in 1859, and practiced his profession at Monterey until his 
death in 1911. He was Commonwealth's Attorney 26 consecu- 
tive years, a Visitor of the Virginia Military Institute, and a 
Director of the National Valley Bank of Staunton. He was 
also an incorporator and promoter of the Citizens' Bank of 
Highland. Mr. Stephenson was not only an energetic, pains- 
taking, and successful attorney, but a prosperous man of busi- 
ness. He acquired large possessions and during his long and 
active life he wielded a great influence among his fellow citi- 
zens. In matters of local history he was exceptionally well 

Samuel W. Sterrett was educated at Washington and Lee 
University. He taught in Crabbottom, and was ruling elder 
in the church at New Hampden. He served his adopted county 
as chairman of its Board of Supervisors, and represented it for 
three terms in the House of Delegates. He was there a mem- 
ber of the Finance Committee and drafted several important 
laws. His son, Robert S., also a graduate of the same institu- 
tion, is principal of the Monterey High School. 

J. R. Sitlington Sterrett, reared at McDowell, received a 
very thorough education at the University of Virginia and at 
several German universities, taking the degree of Ph. D. at 
Munich, in 1880. He also studied at Athens, Greece. For sev- 
eral years he was engaged in archaeological work in Asia Minor, 
Assyria, and Babylonia. Since 1886 he has been Professor of 
Greek in Miami University, University of Texas, Amherst Col- 
lege, and Cornell University. He received the degree of LL. D. 
from the University of Aberdeen, Scotland, is a member of the 
Board of Managers of the American School of Classical Studies 
at Athens, and also is a member of several learned societies. 
As an author he is elsewhere mentioned. 

Amos Thorp was an eccentric and versatile bachelor hermit 

226 History of Highland County 

of the Bullpasture. Though entirely without school education 
he made himself well informed and even scholarly. He acquired 
a practical knowledge of surveying, constructing his own in- 
struments. He labored some time on a Dictionary of the Bible, 
the manuscript of which he burned. 

William S. Thompson was another of those versatile men 
who are also useful in a community. He surveyed land, taught 
school, and wrote numerous legal papers. 

The venerable John Trimble, whose eighty-eighth birth- 
day came a few days before the completion of this volume, 
acquired a competence through a long career as a merchant of 
his native county, and enjoys the evening of his days in well- 
earned retirement. 

William Wilson, and John, his son, were prominent citi- 
zens of Jackson's River. The latter was an officer of the Revo- 
lution and was honored with public position. 

History of Highland County 227 



Agricultural Interests - Latterday Customs - Effect of Industrial Changes - A 
Forward Look. 

A RIBBON of bottom land follows each larger watercourse 
in Highland. These ribbons vary in breadth, and some- 
times, as on the Cowpasture, are interrupted for short dis- 
tances. Along these larger streams, farmhouses succeed one 
another at frequent intervals. Farms are also found on the 
lower courses of the tributary streams. Tillage land is also 
seen on the low tables in the Bullpasture Valley and on the 
broken hillsides of the Straight Creek basin. But elsewhere, 
the higher ground is very little reduced to tillage or pasturage, 
except where limestone belts occur, as in the Bluegrass and 
Big valleys. 

Along the Bullpasture and Cowpasture there is more gen- 
eral farming than anywhere else. These valleys are somewhat 
lower than those to the westward and have a quicker soil. 
W. P. B. Lockridge has grown in one season 2,000 bushels of 
corn and 700 of wheat, his "bumper" crop of wheat having 
been 33 bushels to the acre. T. M. Devericks on Shaw's Fork 
has grown 28 bushels to the acre. Major J. H. Byrd, who has 
made a point of intensive cultivation, has grown four tons of 
timothy hay to the acre, and once took a state premium on his 
crop of 75 bushels of shelled corn to the acre. He sent 100 
selected ears to the exposition at Norfolk. 

The valley of Jackson's River is better for grass than the 
eastern valleys, and little of the soil is kept in tillage. Yet in 
Big Valley a yield of 93 bushels of corn to the acre has been 
reported. On the bottoms of Jackson's River, 25 stacks of hay 
will be seen in a favorable season in a field of only moderate 

In the Bluegrass Valley the grazing interest is likewise 
supreme, very little tilled ground beirw; seen. 

m Section 

Wes' '... 

Worgantown, WV 26505 

228 History of Highland County 

The native strength of the river bottoms and bluegrass 
pastures is apparent in the fine big oaks, maples, and hickories, 
especially on Jackson's River and in the Crabbottom. In for- 
mer years, walnut trunks as high as six feet four inches in di- 
ameter were burned in log piles. Yet such were the improvi- 
dent methods of the early people, that the compiler of the Vir- 
ginia Gazetteer of 1832, a man familiar with the worn soils 
east of the Blue Ridge, speaks of the Cowpasture bottoms as 
badly tilled, and those of Jackson's River and the Bullpasture 
as only in tolerable condition. He makes an exception of the 
Wilson farm at the mouth of Bolar Run, and calls it equal to 
any in the Valley of Virginia. But wiser methods are now 
used in Highland with the smaller amount of land still kept 
in cultivation. 

The Crabbottom is the garden spot of Highland, although 
acre for acre the smaller basins of upper Jackson's River, Big 
Back Creek, and Big Valley compare with it favorably. The 
woods have only to be cut out or thinned, a bluegrass sod 
coming in spontaneously. On the pastures alone and without 
grain, huge cattle of the best breeds are made ready for market. 
The value of the fat cattle driven out of this valley will per- 
haps average $150,000 a year. The Crabbottom graziers thus 
are enabled to live a rather unlaborious life, and a holding of 
land is esteemed a choice possession. The soil changes hands 
often at much more than $100 an acre, comparing in price with 
land in the corn belt of Illinois. 

Being so largely limestone and supporting so large a graz- 
ing interest, the lands of Bluegrass District are assessed at 
nearly as much as those of both the other districts. 

In the production of buckwheat Highland ranks fourth 
among the counties of Virginia. In maple sugar it leads them 
all. More than a thousand pounds are occasionally made on 
a single farm. The county is also well adapted to the apple 
tree. One of these on the Vandevender farm grew during the 
century or more of its existence to a girth of ten and a half feet 
and its full crop was 80 bushels of fruit. Except in very un- 
favorable seasons the county has more than enough apples for 
home use. The other fruits usual to the latitude are also found, 

History of Highland County 229 

though to a less extent. Large and fine specimens of apples, 
pears, peaches, and plums are to be seen in favorable years. 

One result of the settlement of a new region is a community 
of purpose among the people, leading to a wide acquaintance 
with one another. This also leads to a sameness in manners 
and customs and in the mode of living. The people become 
homogeneous in these respects much faster than they become 
homogeneous in blood. In consequence the stranger would 
hardly know that Highland was peopled from opposite direc- 
tions, the two elements of the immigration meeting on the 
divide which crosses the county. On either side of it he finds 
the same farm architecture, the same speech, and the same 

As a household tongue the German language has for some 
years been quite extinct in Highland. Exceptions to this state- 
ment, if any, are assignable to persons of Pendleton birth or 
parentage. The passing of the German speech is due to the 
blending of stocks in the north of the county. When one of 
two married companions is ignorant of the German idiom, the 
latter, as an alien speech in America, is the one which nearly 
always gives way. 

It is well that our national tongue is here without any com- 
petitor. The neighborhood that clings to a broken-down jar- 
gon, like that of the upper South Fork Valley in Pendleton, 
throws itself, in a very sensible degree, outside the current of 
American life and thought, and stamps itself as unprogressive. 
It tends to shut itself into its own corner and it rears citizens 
of narrow and uninformed views. The habit stands in the way 
of an easy use of English and a correct English pronunciation. 
It is a needless handicap on the child who starts to school. The 
people who use this patois in their homes have a very meager 
list of words, and can neither read German script nor German 
print. Their belief in witchcraft and signs is a result of their 

In Highland, as wherever else pioneer conditions have been 
in force, there is a close approach to social equality. The farm 
homes are comfortable and cozy. Modern furniture, musical 
instruments, things of ornament, and potted plants are quite 

230 History of Highland County 

the rule. The table fare is liberal and sensible. Destitution is 
hardly to be seen in the county. 

Thanks to the homogeneity of the people, and to the ab- 
sence of mines and factories, the public order of Highland is 
very good. Serious crimes are very infrequent, and in the 
present year the county has no citizen in the penitentiary and 
but one boy in the reform school. 

The good record of the county in this respect was marred 
by a lynching in the month of January, 1884. A laboring man 
from Michigan, whose name was Porter alias Atchison, came 
into the west of the county after his release from the Poca- 
hontas jail. He was not a well-behaved person, and during a 
game of cards with a citizen of Back Creek, a quarrel arose, 
both men being intoxicated. Atchison struck the other person 
a blow with his knife, but inflicted only a slight wound in the 
breast. For this he was lodged in the Monterey jail. Exag- 
gerated reports of the affair got abroad. A party of citi- 
zens broke into the jail, shot him in his cell, and then hanged 
him to a tree on the Vanderpool road, where the same 
crosses the brow of the conical hill south of the town. All but 
one of the lynching party were identifiable. One citizen was 
tried by a jury of Rockbridge men but acquitted. The others 
who were assumed to be implicated in the unfortunate occur- 
rence left the county and never returned. 

The future of a community is to be foretold through exist- 
ing conditions. The future ui Highland may not be exactly 
an open book, yet it may be forecasted with tolerable accuracy. 

So long as its means of transportation remain the same as 
now, there will be slight change in the activities of the people, 
and there will be a stationary population. The social and in- 
dustrial organization being what it is, a limited population will 
be the necessary result. The county will remain a nursery for 
the supply of industrial communities. 

Cities and towns were formerly few and small because large 
ones could not be supported. So long as farming was done in 
the old way, every farmhouse being a workshop, it took a very 
large share of the people to feed the nation. Furthermore, the 
"simple life" and the home manufactures made the mills and 

History of Highland County 231 

factories of the cities comparatively unnecessary. The farm- 
ing community could not spare much of its increase except to 
open new farms. The country was seemingly more attractive 
than the town. 

An industrial revolution has taken place during the lifetime 
of living people. Labor-saving machinery on the farm has ren- 
dered superfluous a large share of the rural population, and 
sent it to the towns to produce goods which to a considerable 
extent were made on the farms and in villages, but are made 
there no longer. In industrial lines, little else than repair serv- 
ice is now to be found outside of the cities. The farmer pro- 
duces only what may be eaten, and even then he produces a 
smaller proportion than formerly of what he eats himself. 

Towns were once compact, because men had to live within 
walking distance from where they worked. Town life was no> 
more comfortable than country life. But in the minds of peo- 
ple the balance of attraction is now strongly on the side of the 
town. The higher wages, the well-equipped schools, the good 
stores, the trolley car, and other well-known features of the 
town prove irresistible. People concede the purer air and 
water, the fresher vegetables, and the freedom from nerve- 
racking noise to be found in the country, yet the movement to 
the city, the town, and the village goes on unchecked. If food 
did not have to be produced from the soil, the rural neighbor- 
hood would become nothing more than a summer playground. 

Country life being to a large proportion of the people a 
necessity, there is a lack of adjustment so long as it is virtually 
regarded as little better than a necessary evil. There should 
be an earnest effort to restore an equilibrium of attraction be- 
tween country and town. When people reach the point that 
they almost apologize for being found in the country, rural life 
is impaired to the detriment of national life as a whole. In the 
words of the distinguished head of the University of Wiscon- 
sin, "He who thinks not of himself primarily, but of his race, 
and of its future, is the new patriot." 

It is not necessary that Highland keep on marking time 
indefinitely. The county has not by any means touched the 
limit of its resources. If these are developed Highland has a 

232 History of Highland County 

larger future in store for it. An inventory of its possibilities 
is full of suggestion. 

First, there is the forest, which once covered the whole 
region and still covers more than half. The fact that very much 
of the soil is unsuited to profitable cultivation shows that this 
portion is designed by nature as a forest reserve. But between 
forest fires and the wasteful American manner of lumbering, 
a famine in building material lies not far in the future. With 
intelligent forestry the woodlands of Highland could be 
counted on to yield a regular and very considerable amount of 
lumber and fuel. It is not enough to keep out the woods fires 
and let the timber alone. Some trees are in the nature of weeds 
and should not be allowed to burden the ground. Under scien- 
tific forestry an acre of woodland yields three times what it 
does in a state of nature. This is because only useful trees are 
tolerated. These are felled as soon as mature, and others are 
started in their place. German and French forests growing on 
soil not particularly good afford a yearly income of $2.50 per 
acre and upward. At this rate, which is quite conservative, 
the woodlands of Highland could afford a yearly income of 
more than $300,000. Germany and Japan, in spite of a dense 
population, supply their own timber needs. America can do 
the same and will soon be compelled to adopt a similar course. 

Forests have other uses than as a supply of timber. They 
regulate the flow of water in the rivers and they afford a cover 
for game. Highland had once plenty of game, but now almost 
none. The red man killed only for his own needs. The white 
man, as short-sighted as in the matter of lumbering, has slaugh- 
tered without restraint, using up principal as well as interest. 
If he were less fond of shooting small birds, there would be 
less damage from insects. The latter exact a yearly toll of 
$500,000,000 from the farms of America. 

Next, there is the arable soil, which naturally is good. But 
except in a very limited degree Highland was never designed 
as a region of general farming. Its specialty of livestock, for 
which its limestone sod, its pure water, and its temperate air 
so well adapt it, is very logical. Yet with ready transportation 
the tillable lands could yield a large and profitable supply of 

History of Highland County 233 

crops which the farmer used to think had a place only in the 
orchard and house garden. But the growth of the cities has 
given these small crops a value comparable to that of any of 
the large staples. The yearly per capita value of farm produce 
in the United States is about $85. A proportionate share to 
Highland would be about $500,000; a mark very capable of 
attainment, notwithstanding the large area of forest. 

Then there are the streams. The rivers never fail and their 
currents are swift. These can be harnessed to supply a large 
amount of electric power. The use of electricity has made it 
possible for certain forms of manufacturing to be carried on in 
small towns, provided transportation is convenient. But there 
is a still more evident use for the latent energy in the Highland 
rivers. It is to operate one or more lines of electric railway, 
these lines to carry freight as well as passengers. The advan- 
tage to Highland of such lines would be immense. They would 
provide a market for anything which may be grown. They 
would provide a cheap, speedy, and convenient means of get- 
ting from place to place, either within the county or outside of 
it. They would place many of the coveted advantages of the 
city within easier reach, and they would uncover a new source 
of income, in the form of a larger volume of summer travel. 
Furthermore, the electric energy would light the villages. As 
to a railroad operated by steam, its coming is very problemat- 
ical. It would come more for the iron ore than anything else, 
and so long as the Lake Superior ores hold out, others less easy 
to use will lie idle. 

The superb summer climate is in itself a valuable asset, yet 
this remains comparatively dormant so long as it requires an 
entire day to reach the county seat from the nearer railroad 

The massing of population in the valleys is paving the way 
to the coming of the centralized school. The little country 
schoolhouse is already a back number in America. It served 
its day, but its day is passing. 

With a more complete utilization of its resources, Highland 
will be able to support in comfort a much larger population 

234 History of Highland County 

than at present. By becoming more accessible it will be a 
still better place in which to live. 

And lastly, it is in every way probable that the descendants 
of the pioneers will continue "to dwell in the land." They are 
not likely to abandon it in favor of the alien stranger, and there 
is little inducement to the latter to come here. 

Part II 

236 History of Highland County 



THE names given to people throw a world of light on customs and on forms 
of religious belief. Nearly all the pioneers of Highland were adherents 
of the Presbyterian or of the Reformed Church. In either case they were 
zealous Protestants, and in naming their boys and girls parents showed a marked 
preference for names taken from the Bible. Hence, in our early, and in a 
large degree also in our later annals, we find a host of men named Andrew, 
Jared, or Samuel, and a host of women with such names as Anna, Elizabeth, 
and Martha. A few other names, such as Christian, Paschal, Valentine, 
and Sophia, are associated with church history. 

Certain non-biblical names have been used from time immemorial in, 
both the British Isles and Germany. Among these are Edward, Frederick, 
George, and William, and Catharine, Jane, and Margaret. Conrad is more 
distinctly a German name, while Robert is Norman-French. Alexander, 
though it comes from the Greek language, is a characteristic name among 
the Scotch, as Patrick is among the Irish, and Evan among the Welsh. The 
strong influence of classical study in colonial days led to such names as Alcinus, 
Euphemia, and Lucinda. 

Feminine names were not so generally taken from the Bible, largely 
because Biblical personages are more often men than women. Among other 
Scriptural names in great favor were Delilah, Esther, Magdalena, Mary, 
Rebecca, Sarah, and Susanna. 

The names in common use did not comprise a large variety. The names 
of grandparents, parents, uncles, and aunts, were given to the children, and 
were thus perpetuated from generation to generation, so that sometimes it 
is almost possible to trace a line of descent through the preferences in given 
names. And where many signatures occur on a paper, we almost surely 
find quite a number each of such appellations as John, George, and William. 

Until within a century past, a middle name was seldom employed. When 
it did occur, it was most generally written in full. Among the Germans, the 
double name was usually a compound of two given names, while among the 
English-speaking people it was more commonly the entire name of some 
other person. In either case our ancestors were much inclined to put the 
two halves of the name on an equality and not to reduce the middle name to 
a mere initial. 

We should not gauge the piety of our forefathers by their extensive use 
of Bible names. The practice had in great measure grown into a custom. 
Besides, the Bible names were not always well chosen. Some of the most 
unworthy characters in sacred history had many namesakes. 

History of Highland County 237 

As the annals of Highland progress, some of the names in use point to 
facts in national or state history. Later on, the names preferred are very 
suggestive of certain tendencies of the times. 

The initials G. W. point almost unerringly to the Father of his Country. 
The initials T. J. and A. J. point with well-nigh equal certainty to Thomas 
Jefferson and Andrew Jackson, the two heroes of American Democracy. 
When we come to the initials R. L., we are at once reminded of the great 
military leader of the Confederacy. When we first begin to notice H. C. 
for Henry Clay, we are in little doubt as to the political creed of the parent 
who bestowed the name. If the initials are J. W. the chances are that the 
parents are followers of John Wesley. 

The practice of bestowing a double name began to be somewhat common 
in the opening years of the last century, and the practice gained ground with 
rapidity, so that it has long since become almost universal. This new fashion 
was very largely the result of naming children for military or civil heroes 
and other personages. The choice of the first name alone was not deemed 
sufficient. In default of a ready preference of this kind, it was but a further 
step to link two given names together, and thus preserve uniformity in the 
use of two names before the surname. 

Because of state pride, girls are named Virginia. It is also worthy of 
note that names very common in one county may be very rare in another. 
In fact, it occasionally happens that a name is very local in its use. Loftus, 
originally a surname, is an heirloom in the Pullin family. McBride, in the 
Gum family, relates to a resident of Hardy with whom the pioneer Gum had 
business dealings. Peachy, as a given name, appears to have its origin in 
the upper Shenandoah Valley. 

The fact that we of the present day are living in a new age becomes 
very evident when we observe the modern usage with regard to names. A cer- 
tain given name is less often perpetuated in a family. The variety of given names 
has greatly increased, and choosing is done with little regard to time-honored 
custom. Fewer children are named Hezekiah or Susanna, but many are 
still named James or Susan, all of which are Bible terms. Many of the old 
names, whether Biblical or not, will still remain standard. It is felt that a 
name of smooth sound, especially if short, is in harmony with the spirit of 
the age. 

Along with the general increase in the variety of given names has come 
an increase in those which are unusual or peculiar. Such names soon appear 
in any recent list. 

As to surnames, they have come into being in almost countless ways. 
Those of English origin are more than 40,000. When we reflect on the 
thousands derived from the other mother countries of the American people, 
we may cease to wonder at the multitude we find in the annals of the small 
county of Highland. 

Formerly there was no recognized standard in the spelling of English. 
Each person was a law to himself. The same name would be spelled in differ- 
ent ways, partly because of personal whims and partly because of individual 

238 History of Highland County 

peculiarities of pronunciation. Some of these variations would acquire a 
fixed standing and pass current as entirely distinct names. Thus we have 
in Highland the forms Kincaid and Kinkead. Rexroad in Pendleton becomes 
Rexrode in Highland. Bodkin has become Botkin apparently through the 
German mode of pronunciation. Careless or slovenly pronunciation accounts 
for some variations, especially where there is a shortening of the word. 

A German or French name, coming as it does from a foreign tongue with 
its strange sounds, is almost sure to undergo some change in pronunciation 
in order to accommodate itself to the English ear. This often leads also to 
a change in the spelling. In this process some foreign names assume forms 
which are the same as well-known names in our own tongue. Hull for Hohl 
and Simmons for Sieman are instances in point. Sometimes the foreign 
name has been turned into its English equivalent, as when Auge become 
Eye and Weiss becomes White. In other instances the modification of the 
foreign name has gone so far as to render its original form very obscure. 

It may be added that modifying the form of a difficult foreign surname 
is a very proper thing to do. It relieves the name from an uncouth appear- 
ance, diminishes a tendency to mispronounce the word, and makes for the 
thorough Americanization of the person who bears it. 

It is not easy to classify with certainty the pioneer names of an old 
settled county. As to Highland, we need be in no doubt that Byrd is Eng- 
lish, that Douglas is Scotch, that Jones is Welsh, that Mauzy is French, that 
Swecker is German, that Vandevander is Dutch, and that Maloy is Irish. 
Yet some names are common to England and Scotland, and even to all four 
of the countries of the British Isles, to say nothing of the German names 
which have assumed forms strictly English in appearance. The classifica- 
tion at the end of this chapter does not claim to be anything more than an 

We do not attempt to classify the Scotch-Irish names, because, as else- 
where stated, the Scotch-Irish are by derivation a branch of the Scottish 

Divergent spellings are given in parentheses. 

Where capital letters follow a name, these refer to the distinct families 
of the same name, as given in Section V. 

The German names are followed in consecutive order by the native 
form of the word, its pronunciation (in brackets), and by its meaning when 

It is not possible in this book to show the precise pronunciation of the 
German and French names. Both languages contain sounds which do not 
occur in ours. 


Alexander. Briscoe. Cunningham. 

Armstrong. Callahan. Curry. 

Beathe. Campbell. Dinwiddie (Dunwoody). 

Black. Carlile (Carlisle). Douglas. 

History of Highland County 





Ervine (Erwin). 


















Graham (Grimes). 

McCrea (McCray). 







Summers (Sommers) 







Hook (Hooke). 










Pullen (Puffin). 








Kinkead (Kincaid). 













Ryder (Rid 




Brown (B). 





















Gwin (Gwynn). 









Brown - Bruno (Broo-no) 



History of Highland County 


Bussard - Boissard [Bwas-sar]. 
Dever - Devier [Duh-vee.] 
Devericks - Devereux [Duh-ver-uh] 

Matheny - Mathenee [Mah-tay. 

Mauzy - Mauzy [Mo-zee]. 
Mullenax - Molyneux [Mul-le-nuh]. 


Arbogast - Armenkast. 

Bird - Vogel [Fo-gel] - Bird. 


Colaw - Kohler [Co-ler]. 

Deihl - Deihl [Dile]. 

Eagle [Eakle]. 

Evick - Ewig [Ay-vick] - Ever. 

Fleisher - Fleischer [Fli-sher] - 

Flesher or Fletcher. 
Fox [Folks] - Fuchs [Fooks] - Fox. 
Gum - Gumm [Goom]. 
Halterman - Haldemann. 
Herring - Hering. 
Hevener - Hefner. 
Hidy - Heide [Hi-deh]. 
Hinegarner - Heingartner. 
Hiner - Heiner [Hi-ner]. 
Hull - Hohl [Hole]. 
Keister - Keister or Geyster [Ki- 

ster or Gi-ster]. 
Kramer - Kraemer [Kra-mer]. 
Lantz - Lentz. 
Life - Leif [Life]. 
Lightner - Lichtner [Liht-ner]. 
Newman - Neumann [Noi-man] - 








Seybert [Sivers] - Seifert [Si-fert]. 

Shaffer [Shaffier] - Schaefer [Sha- 

fer] - Shepherd. 
Sipe - Seip [Sipe]. 
Si pie - Seipel [Si-ple]. 
Snyder - Schneider [Shni-der] - 


Swecker - Schwecker [Shveck-er]. 
Swope - Schwoop [Shvope]. 
Wagoner - Wagner [Vack-ner] - 

Waybright [Winebright] - Wein- 

brecht - Bright Wine. 
White - Weiss [Vise] - White. 
Yeager - Jaeger [Yay-ger] - Hunter. 
Zickafoose - Zwickenfus [Zvick- 

en-foos] - Crippled Foot. 

History of Highland County 241 



THE families of Highland may be classified as Pioneer, Sub-Pioneer, 
Recent, and Extinct. In the first we place those who arrived 
prior to 1815; in the second, those later families who came prior to 
1865; and in the third, those who have come since 1865 and are thor- 
oughly identified with the county. In the fourth group we place those 
surnames which have disappeared from this region. 

To find the number of our Pioneer, Sub-Pioneer, and Recent 
families is only a matter of patient inquiry. To find the total number 
of Extinct names is practically impossible. Neither is it at all im- 
portant to do so. Many families of this group were little more than 
birds of passage. Very often we find no evidence of intermarriage 
with other resident families. Many of these names are unknown to 
people now living, or survive only as the local designation of some 
field, spring, or other natural feature. But in some instances the name 
remained a long while, intermarried with families still here, and 
though the name itself is gone, there is quite sure to be some posterity 
in the female line. This section of the Extinct Group is slowly grow- 
ing larger at the expense of the other groups. During the compiling 
of this history one name went out, having for some time been repre- 
sented only by two aged people. 

A little thought will explain this shrinking of the pioneer sur- 
names. Suppose A has two sons and two daughters, each of whom 
marries and has children in the same number and proportion. Let 
the same ratio be true of following generations. The two daughters 
lose the family name as soon as wedded. Of the children of the sons, 
a half are girls and they, too, lose the family name. Thus of the 16 
grandchildren only 4 retain A's surname. Of the 64 great grand- 
children, only 8 retain the name, and in the next generation the pro- 
portion is 256 to 16. In practice, the disproportion may be even 
greater, and when emigration, celibacy, and childless couples are 
thrown into the scale, it will readily be seen that the surname may 
entirely fail, even after the lapse of a century or more. But when 
there is little emigration, much intermarrying of relatives of the same 
name, and often an excess of boys over girls, the family surname may 
become very frequent. 

In any long-settled district the threads of relationship spread out 
in all directions. There are in Highland some persons of the seventh 
remove from the pioneer settler. As any individual has four grand- 

242 History of Highland County 

parents, it will be found, provided cousin-marriages are left out of 
account, that such person will have 64 ancestors within such period. 
By the close of another century, the average young Highlander of 
that day may not be able to show that any member of the Pioneer 
Group fails to come within his line of ancestry. 

In a varying degree, illegitimacy is everywhere to be found, and 
it includes some of the most worthy members of a community. These 
broken links in the chain of family descent complicate the work of 
the local historian. He must recognize them in some allowable man- 
ner or else ignore them altogether. Yet he does not wish to attach 
his label to such instances, any more than he wishes to make mention 
of crime, divorce, feeble-mindedness, or other matters related by his 
informants. These are facts over which the veil of charity should be 
drawn. Therefore no person of illegitimate birth is mentioned as such 
in the genealogic section of this book. 

The posterity of a given pioneer is termed in this volume a group- 
family. It may include five, six, and even seven generations and com- 
prise persons of the fourth, fifth, or sixth degree of cousinship. As a 
rule, descent is counted only in the male line. A vast amount of repe- 
tition is thus avoided. The progeny of married daughters is to be 
sought in the group-families into which they marry. But in particular 
instances the issue is included with the male line. 

A complete history of a group-family should cover the following 
items: the name of the pioneer, the full maiden name of the wife, the 
national derivation of both man and wife, the place that the couple 
moved from, the names of their descendants in like manner, genera- 
tion by generation, including the persons marrying into the family; 
also dates of birth, marriage, and death, and facts as to residence, oc- 
cupation, civil and military service, and other matters of interest. 

But the annals of Highland reach back a century and two-thirds. 
Private family records, where they exist at all, are fragmentary. Until 
1853, such public records as will be of help are the packages of mar- 
riage bonds that have not been lost, the generally incomplete mention 
afforded by wills, and the very casual shreds of information found in 
deed books and county order books. As to letters written during the 
first century of Highland, they are very rare. As to book publications 
bearing on our local family history, they afford little aid. As to the 
local newspaper, its age is too recent. The written sources of infor- 
mation are invaluable, so far as they go, but they do not go far enough. 

The only other source is tradition. But in youth a person seldom 
realizes the importance or takes in the bearings of the items of family 
history as told him by the old people, if, indeed, the old people have 
told him anything in this line at all. These items, therefore, make 
small impression on him, and in his own old age he regrets that he 
can tell but little. Furthermore, the old person of to-day is likely to 

History of Highland County 243 

be the great grandchild of the pioneer ancestor. A knowledge of 
some particular occurrence is here and there passed along with a firm 
grasp. But the sum total of tradition, little as it is, includes matters 
which are confused and uncertain and sometimes quite untrustworthy. 
Very much of what we need to have is lost beyond recovery. Gaps in 
the records are almost sure to occur, and with respect to what is given 
as fact, the memory or judgment of the informant may deceive him. 
Oral information differs in quality. Sometimes it is quite strong and 
sure, yet here and there is found a person who can tell almost nothing 
of any value. 

But where nothing else can be had, tradition must be followed for 
what it may be worth, except so far as evident inaccuracies appear 
in it. 

By patient search in written documents, the local historian can in 
some degree find what he wants. What cannot be gleaned in this way 
must come through the slow process of going from house to house. 
It is of little use to think to gain time by writing letters. About five 
in every six of these are treated with inexcusable neglect. Even of 
those persons who promise to send information by mail, there are 
even fewer who make their word good. 

All in all, therefore, it is out of the question in every case or even 
generally to reach the degree of completeness we mentioned in a pre- 
ceding paragraph. The compiler of a local history can only do the 
best he knows how with such information as he is fortunate enough 
to secure. Even then he has performed a somewhat thankless task. 
To collect his data he has had to be lavish of his time and of the num- 
ber of miles that he travels. He is criticized and held responsible for 
every manner of shortcoming in his book. But the opportunities for 
error to creep into his work are many and constant and in large de- 
gree unavoidable. Among the things to be considered in this line are 
personal peculiarities of pronunciation; the giving of only a part of a 
person's name; the giving of what are really nicknames; the placing 
of a name in a wrong list; the placing of names in miscellaneous 
order; and the omission or incorrect mention of names. It is slow 
and tedious to gather such data and then put it in the best possible 
shape. Among those who then criticize the result are persons too 
sluggish to volunteer the information they possess or without sound 
excuse for the extent of their ignorance concerning their kindred and 

It has turned out a physical impossibility for this writer to see 
all or most of the families. When it became necessary to cut short 
his field work because of his lameness, he sent out many inquiries with 
a view of supplying every possible deficiency. Invitations to the pub- 
lic to send information by letter were repeatedly given in the local 
newspaper as well as otherwise. Therefore he does not hold himself 
chargeable for all the shortages in the group-family sketches. 

244 History of Highland County 

A few words might be added as to the real worth of family-group 
history. At first blush a genealogic list looks like a skeleton. It 
should be no skeleton at all to the interested local reader. Out of his 
familiarity with a given group-family he may fill in many a detail. 
Such details may relate to thrift, enterprise, educational attainment, 
professional, industrial, or commercial occupation, or to conformity 
with recognized standards of social or moral behavior. If in some 
particular instance this filling in of a record should bring regret at 
what has already taken place, it should be an incentive to better effort 
in the future. It is only in this very way that civilization is able to 
advance. Also, it is a matter of every-day observation that mental 
and moral fiber varies in different branches of the same family group 
and in different members of the same family circle. Threads of rela- 
tionship from the same source may lead on the one side to the judge's 
bench or the banker's desk, and on the other to the poorhouse or the 
state prison. To deny relationship in the face of evident facts is like 
the ostrich's driving its head into the sand to escape pursuit. 

It is true enough that a man is what he makes himself, yet it is 
also true that no one can in any real sense live to himself. The per- 
son who proclaims that he has never bothered himself about his an- 
cestral connection and knows almost nothing about it, is uttering a 
very unworthy sentiment. He puts himself where he cannot ask that 
the people who will take his place will care anything for the memory 
he is to leave behind him. It has been very justly said that "not to 
know what others have been doing before us is to be always a child." 
As to the men who braved the forest and the savage to bring High- 
land within the realm of civilization a debt of honor and gratitude is 
due, no less than to the soldiers of Highland who in various wars have 
fought for their convictions of right. 

One leading purpose of the present volume is to preserve what 
could be learned regarding the lines of descent of the pioneer families, 
so that the younger people who are coming on the stage of action 
may esteem their pioneer lineage as worthy to rank with that of sons 
or daughters of the American Revolution. What is thus put into print 
is preserved to an indefinite future. Twenty years ago it would have 
been possible to accomplish very much more, as well as to perform 
much better what has actually been accomplished. Twenty years 
hence it would be almost impossible to achieve a result which would 
be at all satisfactory. 

The individual owner of this book will do well to mark on the 
margin or otherwise such alterations or extensions as he may know of. 
In this way they may be preserved to posterity. 

History of Highland County 245 



IF a local history is to come within a reasonable price, it must not 
be a bulky volume. If it is to be comprehensive, it must be con- 
cise and repetition must be avoided. This is particularly true of 
sketches in family history. If these are written in loose, narrative 
form, a great amount of space is consumed, and the language grows 
tiresome because unavoidably monotonous. Furthermore, the reader's 
attention is scattered by the way the narrative is written, and by the 
many details likely to be woven into it. 

In this volume we present genealogic history in a tabular form 
and with few details not bearing directly on the line of descent. The 
reader is to look into other and appropriate chapters for biographic 
items and for facts relating to civil, military, or professional service, 
or such miscellaneous matters as might otherwise be expected. 

In the following lists we have sought to give the names of all 
persons of the earlier generations, and also the adults of the present 
one. We have not attempted to include all families of single or un- 
grown children. Correct information in this line is very tedious to 
secure, and within even a short while it becomes a good deal out of 
date. We have not omitted mention of persons passing away in in- 
fancy or childhood, provided names were given to them. To leave 
out these names would make the record not only incomplete, but mis- 
leading. Such mention conveys a story of its own and there is no 
strong reason for leaving it out. 

The reader is asked to look closely to the explanations and abbre- 
viations which will now be described. 

Ordinarily, the name of an adult would be followed by dates of 
birth and death, then by a statement as to residence and occupation, 
and finally by the name of the companion in marriage, together with 
the date of marriage. But in a majority of instances, one or two of 
these dates are unknown and perhaps all three of them. In the aver- 
age list of children we are able to give one or more dates. These are 
very servicable in locating the period of time during which a given 
generation is performing its part in the world. Yet for considerations 
readily seen, we have not given all the dates we knew, when such 
dates concern the younger people of the present period. 

The leading or exclusive occupation is to be understood as farm- 
ing unless something else is mentioned. Where there is no mention 

246 History of Highland County 

of residence, it is to be understood that the person always lived in 
Highland, so far as our information goes. 

A dash coming where we should expect either a given name or 
surname means that such portion of the entire name is unknown. 
Where two hyphens occur, these mean that both given name and 
surname are unknown. 

When a widow remarries, the surname of her late husband is 
added to her maiden name. If she has previously married more than 
once, the surnames of all the prior husbands are added successively. 
When the maiden surname of the widow is unknown, the title "Mrs." 
is prefixed to her given name. 

When the married companion is from another county of Virginia 
or West Virginia, the name of the county follows the surname, being 
separated from it by a comma. There are no counties of the same 
name in both the Virginias, and to add the name of the state should 
be unnecessary. The name of a well-known city or town is some- 
times given in place of the county, and where there is a county of the 
same name as the town, the word "county," "town," or "city" is given. 
When the said person is from another state or a foreign country, the 
name of such state or foreign country is of course given. When a 
star follows the name of the place, it means that the couple go to 
live in that place. 

When a word denoting nationality is followed by a star, it means 
that the person is of that nationality by birth; otherwise, that he is 
such only by descent. 

A hyphen with a space on each side separates names when given 
in solid order, numerals being omitted. 

Where greater brevity is thought desirable, facts pertaining to 
married companions, residence, etc., are placed between parentheses 
instead of being set off by hyphens. 

A date coming after a person's name, only a hyphen standing be- 
tween and no special explanation being given, means that we find 
mention of the person in the said year. When a date follows the 
name of a place it means the person removed to such place in that 

When a small c immediately follows a date, it means the date is 
not known to be exact, though believed to be very near the true year. 

When the name of a man is followed by "k*," it means the person 
was killed in battle or died of wounds. When "D*" is used, it means 
he died of illness or accident while in service. The numerals follow- 
ing "k*" or "D*" specify the war itself. The Dunmore War is indi- 
cated by "1774," the Revolution by "1775," the Second War for Inde- 
pendence by "1812," and the Secession War by '"61." But when the 
precise year is known, it is accordingly given, and the star is, then 
placed after the numeral instead of after the letter. A "k" without 
a star refers to a violent death in time of peace. 

History of Highland County 217 

The expression "(1)" used just after a name refers to the pioneer, 
in whom the line of descent begins. The children of the pioneer, or 
progenitor, are designated by "C-2." The children of his children are 
designated by "C-3," and likewise with still later generations. Thus 
the figure following the capital letter indicates the degree of descent. 
Instead of "C-2," a higher figure is used in certain instances, where a 
gap in the line of descent is passed over, the extent of such gap being 
known. The figure then shows the degree of descent from the pio- 
neer himself. But when there is doubt as to the degree of descent, 
"C" is used alone, the numeral being omitted. 

The average proportion between descendants in the male and fe- 
male lines was discussed in the preceding chapter. If, therefore, a 
person classifying as "C-5" is one of 10 such persons bearing the 
same surname, he is likely to have 150 other kinsfolk of the same 
degree of descent from his pioneer ancestor. But when the female 
lines are included it will readily be seen that each group-family must 
overlap several others. 

When a star follows any of the above expressions, it means that 
the list of names is given in the order of age, beginning with the 
oldest member of the family. Some of the lists not so marked are 
probably in the same order, or nearly so. But very frequently the 
names are set down as the informant recollected them, and some- 
times he would group them according to sex. When it has seemed 
possible to improve on this miscellaneous order, we have done so. 

"Misc." for "miscellaneous" or "unplaced" refers to names which 
appear to belong somewhere in the line of descent but which we are 
not able to place with certainty. Some of these names were un- 
known to the informants, or were overlooked by them. In some in- 
stances they may not really belong to the family at all. 

When "m?" follows a given name, it means we have knowledge 
that some person of that very name married a person of the name 
that follows; but whether it is the right John or Susan — as the case 
may be — is not a matter of certainty. When a question mark follows 
the given name, the given name is in doubt. When it follows the 
surname, the surname is in doubt. When such points follow both 
given name and surname the entire matter is in doubt. 

"H'stead" for "homestead" refers to the farm on which the pioneer 

A dagger (t) indicates a householder residing in Highland in the 
present year. Yet it does not prove practicable to make such men- 
tion complete in all cases. 

Other Abbreviations 

Hid. — Highland County. 
Pdn. — Pendleton County. 

248 History of Highland County 

Rkm. — Rockingham County. 

Aug. — Augusta County. 

R'bridge — Rockbridge County. 

Shen. — Shenandoah County. 

Alleg. — Alleghany County. 

G'brier — Greenbrier County. 

Poca. — Pocahontas County. 

Rph. — Randolph County. 

W. — The whole region west of Alleghany Mountains. 

E. Va. — Virginia east of Blue Ridge. 

Valley — Shenandoah Valley. 

Eng. — English. 

Ger. — German. 

S.-Irish — Scotch-Irish. 

B. Dist. — Bluegrass district. 

M. Dist. — Monterey district. 

S. Dist. — (Stonewall district. 

Mry. — Monterey town. 

McD. — McDowell town. 

D Hill— Doe Hill village. 

New H. — New Hampden village. 

V'pool — Vanderpool and vicinity. 

CB — Crabbottom Valley — also village. 

BV— Big Valley. 

BC^Back Creek Valley. 

JR — Jackson's River Valley. 

BP — Bullpasture Valley. 

CP — Cowpasture Valley. 

Calfp. — Calfpasture Valley. 

SC — Straight Creek Valley. 

SF — South Fork. 

NF— North Fork. 

SB — South Branch. 

Shaw's F'k — Shaw's Fork. 

BP Mn — Bullpasture Mountain. 

W'ville — Williamsville. 

H'waters — Headwaters. 

FW — Forks of Waters. 

Pny. — Pinckney. 

b. — 'born. 

m. — married. 

D. — deceased — of an adult. 

d. — died in youth. 

dy. — died in infancy. 

h. — husband. 

History of Highland County 249 

w. — wife. 

ss. — sister. 

n. — near. 

n. c. — no children. 

inf. — infant or infants. 

came — came to Highland. 

away — left the county. 

others — other names in same family. 

h'd — head of the stream spoken of. 

br. — branch of a river or creek. 

Other abbreviations found in the following- chapters are those in 
common use, and hence it should not be necessary to explain them 
here. j 4 


History of Highland County 




r : 


\ a/E now present lists of Pioneer and Sub-Pioneer families. Follow- 
» * ing each surname are the following particulars, so far as our in- 
formation permits: 

1. The given name of the settler. 

2. His residence before coming here. 

3. The year in which we find the first mention of his being here. 

4. The place of his settlement. 

5. The section of the county in which his descendants in the male 
line are chiefly or wholly found. 

A very few names are omitted owing to a want of precise in- 

Arbogast. Michael - 1766 - CB (W. H. Arbogast's) - CB and Mry. 

Armstrong. John and William - Loudoun - 1794 - BP, 1 mile S. 
of D Hill - upper BP, CP, and JR. 

Beathe. Joseph - 1778 - Crab Run - McD. 

Benson. George -1776 - CP, Benson's Run - lower CP. 

Benson. Mathias - 1787 - Dry Br. - V'pool. 

Beverage. John - N. J.? - 1780 - h'd of SC - SC and Mry. 

Bjrd. John ^Germany - 1780c - Big BC, n. Valley Center - BC 
and Mry. ^* 

Blagg. William - Albemarle - 1780 - 1 mile NW. of D Hill - 
same locality. 

Bodkin. Richard - 1746 - BP, 4 miles S. of McD. - upper BP and 
CP and Mry. 

Bradshaw. James - England - 1770c - BP, n. Poverty - same lo- 
cality and McD. 

Briscoe. Isaac - 1798c - Little BC n. Naples - same locality. 

Bussard. Rudolph - Penna. - 1796c - CB, Wimer Run - BV 
and Mry. 

Campbell. Alexander - Md. - 1797 - BC, mouth of Campbell 
Run - BC and Mry. 

Chestnut. William - 1781 - BC, n. Valley Center - same locality. 

Colaw. Frederick - Penna. - 1799 - CB, Wimer Run - same local- 
ity and Mry. 

Cunningham. Robert - 1761 - CB, n. New H. - Mry. 

Curry. Richard - Ireland - 1782c - BC, n. Bath line - n. McD. 

Davis. Paschal - Penna. - 1793 - CP, Benson Run - Davi* Run. 

Devericks. Thomas - 1766 . H'waters - same locality. 

History of Highland County 251 

Douglas. Thomas - 1781 - Crab Run - upper BP. 

Ervine. Benjamin - Ireland - 1800c - BC, n. Mill Gap - McD. 

Ervine. William - Rkm. - 1815c - upper CP - same locality and 

Evick. George - Pdn. - 1784 - SC - McD. 

Fleisher. Peter - Germany - 1765 - SB, at Pdn. line - same 
locality, Meadowdale, and BP. 

Fox. Michael - 1792c - CB, upper Wimer Run - same locality 
BV, and Mry. 

Gibson. Samuel - Albemarle - 1810c - V'pool Gap - same locality 
and Mry. 

Graham. Robert - Aug. - 1752c - BP, 2 miles above Clover 
Cr. - same locality. 

Gum. John - 1766 - CB, Frank's Run - B. Dist. and SC. 

Gum. Adam - CB - B. Dist. 

Gwin. David - Aug. - 1780 - JR, 1 mile from Bath line - BV. 

Gwin. Joseph - Aug. - 1781 - lower CP - same locality. 

Halterman. Charles - Germany - 1786 - SC - same locality. 
* Hevener. Jacob - Pdn. - 1794 - H'town - CB and Mry. 

Hevener. John - Pdn. - 1815c - upper CB - same locality and Mry. 

Hicklin. John - 1756 - BP, below Clover Cr. - same locality. 

Hicks. John - 1810c ? - BP, 3 miles above McD. - BV. 

Hidy. John - 1800c - lower CB - same locality. 

Hiner. John - Shen. - 1775 - Pdn. line, NE. of D Hill - all districts. 

Hodge. John - England - 1805c - upper Shaw's F'k - same lo- 

Hull. Pet£r - Aug. - 1765 - middle CB - same locality and upper JR. 

Jack. John - 1812c - Crab Run - CB. 

Johns. Isaac - N. J. - 1785c - lower Shaw's F'k - same locality. 

Jones. (A) Henry - N. Y. - 1795 - h'd of CP - all districts. 

Jones. (B) James? - 1795c - h'd of SC - Mry. 

Jordan. John - 1766 - CP, n. Palo Alto - CB and n. Mry. 

Kelly. William - 1810c? - Dry Br. - same locality. 

Killingsworth. Richard - 1782 - BP Mn - same locality. 

Kinkead. Thomas - Ky. - 1800c - middle CB - same locality. 

Lantz. Bernard - before 1766 - CB, Frank's Run - lower SB. 

Lightner. Adam - Penna. - 1790c - BC, n. Bath line - same lo- 

Lockridge. Andrew - Aug. - 1774 - BP, below Poverty - same 

Malcomb. Joseph - 1752c - BP, above Clover Cr. - BP, above 

Matheny. David - 1790c - BC, n. Mill Gap - same locality and Mry. 

McAllister. Thomas - 1800c? - BV - same locality. 

McCoy. John - Aug. - 1773 - 1 mile S. of D Hill - same locality. 

252 History of Highland County 

McCrea. Robert - 1790c - upper BP Mn - same locality. 

McGlaughlin. John - 1794c - JR, n. Pinckney - same locality. 

McNulty. John - Ireland - 1810c - JR, above V'pool - CB and 

Mullenax. John - 1781 - lower CB - CB and Alleghany Valley. 

Nicholas. George - 1770 - FW - CB. 

Peck. Garrett - 1782c - SC, above FW - n. Mry. 

Pullin. Loftus - 1746 - BP, 1 mile above Clover Cr. - BP and Mry. 

Ralston. Samuel - Aug.? - 1815c - BP, 3 miles NW. of McD. - 
all districts. 

Rider. William - 1780 - BC, n. Valley Center - same locality. 

Samples. John - Ky. - 1804 - h'd of SC - same locality. 

Seybert. Henry - Pdn. 1775c - SC - same locality. 

Siron. John - Penna. - 1792c - BP, Siron's Mill - upper BP. 

Slaven. John - Ireland - 1775c - Meadowdale - same locality, 
CB, and Mry. 

Stephenson. James - Penna. - 1790c - JR, above V'pool - all 

Steuart. William - Scotland - 1755c - mouth of Shaw's F'k - 
CP and BP. 

Townsend. Ezekiel? - 1780 - Little BC, n. Bath line - same lo- 

Trimble. James - Scotland - 1797 - SC, n. Mry. - around Mry. 
,/Wade. John - Md. - 1780 - BC, n. Green Hill - BC. 

Wagoner. Christian - 1772 - CB, Frank's Run - CB and SC. 

White. John - Germany - 1785c - lower CB - SC. 

Wiley. Robert - 1773 - Dry Br. - lower JR and BC. 

Wilson. William and Samuel - Aug. - 1758 - D Hill - all districts. 

Wooddell. John - 1830 - BP - n. D Hill. 

Woods. Samuel - Albemarle - 1800c - BC, n. Green Hill - same 
locality and V'pool. 


Alexander. John W. -R'bridge - 1856 - BP, 1 mile S. of McD. - 
same locality. 

Brown. (B) Thomas - 1833 - BV - n. Bolar. 

Chew. Ezekiel - 1820c - CB, Frank's Run - same locality. 

Cobb. (A) John A. - Buckingham - 1849c - Little Crab Run - JR. 

Corrigan. Michael - Ireland - 1855c - JR, n. Pny. 

Deihl. Amos - Frederick - 1855c - CP, above turnpike ford - 
same locality. 

Eagle. Christian - Aug. - 1825 - n. D Hill - same locality. 

Fisher. James - Pdn. - 1856 - CB, n. H'town - n. New H. 

Fleming. William W. - Nova Scotia - 1845c - Mry. - same lo- 

History of Highland County 253 

Gilmer. Samuel - Penna. - 1826 - BC, n. Valley Center - same 

Griffen. William - N. Y. - 1815c - JR, n. Bath line - n. Pny. 

Hansel. Charles W. - Bath - 1840c - lower CB - McD. and Mry. 

Helms. James - Rkm. - 1834c - BP, below Clover Cr. - same 

Hinegarner. Godlove - 1830 - JR - same locality. 

Hook. Robert S. - Rkm. - 1825 - CP, n. Vilna - same locality 
and McD. 

Houlihan. Michael - Ireland - 1858c - JR, n. Pny. - same locality. 

Hupman. Peter - Aug. 1835 - lower BP - same locality. 

Keister. William R. - Pdn. - 1845c - BP, n. McKendree - same 

Kramer. Conrad - Aug. - CB - same locality. 

Lamb. John - Aug. - 1830c - 2 miles NW. of McD. - same lo- 

Lunsford. John - 1800c - Alleg. Mtn., n. pike - Mry. 

Maloy. Patrick - Ireland - Davis Run - same locality. 

Marshall. William - Hardy - 1846 - lower CB - same locality. 

Masters. Andrew M. - Pdn. - 1850c - n. McD. - same locality. 

Mauzy. David L. - Rkm. - 1850c - middle CB - CB. 

Michael. John - Aug. - 1825c? - n. Palo Alto - BP. 

Newman. Jacob - Shen. - 1845c - CB, Wimer Run - same locality. 

Price. Townsend - Rkm. - 1856 - BP, n. McKendree - same lo- 

Revercomb. George - Aug. - 1830 - lower BP - n. Poverty. 

Reynolds. Stephen J. - Aug. - 1850 - H'waters - same locality. 

Shumate. Augustus - Rkm. - 1849 - Mry. - all districts. 

Sipe. John E. and William A. - Rkm. - 1854 and 1856 - SC - 
same locality. 

Siple. Joel and George - Shen. - 1834 - n. D Hill - McD. 

Strathy. Wilmot - Scotland - 1855c - unlocated - SC. 

Sullenberger. Samuel - Penna. - 1820c - New H. - Mry. 

Swecker. Benjamin - Rkm. - 1845c - CB, Frank's Run - CB. 

Swope. Peter - Aug. - 1848 - CP, later, D Hill - lower BP. 

Terry. James - Louisa - 1819c - BC, n. Mill Gap - JR and BC. 

Vance. Benjamin - Aug. - 1846 - BP, at Davis Run - same lo- 

Wees. Haman - Foca. - Middle Mn. - same locality. 

Whistleman. George - 1830c - BP Mn, n. Palo Alto - n. McD. 

Whitelaw. Alexander - Orange - 1845c - Mry. 

Will. William W. - 1844c - CB, Wimer Run - same locality. 

Wilson. John - Lewis - 1840c - CP, at turnpike ford - same lo- 

Wright. Thomas - Bath - 1815c - lower BP - same locality. 

254 History of Highland County 



\i/ITH some of our older families certain others are wholly included 
** by intermarriage. The following is an approximate list of 
such annex families: 

Arbogast: Lunsford, Marshall (in part), Will. 

Armstrong: Hinegarner. 

Beverage: Jack. 

Bodkin: Whistleman. 

Bradshaw: Gillett. 

Burner: Hiner, Siron, Siple, Pruitt. 

Campbell: Patterson. 

Carlile: Jones (A), Gwin (in part), Peebles, Helms. 

Carpenter: Gillespie. 

Colaw: Middleton, Nelson. 

Curry: Matheny, Ralston, Hite. 

Dever (B): Houlihan. 

Doyle (A) : Corrigan. 

Ervine: Armstrong, Hook. 

Eye: Price. 

Gardner: Fulton. 

Gibson: Kyle. 

Gilmor: Dever (B). 

Graham: Wright. 

Hevener: Brock. 

Hull: Sitlington, Kinkead, Faurote, Sipe (one branch), Burner 
(one branch). 

Johns: Morton. 

Lantz: Chew. 

Lockridge: Keister (B). 

McClung: Seig, Summers. 

McCoy: Keister (A). 

Michael: Neil. 

Moyers: Layne, Maloy, Hammer (one branch). 

Newman: "Hildebrand. 

Peck: Doyle (A), Cobb (B). 

Pullin: Cobb (A), Bishop (A), Thompson, McNett, Dickson, 

Rexrode: Quidore, Bryant. 

Rymer: Calhoun. 

History of Higliland County 255 

Snyder: Fisher, Stover, Anderson. 

Stephenson: McNulty. 

Steuart: Callahan, Briscoe, Hupman, Frail. 

Sullenberger: Seiver, Suddarth. 

Trimble: Samples, Sipe (one branch). 

White: Judy. 

Wilson (A) : Stephenson, McNulty. 

Wilson (B): Holt, Fitsenberger. 

Wimer: Hevener (B). 

Wooddell: Hansel. 

Zickafoose: Bussard, Gibbs. 


History of Highland County 








































K Hull 







































































History of Highland County 257 

Whitelaw Wilson Wright 

Wiley Wooddell 

Will Woods 

In the following topics the various lines of descent from the 
pioneer are separately followed, step by step. "C-3" follows "C-2," 
and "C-4" follows "C-3." When, after a list of offspring under "C-6 
of James," the reader finds a list headed "C-4 of John," this means 
that one line of progeny has been traced as far forward as our plan 
carries it, and that another line is now taken up. In the instance 
named, the reader should look back to the first list he finds headed 
"C-3," and there he will find the "John" whose line is now taken up. 

Turn back to Section III for full explanations. 

Alexander. John W. - son of Andrew (m. Susan Hunter) - b. 
1835, D. 1908 - m. Nancy S. Sitlington Sterrett - C-2* - 

1. Minnie B. - b. 1858 - m. 1. John B. Stephenson, 1876, 2. S. K. 
McClung, G'brier, 3. J. G. Dunsmore, G'brier.* 2. William T. -m. 
Mary L. Burke, Aug. 3. Cora H. - m. Emerson A. Johnson, Monroe.* 

4. Andrew A. - m. Mattie P. Whitmore, R'bridge. 5. Susan S. - m. 
B. Hiner Hansel. 6. Charles G. - m. Mary E. Hidy - C-3 - Mary J. 
(dy.). 7. James - d. 14c. 8. Edward - d. 10c. 9. Howard F* - m. 
Elizabeth T. Sperry, Washington, D. C. - C-3 - inf. (dy.). 

C-3* of William T. - 

Mary S. (dy.) - Emerson B. (b. 1890) - Russell K. - Josephine 

5. - Margaret D. - Dunbar M. - Eugenia K. - William T., Jr. - Robert 
B. (dy.) - Keith D. (dy.). 

C-3* of Andrew A. - 

Mary A. (dy.) - Elizabeth M. (b. 1895) - Bonnie E. 

Arbogast. Michael - b. 1734c, D. 1812 - m. Mary C-2 - 

1. Adam - m. Margaret Hull - age 100c - Poca. 2. David - m. 

Elizabeth O. 3. John - m. Hannah Davis - Pdn. 4. George - m. 

Catharine Yeager, 1791. 5. Henry - m. 1. Sophia Wade, 1792, 2. Eliza- 
beth Seybert - D. 1844. 6. Peter - m. Sarah O. before 1815. 7. 

Michael - m. Barbara Bussard, 1792 - O. before 1815. 

C-3 of Adam. - 

1. Benjamin - 2. William - 3. Adam - m. Mary Davis, 1823. 4. 
Jacob- 5. Susan - m. John Lunsford, 1804. 6. Elizabeth- 7. Mary - 
8-9. Girls - dy. 

C-3 of John (2). - 

1. John - m.? Mary Wood, 1824. 2. Jonathan - m. Catharine 
Wimer, 1813 - n. c. 3. Rachel - m. Daniel Waybright, 1811. 4. Re- 
becca - b. 1791, D. 1879 - m. Mathias Waybright. 5. Mary A. - m. 
Jacob Ketterman, 1820. 6. Joseph - m. Sarah Ketterman, 1820. 7. 
Moses - m. Elizabeth Zickafoose, 1819. 8. Adam. 

258 History of HigJiland County 

C-3 of George (2). - 

1. Hannah - b. 1792c, D. 1856 - m. Jacob Mullenax. 2. Daniel - 
m. Sarah Swecker, 1817. 3. Emmanuel - m. 1. Jane Gum, 1824, 2. Isa- 
bella Wimer, 1839. 4. Catharine - m. John Janes, 1828. 5. Elizabeth - 
m.? Jacob Sponangle, 1821. 6. Leah - 7. Mary - 8. Adam - 9. Henry. 

C-4 of Daniel (3). - 

1. William S. - D.* '61 - m. Catharine Eagle, 1843 - C-5 - Samuel 
(in E. Va.). 2. John W. - b. 1835, D. 1890 - m. Amanda M. Hansel. 
3. George - s. - k. runaway horse. 4. Henry W. - m. — Judy, Pdn. - 
W. Va. 5. Benjamin F. - m. Cynthia A. Wilson - 111. - D. 

C-5* of John W. - 

Emory M. (m. Annie S. McGuffin, Bath) - Ella G. - Lucy K. - 
Arthur W. - Charles C. - Ruth W. (d.) - J. Edward (sheriff)t - 
Sarah B. 

C-5 of Henry W. - 

Leah (m. Erastus D. Carr - away) - Mary (m. John A. Marshall) - 
Elizabeth (m. Dr. James S. Harding) - Sarah (s.) - John (dy.). 

C-4 of EMMANUEL. - 

1. Jeremiah E. - b. 1834, D. 1895 - m. Mary J. Hidy. 2. Norval - 
111. 3. Caroline - m. Dr. Charles T. Gray, Hid. - 111. 4. Margaret - 
m. David Seiver. 5. Rachel - m. — Bishop, W.* 

C-5* of Jeremiah E. - 

Carrie E. (m. Charles H. Slaven) - William G. (m. Mary Kin- 

C-6* of William G. - 

Howard K.f (m. Lucy Fox) - William G. (s. - G'brier). 

C-3 of HENRY. - (by 1) - 

1. Andrew - m. Barbara Wimer, 1821. 2. Phoebe - m. John Rex- 
rode, 1814. 3. Mary - m. Peter Halterman, 1815. 4. Margaret - m. 
John Gall, 1817. 5. Eleanor - m. Jonas Lantz, 1810. 6. Sophia - m. 
Peter Arbogast, 1822. (By 2) - 7. George - m. 1. Lavina L. Ervine, 
1840, 2. Eunice Peninger, 1846. 8. Levi - m. 1. Catharine Peninger, 
1848, 2. Catharine Eagle Arbogast. 9. Henry - b. 1821, D. 1901 - m. 
Mary M. Sullenberger, 1843. 10. Ephraim - m. Grace Allen, 1837. 11. 
Benjamin - m. Mildred Gray - n. c. 12. Elizabeth - m. William W. 
Will, 1845. 13. Hester - m. Jesse Waybright, 1843. 14. Catharine - m. 
Jesse Colaw. 15. Sarah - m. Andrew Jordan, 1834. 16. Lavina - m. 
John Chew, 1846. 17. Alcinda - m. Harvey Vance. 

C-4* of George. - (by 2) - 

1. William H.f - b. 1845 - m. Barbara E. Fleisher, 1874. 2. Mary 
C. - m. James M. Kee, Pdn., 1879. 3. Virginia - m. Harmon H. Sey- 

C-5* of William H. - 

Fay F. (d.) - Gay G. (m. Frank C. Beverage) - OUie (m. Kenton 
L. Mullenax) - Cameron E. - Mamie C. - Martha M. - W. Lurty. 


History of Highland County 259 

C-4* of LEVI. - 

1. Mary A. (m. Robert M. Hildebrand) - 2. Martha J. (m. Henry 
E. Colaw) - 3. Chariest (m. Jane Gum). 

C-4 of Henry. - 

1. William - m. — Houchin, W. Va. - Poca. 2. Abel P. - m. 
Amanda E. Swecker, 1888. 3. Charles - d. 4. John - m. Susan Wimer. 
5. Samuel - m. — Riley,. Lewis. 6. Benjamin S. - d. 7. Sarah S. - b. 
1860 - m. John K. Kramer, W. Va. 8. Mary - m. 1. Jesse Patterson, 

2. Solomon Harper. 9. Elizabeth A. - m. James C. Kemper, Lewis. 
10. L. Virginia - m. Samuel B. Jordan. 

C-5 of John. - 

John - Virginia (dy.). 

C-5 of Samuel. - 

Frances - Ruth - Essie - Willis - Charles - Hebe - Pryor - Riley - 

C-5 of Abraham. - 

Margaret - Okey - Ruth - Robert - Mary - Frederick - Carl - 
Russell - 5 others (dy.). 

C-4 of EPHRAIM. - 

1. Elizabeth J. - b. 1842 - m. George Harper, Pdn., 1858. 2. Wil- 
liam M.f - m. Lucy D. Harding, 1886. 3. Jane - m. Daniel Grogg. 

C-5* of William M. - 

Flemmie (m. Marvin E. Fitzwater, O., 1909) - Hubert - Nannie - 
Sarah - Raymond - Benjamin - Evelyn - William. 

Misc. - 

1. Edward. - C. - Christina (m. Jesse Davis, 1847) - George (m. 
Mary Reed, 1842). 2. Jesse - m. Phoebe — . C. - Bert A. (m. Marion 
Peck, 1890) -Lucy D. (m. S— . L. Simmons, 1886) - Samuel E. (m. 
Esther F. Simmons, 1895). 3. Lavina - m. Charles Gum, 1825. 4. 
Michael - m. Edith Ketterman, 1819. 5. Peter - m. Sophia Arbogast, 
1822. 6. William - m. Grace — . 

Armstrong. (A) William - m. Elizabeth J. Erwin - D. 1814 - 
C-2. - 

1. Elizabeth - m. John Douglas, 1823. 2. William - m. Eleanor 
Wilson. 3. Jared - m. Martha Wilson, 1820. 4. Jane - m. Samuel 
Wilson, 1819. 5. John - m. Mary Wilson, 1812 - W. Va. 6. George - 
m. Eunice C. Propst. 7. James - m. - - 8. Nancy J. - m. Godlove 
Hinegarner, 1831. 

C-3 of William. - 

1. Harrison - 2. Harvey - b. 1833 - m. Margaret McCoy, 1854. 

C-3 of Jared. - 

1. Elizabeth - m. Samuel Wilson. 2. Jane - m. Andrew J. Jones. 

3. Victoria - m. Henry Jones. 4. Martha - dy. 5. Alfred - b. 1820 - 
m. Margaret L. Wilson, 1868. 6. Matherial E. - m. Josiah Armstrong. 
7. Margaret A. - m. George M. Karicofe. 

260 History of Highland County 

\ C-4 of Alfred. - (in Aug.) - 

Alice (m. in Aug.*) - Ruth (dy.) - Wilber C. - Lula (m. in 
Aug.*) - Olin C. (m. in Aug.*) - Marvin H. (m. in Aug.*). 

C-3 of JOHN. - 

1. Mary - m. William Welsh. 2. Martha - m. James Hull - Up- 
shur. 3. Ann - 4. Jane - 5. Jared - m. — Bennett - (C-4 - William - 
Charles - Robert) - 6. John - m. Sarah Talbott. 

C-3 of George. - 

1. William H. - b. 1845 - m. Susannah Bodkin, 1870. 2. Rankin - 
3. James - 4. Sarah. 

C-3 of James. - 

1. Elizabeth A. - m. William Ervine. 2. James - 3. Charles. 

Armstrong. (B) John - bro. to William - m. Agnes Erwin - D. 
1821 - C-2.* - 

1. Elizabeth - b. 1780. 2. William - b. 1783 - away. 3. Jared - 
b. 1785, D. 1865 - m. Agnes Hiner. 4. Jane - b. 1787, D. 1857 - m. 
Joseph Hiner, 1808. 5. John - b. 1790 - m.? Margaret Jones, 1812 - O. 
6. Margaret - b. 1792 - m. George Crummett. 7. Mary - twin to Mar- 
garet - D. 1867 - m. John Bodkin. 8. James - b. 1795 - m. 1. Elizabeth 
Hiner, 2. — Smith - W. Va. 9. George - b. 1797 - m. Sarah Hiner, 
1824. 10. Thomas - b. 1799 - m. Sarah Pullin, 1822 - Lewis. 11. 
Nancy - b. 1802 - m. John Knicely, 1827 - away. 12. Samuel - b. 1804 - 
m. Mary Taylor, Rkm. 

C-3 of Jared. - 

1. Abel H. - m. Mary A. Wilson, 1837. 2. Allen - m. Elizabeth 
Steuart. 3. Martha - m. Solomon Hedrick, Pdn.* 4. Matilda - m. I. 
Thomas J. Edmond, 1834, 2. Charles Roberts, 1846. 5. Mahala - m. 
Jacob Edmond. 6. Lucinda B. - b. 1826 - m. George Hiner. 

C-4 of Abel H. - 

1. Jared M. - b. 1843 - m. Martha E. Armstrong, 1867. 2. Gideon - 
k.* '61. 3. William - k.* '61. 4. Henry - m. Alice Hiner. 5. Joseph - 
m. Mary Wanless, Bath. 6. Mary - m. Martin Rexrode. 7. Huldah 
J. - m. Andrew J. Keister, Pdn.,* 1874. 8. Margaret - m. Edwin 
P'ropst. 9. Martha - m. Samuel Hoover. 

C- of — ? 

1. Joseph - m. Mary Siple. 2. Jared - k.* '61. 

C- of Joseph. - 

Jane (m. Archibald Revereomb) - Jacob H. (m. Bertie E. Siple, 190U. 

C-4 of Allen. - 

1. John M.f - b. 1849 - m. Mary E. Steuart, 1877. 2. Arbelia - 
m. Eskridge Hiner. 3. Wilda - m. Jefferson Edmond. 4. Mary - m. 
— Armstrong. 5. Margaret - m. William Steuart. 6. Thomas - 7. 
Abbott L.f - m. Martha Siron. 8. Arthur. 

C-S* of John M. - 

James M.f (m. Emma V. Hupman) - Mary A. (m. James E 

History of Highland County 261 

Splawn - D.) - Charles S.t (m. Mary E. Devericks, 1906) - Ernest B. 

C-3* of GEORGE. - 

1. Margaret - m. Rev. Thomas Monroe. 2. Clarissa - dy. 3. 
Harmon - dy. 4. Josiah - m. Matherial E. Armstrong. 5. Nancy - 
m. Benjamin T. Hook. 6. John M.f - b. 1835 - m. Esther A. Hamil- 
ton, 1860. 7. Oliver - m. Elizabeth J. Davis, Pdn. - Fauquier, 1880. 
8. Jemima - m. Benjamin F. Jackson, N. C, 1872. 9. Sarah - m. Sam- 
uel Siple, Pdn.* 10. Lucinda - m. Osborne Wilson. 11. Mary - twin 
to Lucinda - s. 12. Martha E. - m. Jared M. Armstrong. 13. George - 
m. Virginia Hiner. 

C-4* of Josiah. - 

1. Alfred O. - m. Ella V. Stalnaker, G'brier - Md. 2. John O.* - 
m. Ada Stein, Md. 3. Emerson W.f - b. 1858 - m. Loretta Trimble, 
1890 (C-5 - Olin - Robert - Jared - Mary H. - Edwin - James). 4. 
Howard - s. 5. Josiaht - b. 1864 - m. Louie B. Hiner, 1894 (C-5 - 
Mason - Elizabeth). 

C-4 of John M. - 

1. J. Morganf - b. 1863 - m. Harriet A. Pruitt, 1896. 2. George 
W.t - m. M. Viola McNett, 1895. 3. Charles R.f - m. Osie Faurote, 1900. 

C-4* of Oliver. - (all away) 

Harmon D. - Ruhama C. (m. William Trumbo, Pdn.) - John M. 
(Mineral) - Jefferson C. (Rkm.) - George H. - Laban B. - Hendron 
H. - Sarah V. - Annie A. - Lucy J. - Martha O. 

C-3* of SAMUEL. - 

1. Benami - b. 1832 - m. Mary C. Lamb, 1854. 2. Jared - m. 
Sabina Varner. 3. Eli - m. Elizabeth Bodkin, Pdn.* 4. Margaret - 
m. Emmanuel Mitchell. 5. Tacy - m. Harrison Simmons. 6. Pal- 
myra - m. Peter Lamb. 7. Hudsont -b. 1843 - m. Malinda J. Ralston, 
1866. 8. William E.f - b. 1846 - m. 1. Sarah C. Price, 1866, 2. Susan 
Bodkin. 9. John E.t - b. 1848c - m. Barbara Crummett, 1868. 10. 
George - d. 

C-4* of Benami. - 

1. Azariah - m. Margaret A. Findlay, 1880. 2. George H. - m. 
Elizabeth C. McCray, 1885. 

C-4 of Eli. - 

1. William H. - b. 1868 - m. Cora A. Todd, Pdn., 1893. 2. Jared 
M. - m. Margaret M. Rexrode, 1906. 3. J. Riley - m. Hannah Sim- 
mons, Pdn.* 4. Wesley - m. Gertrude Propst, Pdn.* 

C-4 of Hudson. - 

1. Gilbert T. - b. 1867 - m. Dora C. Eagle, 1891. 2. J. Wesley - 
m. Mabel V. Kincaid, 1905. 3. Robert J. - m. Elizabeth E. Hupman, 

C-4 of William E. - (by 1) 

1. J. Morgant - b. 1867 - m. Elizabeth E. Wooddell, 1887. (by 2) 
2. George - 3. Granville m. Sarah Leach. 4. Van S. - m. in 111.* 

262 History of Highland County 

5. Samuel E. - b. 1877 - m. Lucy F. Ervine, 1896. 6. Benami - m. 
Emily Leach, 1904. 7. Louie - m. O. Reese McCray. 8. Dora - m. 
Harrison Malcomb. 

C-4 of John E. - 

1. Nannie - m. Eliezer Y. Deihl. 2. Tehama - m. Thaddeus T. 
Deihl. 3. Clarissa - m. Lankford Simmons. 4. Kate - m. 1. Henry 
McCray, 2. Charles Shull. 5. Jacob C. - b. 1878 - m. Lucy M. Hook, 
1906. 6. George - s. - U. S. A. 7. Robert E. - m. Minnie M. Kiser, 
Pdn., 1910. 8. William - m. in Aug.* 

Beverage. John - m. Elizabeth Lowderbeck - D. 1826 - C-2. - 

1. John - m. Margaret Rymer - D. 1830. 2. David - m. Ann 
Shinneberger, 1810 - CB - D. 1818. 3. Elizabeth - b. 1777 - m. John 
Peck - D. 1862. 4. Mary - m. Thomas Jones, 1799. 5. Tane - m. 
William Rymer. 6. Eve - s. 7. Henry - Ind., 8. Robert - b. 1792, 
D. 1856 - m. Margaret Keys, 1818. 9. Sarah E. - b. 1794c - m. John 
Jack, 1813. 

C-3 of John. - 

1. Thomas - m. 1. Mary H. Rexrode, 2. Elizabeth Seybert 
Trimble. 2. George - m. Hannah Hevener, 1830. 3. William - m. 
Mary McGlaughlin. 4. Eleanor - b. 1807, D. 1873 - m. Solomon 
Wagoner. 5. Martha - m. Abraham Buchanan, 1830 - Rph. 6. John - 
m. Margaret Hevener, 1837. 8. Andrew - m. Elizabeth J. Eagle, 
1846 - Upshur. 7. Sarah M. - m. James D. Rymer, 1839. 

C-4 of Thomas. - (by 1.) 

1. James C. - b. 1849 - m. Frances Keister, 1877. 2. Sarah - s. 
3. Amanda - m. Stewart W. Wimer. 4. Henrietta - m. Philip Eagle. 

5. Nancy - m. Samuel C. Hevener. 6. Mary A. - m. John Varner. 
7. Louisa D. - b. 1832 - m. John E. Anderson, W. Va., 1856. 8. 
Martha - m. Jonathan Shirley, W. Va. 9. Margaret - m. Daniel 
Varner. 10. Eleanor W. - b. 1835 - m. John B. Wagoner, 1857. 11. 
Lucinda A. - b. 1852 - m. Samuel T. Varner. 12. John - dy, 4. 

C-5 of James C. - 

1. Sarah (m. — Fleisher) - 2. Elizabeth (m. Charles G. Ralston). 

C-4 of JOHN. - 

1. S. Clark - m. Mary J. Rymer. 2. William A.f - b. 1844 - m. 
Virginia A. Trimble, 1871. 3. Andrew W.f - b. 1848 - m. Mary E. 
Hull, 1878. 4. Elizabeth - m. Josiah Beverage. 5. Sarah - W. Va. 

6. Barbara E. - m. Joseph C. Skidmore, Pdn.* 7. Jane - m. William 
P. Rexrode. 

C-5 of S. Clark. - 

George (m. in W. Va.*) - Boydf (m. Lucy Wagoner) - Harper 
(m. in W. Va.*) - William - Margaret (m. William Rexrode) - Grace 
(m. Kenny Puffenberger) - Emma (m. Walker Wagoner). 

C-5 of William A. - 

Isaac L. (m. Clara H. Seybert - county surveyor)* - Coe (m. 

History of Highland County 263 

Sarah I. Lightner) - Edward C. (m. Margaret Lightner) - Elizabeth 
W. - Virgil (dy.) - Byron A.f (m. Ella Hiner) - Alpheus M. (dy. 8) - 
James W. (dy. 12) - Beecher B. (dy. 2). 

C-5 of Andrew W. - 

Elizabeth (m. Charles G. Ralston) - Ruth - Kenneth. 

C-3* of ROBERT. - 

1. Sarah - m. William H. Vint, Pdn.* 2. John R.f - b. 1824 - m. 
1. Susan Moyers, 1857, 2. Amanda A. Ralston, 1871, 3. Mary Malcomb, 
1880. 3. Adam - m. Margaret Lamb - Braxton. 4. Mary - m. in' 
Upshur.* 5. Henry - s. 6. Andrew J. - b. 1835 - m. 1. Sarah Lantz, 
1860, 2. Susan J. Jack - n. c. 

C-4* of John R. - (by 1) 

1. Sarah C. - b. 1858 - m. Eugene A. Hicklin. 2. Henry - dy. 3. 

3. Samuelt - m. Frances Cunningham [C-5 - Brooks - Claude]. (By 
2) 4. Rosa - m. John Bodkin. 5. William H. - m. Myrtle McCracken, 

0. - 111. (By 3) 6. Olin S. - 7. Andrew M. - 8. J. Berlin - 9. Emory 

1. - 10. Gertrude - dy. 

C-3 of David. - 

1. Jacob - m.? Susanna Snider, 1834 - away. 2. Peter - m. Susarf 
White, 1846. 3. Seay. 

Misc. - 

1. Henry - m. Nancy Lunsford, 1833 - Poca. 2. George - m. 
— Hevener - Poca. 

Beathe. Joseph - D. 1801 - C-2. - 

1. Mary - m. John Griffith, 1805. 2. Joseph - m. Mary Pullin, 
1816 - D. 1858c. 

C-3 of Joseph. - 

1. Joseph A. - s. 2. John M. - m. in Poca. - W. 3. William - s. 

4. Peter - s. 5. Malinda - b. 1826 - m. James Hicklin. 6. Andrew J. - 
b. 1834 - m. Cynthia A. Fisher, Aug., 1859. 7. Samuel - m. Ann 
Crickard, Rph. 8. James M. - m. Mary M. Hicklin. 9. Frances - s. 
10. Sarah - s. 11. Eliza - s. 12. Margaret - m. John Wolf - Rph. 

C-4 of James M. - 

William (in Kas.) - Felix (W.) - Joseph A. K. (b. 1847 - m. 
Louisa F. Ralston, 1868) - Catharine M. (m. Thomas G. Hook) - 
James R.f (m. 1. Mary M. Ralston, 1878, 2. Mary M. Hicklin, 1898) - 
Crawford - s. - Nancy J. (m. Conrad Ralston). 

Misc. - 

Cynthia A. - m. Charles A. Carroll, Aug., 1866.f 

C. of Cynthia A. Carroll. - 

1. James W. - m. 1. Rosa Pritt, Upshur. 2. John - m. Elizabeth 
May. 3. E. Florence - m. John H. Griffin. 

Benson. Mathias - D. 1794 - m. Eleanor C-2. - 

1. George - D. 1809c - m. Margaret — , - CP. 2. Mathias - D. 

264 History of Higlilaiid County 

1820 - m. - - - n. Mry. 3. Ervine - 4. Babel - 5. Elizabeth J.? - 
\ m. Thomas? Pullin. 

C-3 of George. - 
\ 1. Mary - m. Henry Swadley, Pdn., 1800c. 2. others. 

. C-3 of Mathias. - 

\ 1. Elizabeth - m. William Lockridge, 1796. 2. Sarah - m. Wil- 

liam Wiley, 1799. 3. Eleanor - m. John Wright, 1802. 4. Mathias - 
m. Susan Trimble, 1809 - D. 1847. 5. Alexander - m. Jane McGlaugh- 
lin, 1809 - D. 1840c. 6. William B. -m. Elizabeth Trimble, 1817. 7. 
George - m. Rebecca J. — . 

C-4 of Mathias. - 

1. Margaret - m. William Hicks. 2. Susan - b. 1821 - m. David 
W. Gibson, 1842. 3. Isaac S. - m. in Harrison.* 4. Elizabeth - m. 
Robert Bodkin. 5. Matilda - m. Noah Stout, Harrison.* 6. Lucinda - 
m. James Stephenson. 7. Caroline - m. Dr. Adam Given. 8. Mary 
A. - m. Robert Curry. 9. William W. - b. 1838, D. 1894 - m. Eliza 

C.-5 of William W. - 

1. William - m. — Ryder, W. Va. - W. 2. James - m. Jennie M. 
Gibson - S. (C-6 - James). 3. Mary - m. Luther Campbell. 4-8. inf. -. 
dy., diphtheria. 9. Carrie - d. 15. 10. Edna - m. — Noel - Poca. 11. 
Grace - m. Paris Johnson. 

C-3 of — , a son of George (2). - 

1. Hamilton - b. 1786 - m. Elizabeth Hodge. 2. George - m. 
— McGlaughlin - O. 3. Andrew - 4. William - 5. Robert - m. — 
Donahoe. 6. Howard - 7. Mary - m. Isaac Skidmore, Pdn., 1803. 

8. Eleanor - m. James McCutcheon, Aug., 1815. 

C-4* of Hamilton. - 

1. Mary J. - b. 1812 - m. Joseph Gwin. 2. George H. - m. Martha 
Kincaid - O. 3. Margaret A. - m. Lewis Kincaid. 4. Sarah L. - m. 
John D. Kincaid. 5. Martha E. - m. Jacob Huffman. 6. Rebecca E. - 
s. 7. James H.f - s. - b. 1827. 8. Amanda E. - m. Charles Kincaid. 

9. Harriet H. - m. Lewis Paulie. 10. W. L. Charles - m. Laura 
Steuart, 1869 - Cal. 11. m. William Kincaid. 

C-5 of George H. - 

Nannie W. (m. George Steuart) - Charles - s. - Sarah S. (m. Jacob 
Dyke, Alleg.*) - George R. (m. in 111.*). 

C-5 of W. L. Charles. - 

Steuart E. - Lola B. - Sarah A. - Bertha - Margaret J. - Jared 
■^ H. - Mae V. - Elva R. 

Bird. John - b. 1750c, D. at 90 while plowing - m. Susanna Wint- 
row, of Germany - C-2. - 

1. Catharine - m. John Deaver, 1794. 2. Adam - m. Elizabeth 
Ryder, 1798. 3. John - m. Susannah Hartman, 1803 - went late to 
Harrison. 4. Valentine - m. Eleanor Johnson - D. 1829 - n. c. 5. 



History of Highland County 265 

Frederick - m. Sophia Chestnut, 1804. 6. William - m. Kate Morri- 
son - Nicholas. 7. David - b. 1781 - m. Elizabeth Hull, 1806. 8. 
Mary. 9. Jacob - m. Elizabeth Yeager, 1816 - Mo. 

C-3 of Adam. - 

1. Sarah - b. 1799, D. 1856 - m. Otho Briscoe. 2. William - b. 
1801, D. 1876 - m. Sarah Malcomb, 1823. 3. Mary - m. Jacob Gilles- 
pie, Poca. 4. Elizabeth - m. Jacob Dilley, Poca.* 5. Thomas - b. 
1807 - m. 1. Nancy J. McCartney, 2. Nancy Ryder, 1854. 6. Benja- 
min - m. Eliza Bird - O. 7. John - m. Letitia Dilley, Poca. - Ritchie. 
8. Frederick - s. - D. 80. 9. Nancy - m. Jacob Steuart - O. 10. Mar- 
garet - m. Jacob May - Ind. 11. Valentine - m. 1. Mary Cheatham, 
Aug., 2. Hester McCartney. 

C-4* of William. - 

1. Andrew - m. 1. Eleanor Bird, 2. Elizabeth Wooddell. 2. 
James - m. Mary Hiner. 3. Peter - m. Charlotte Callahan - n. c. 

4. Elizabeth - b. 1832, D. 1872 - m. Otho Wade. 5. Jacob - m. Matilda 

5. Bird, 1856 - O. 6. Francis M.f - m. 1. Julia Black, Aug., 2. Sarah 
E. Shaver. 7. Charles W. - m. Mary Brown, Mason - O. 8. Sarah 
J. - b. 1842 - m. Peter L. Curry. 

C-5 of Andrew. - (all by 2 and in Lewis) 

Stewart (m. — Reger) - Jacob (d) - John A. (m. — Wimer) - 
Ellen (m. — McLean) - William (m. — Armstrong). 

C-5 of James. - 

Uriah (m. Susan Hudson, Poca.*) - Franklin (s. - D. 40) - Martha 
(m. Reese Bird) - Emma (m. Cronin Dilley, Poca.*). 

C-5* of Francis M. - (by 1) 

1. Charles E. - m. 1. Lillian Marks, Penna.,* 2. Ella Marks, 
Penna.* - locomotive engineer - D. 2. James L. (By 2) 3. William 
N. - m. Ruvenia Gum. 4. John G. - 5. Frank E. J. - m. Sullenberger 
B. Rexrode. 

C-5 of Charles W. - 

William G. - Cora - Josephus. 

C-4 of THOMAS. - (by 1) 

1. Rebecca - m. Davis Townsend. 2. Adam - m. Catharine Er- 
vine - W. 3. John W. - m. Olive G. Doyle, 1858 - W. 4. Huldah - 
m. James Taylor, W.* 5. Laura - m. John Taylor, W.* 6. Eliza- 
beth - m. John Ryder. (By 2) 7. James T. - b. 1856 - m. 1. — 
Taylor? 2. Cornelia Patterson, 1878. 8. Madeline - m. Henry Ryder. 

C-4 of Valentine. - (by 1) 

1. Aaron - b. 1832, k. 1862* - m. Mary J. Wade, 1856. 2. Moses - 
m. in Kanawha.* 3. Rachel J. - m. J. Asbury Pullin. 4. Margaret - 
m. Davis Townsend. (by 2) 5. Darius - d. 16. 6. Mahala - m. David 
Wade. 7. Samuel R. - m. Amanda Reger, Lewis - la. 8. Louisa - 
m. Eldridge Pullin. 9. Maria - m. Boone Wade. 10. Alice - dy., 

266 History of Highland County 

C-5 of Aaron. - 

Lancelot (d.) - A. Oscar (m. Mary K. Masters, 1881 - Rph.) - 
Smith (m. — McGlaughlin - Bath). 

C-3 of JOHN. - 

1. Margaret - m. Abijah Matheny - D. 1879. 2. David H. - b. 
1804, D. 1863 - m. Sarah A. Wade. 3. Morgan - m. Elsie Bird - Har- 
rison. 4. Peter H. - m. Sophia Wade. 5. Mary - m. John Woods. 
6. Sarah - m. J. Wesley Ryder, 1831. 7. Nancy - m. James Hickman, 

C-4* of David H. - 

1. John W.t - b. 1835 - m. 1. Pamelia E. Gilmor, Rkm., 1868, 2. 
Anne Scott, Aug. - n. c. 2. Matilda S. - m. Jacob Bird, 1856. 3. Eliza- 
beth A. - m. Vernon Campbell, 1860 - Okla. 4. Anson G. - k. '62.* 5. 
Morgan - D* '61. 6. Charles A. - m. in Mo.* 7. Amanda R. - b. 
1850 - m. William C. Byrd, 1866. 8. Littleton H. - m. in Mo.* 

C-4 of Peter H. - 

Susan (m. Allen Hite, Bath*) - Sarah (m. William Ervine) - 
Mary P. (b'. 1833 - m. James H. Byrd, 1858) - Catharine (m. Samuel 
Lightner) - Martha E. (m. William Mustoe, Barbour, 1867) - Mar- 
garet J. (m. James S. Hickman, 1865, Harrison*) - Frances (d. 15) - 
Caroline (dy.) - John (dy.) - Jesse (dy.) - Otho (D. '64c*). 

C-3 of FREDERICK. - 

1. John C. - m. Elizabeth Curry. 2. William C. - m. Sarah Curry. 
3. Jane - m. in Harrison. 4. Nancy - m. Isaac Briscoe. 5. Sarah - s. 
6. Eleanor - m. Andrew Bird. 7. Mary - s. 8. Elsie - m. Morgan 

C-4 of John C. - 

1. Alexander W.t - m. Alice V. Shultz, Bath, 1881 - n. c. 2. Julia 
A. - m. William H. Hiner. 

C-5 of William C. - 

1. Emily - m. Ami Trainor, Bath.* 2. Mary E. - b. 1853 - m. 
S. Washington Hoover. 3. William F. - m. Emma S. Wade, 1873, 
Poca. 4. Reese - m. 1. Martha Bird, 2. Nancy Baldwin, 3. - -, Aug.* 
5. John - m. Leah Curry - K. by train - n. c. 6. Hamilton - m. Emily 
Bird - Harrison. 7. Sarah - m. Stewart Wade. 

C-3 of DAVID. - 

1. George H. - m. 1. Eliza Ryder, 2. Mary Wiley, 3. Matilda M. 
Wade, 1852. 2. John J. - m. 1. Jane Chestnut, 2. Margaret Callahan 
Matheny - 111. 3. David - m. Martha Ryder - 111. 4. Hannah - m. 
James Hamilton. 5. Rachel - m. — Wade. 6. Eliza - m. Benjamin 
Bird. 7. Margaret - m. 1. Abraham Mullenax, 2. John Cook. 8. Mary 
J. - s. 9. Eleanor - s. 

C-4 of George H. - (by 1) 

1. Augusta H. - m. Robert W. Lightner. 2. Missouri A. - m. 
Samuel B. Rexrode. 3. Charles T. - m. Melissa A. Matheny, 1877. 

History of Highland County 267 

4. J. Harman - m. Mary W. Gardner, 1885, Aug. 5. G. Ansont - m 
Mary Campbell (C-5 - Lloyd C). 6. David O.f - m. Lillie Shumate. 
7. Estiline - dy. (by 2) 8. Morgan - m. Rachel Bible, Poca. 9. , 
Elizabeth - m. Jacob Clendenin. 10. Alcinda - m. Hugh P. Mc- " 

C-5 of David O. - 

Harry St. G. - Virginia M. - Lucy G. - D. Russell - Ernest N. - 

Forrest H. 


John - b. 1800, D. 1878 - m. 1. Margaret Dahmer, 2. Elizabeth JL^ 
Hiner, 1860 - C-3.* - 

1. James - D. '63* - m. Eliza Snyder, Pdn. 2. Margaret - D. 24. 
3. Valentine - b. 1825 - m. Elizabeth Cook, Pdn., 1846 - Lewis? 4. 
Andrew J. - m. — Cook - D. 1858 -4 c. 5. John - b. 1828, D. 1900 - s. 
6. Elizabeth J. - m. George Cook, Pdn., 1849. \ 7. Da*: J --B. '-62* - 
m. Isabella M. Lightner. 8. Jacob - D. '62.* 

Blagg. William - b. 1740, D. 1820 - m. Elizabeth J. Wilson - 
C-2.* - 

1. Samuel - b. 1774 - m. Jemima Hempenstall, 1795 - W. 2. 
John - b. 1777, D. 1862 - m. Mary Hiner, 1804. 3. William - b. 1780 - 
m. — Wimer. 4. Abraham - b. 1783, D. 1817 - m. Virginia Jones. 
5. Mary - m. John Welch - O. 6. Harriet - b. 1787 - m. Alexander 
Hiner. 7. Priscilla - b. 1790 - m. James Jones. 8. James - b. 1794 - 
m. Mary Smallridge, 1815. 

C-3 of William. - 

1. Marshall (s.) - 2. Mary A. (m. Josiah Wilson) - 3. Nancy (s.). 

C-3* of John. - 

1. Naomi - b. 1810 - m. Eli Wilson. 2. Elizabeth - s. 3. Sam- 
uel H. - b. 1814, D. 1862 - m. Margaret Jones. 4. Mary A. - m. James 
Jones, 1839. 5. Frances - s. 6. Agnes - s. 7. Harriet - s. 8. Esther - 
m. Samuel Wilson. 9. John - b. 1826, D. 1862 - m. Elizabeth Wood- 
dell - n. c. 10. James H. - b. 1828, D. 1911 - m. Amanda J. Vint, Pdn. 

C-4 of Samuel H. - 

1. Joseph W. - b. 1855, D. 1909 - m. Eliza A. Price, 1875. 2. John 
H.t - b. 1860 - m. Nannie V. Bradshaw, 1897. 3. Mary - W. Va. 

C-5* of Joseph W. - in 111. 

Margaret J. (b. 1878 - m. Edward E. Fleisher) - Eva M. (m. 
Henry B. Fleisher) - Effie - Martha - Mabel (m. J. Grover Siple, 
1900) - Beulah. 

C-5 of John H. - 

Helen D. - Madge - Mary J. - Charles B. - Julian. 

C-4* of JAMES H. - 

1. Naomi M. (b. 1867 - m. George L. Bodkin) - 2. Alberta E. - 
dy. 3. Mary F. (m. Sylvester N. Newbank, 1897) - 4. Lillie E. (m. 

268 History of Highland County 

William M. Rexrode) - 5. Georgianna (m. William A. Cunningham) - 

6. Ida L. (m. Jonathan Eagle) - 7. Abner J. (m. Elsie V. Wilson, 
1909) - 8. Martha J. (m. Jared Price) - 9. Emily J. 

C-3 of WILLIAM. - 

1. Benami H. - m. Sarah E. Samples, 1872. 2. Squire J.t - m. 
Mary A. Masters, 1872. 

C-4* of Benami H.t - 

Erne H. (b. 1881 - m. William S. Cobb) - Phoebe C. (m. Wil- 
liam P. Waybright) - Annie L. (m. Charles P. Waybright) - 3 
others (dy.). 

C-4 of Squire J.* - 

Elizabeth (m. in 111.*) - Henry (d.) - Thomas (m. Mary Wil- 
son) - Margaret (m. George Karicofe) - Belle - Jennie C. (m. C. P. 
Harman, Aug.*) - William (111.) - Ethel - (Nancy (111.*) - Myrtle. 

C-3 of ABRAHAM. - 

1. Williams -s. 2. Henry J. - m. Phoebe A. Fox, 1838. 3. James 
W. - m. Rebecca R. Hook, 1837 - Braxton. 4. Benjamin - m. Sarah 
Spicer, Aug. - Upshur. 

Bodkin. Richard - b. 1710c - C-2. - 

1. Charles (w. — ). 2. John (w. Mary) - D. 1791. 3. Hugh (w. 
Esther). 4. James (w. Dinah). 5. Richard. 

C-3 of Charles. - 

1. Margaret - m. James Bodkin. 2. Elizabeth - m. William 

C-3 of John. - 

1. Mary - 2. Letitia - m.? William Jordan. 3. Euphemia - m. 
William Bodkin, 1786. 4. William - m. Elizabeth Bodkin, 1793. 5. 
John - b. 1770c - m. Elizabeth Vint, Pdn., 1798. 

C-3 of James. - 

1. Margaret - m. Joseph McCoy, 1796. 2. James - 3. John - m.? 
Mary Moore, 1792. 4. Sarah - m. — Varner, 1791. 5. Mary. 

C-3 of — ? - 

1. James - m.? Margaret Bodkin. 2. John - m.? Jane Curry, 
1810c O. 3. Rachel - m. Thomas Douglas. 4. Thomas - k. by 
fall. 5. William. 

C-4 of John of John. - 

1. William - away. 2. John - m. Mary Armstrong. 3. Joshua - 
m. Barbara Propst, Pdn.,* 1808. 4. James - m. Sarah Hoover, Pdn.* 
5. Samuel - m. Barbara Wilfong, Pdn. 6. Joseph - m. Margaret — . 

7. Jane - 8. Elizabeth - m. Joshua Keister, Pdn.* 9. Letitia - m. 
William Eye, Pdn. 

C-5 of Joshua. - 

1. Delilah - b. 1837 - m. Jacob Ruleman. 2. Mary M. - m. 
Joseph Simmons. 3. Henry B. - 4. Nicodemus - 5. Joshua W. - 6. John 
A. - b. 1852 - m. Sarah Michael, 1873. 7. William H. - 8. Michael. 

History of Highland County 269 

C-5 of James. - 

1. James - m. 1. Ruhama Bowers, 2. Dorothy McCray. 2. Eli - 
m. Ida M. Sims, 1886 - Pdn. 3. Sebastian - m. Sarah Crummett - 
Pdn. 4. Harvey - m. 1. Elizabeth F. Bodkin, 2. Eliza Simmons. 5. 
William - 6. John - m. 1. Lucy McCray, 2. Margaret Killingsworth, 
1894. 7. Elizabeth - m. Eli Armstrong. 8. Susan - m. William Armstrong. 

C-6 of Joseph. - 

1. Martin B. - m. Christina Varner, 1865. 2. Chariest - m. 
Sarah — . 

C-7 of Charles. - 

Henry H. (m. Rebecca Rexrode, 1904) - Pansy D. (m. Elijah A. 
Bishop, 1900). 

C-5* of JOHN. - 

1. John - m. Susanna Simmons. 2. Jamest - m. Susanna Varner. 
3. George W.f - b. 1834 - m. Matilda E. Siron, 1855. 4. Nancy - m. 
John Ralston. 5. Margaret - m. Conrad Siple, Penna. 

C-6 of John. - 

1. George W. - m. Mary M. Whistleman, 1884 - Aug. 2. Robert 
L. - m. Esther V. McCray, 1891 - Aug. 3. Jacob - m. Kate Vest, 
Bath.* 4. Mary - m. George Rusmisell. 5. Cora E. - m. Robert T. 
Bodkin, 1896. 6. Erne - s. 

C-6 of James. - 

1. Abel - m. — Rexrode, Kas.* 2. Harrison - m. Phoebe Eye, 
Pdn. - C-7 - Emma S. (m. John E. Wilson, 1909). 3. Peter - m. 
Sarah Eye, Pdn. 4. Melissa - m. John Snyder, Pdn. 5. Hannah E. - 
m. George L. Bodkin, 1887. 

C-6* of George W. - 

1. Mary A. - 2. Sarah L. - m. William A. Malcomb. 3. James 
E.f - m. Pamela J. McCoy. 4. John M. - m. 1. Laura J. Wilson, 2. 
Rosa Beverage - 111. 5. George L.t - m. 1. Hannah E. Bodkin, 1887, 
2. Naomi M. Blagg, 1894. 6. Jacob H. - m. Louisa A. Ralston, 1887. 
7. Lewis H. - m. in 111.* 8. Esther - m. William Crozier, 111.* 9. 
Elizabeth F. - m. Harvey Bodkin. 10. Washington S. - m. Annie D. 
Malcomb, 1893 - D. (C-7 - Mary B.). 11. Wilber S. - in 111. 12. Lil- 
lie D. - s. 13. Arley J.t - m. Susan C. Crummett, 1899. 14. Carrie 
E. - m. James Edwards, 111.* 

C-7* of James E. - 

Rhoda F. (m. E. Ashby Hammer, 1904) - Cora E. (m. Wilber 
Ervine, 1902). 

C-7* of George L. - (by 1) 

Vista S. (m. John Gillespie) - Mary E. (m. Ollie Palmer, Aug.*) - 
Lucy B. (m. Charles Barr, Aug.*). (by 2) Lena - James W. - 
George M. - Edna L. 

C-7* of Arley J. - 

Clara L. - Russell R. - Lena - Camilla - Reba - Beulah. 

270 History of Highland County 

C-4 of THOMAS. - 

1. James - m. Mary McCray, 1806 - Ind. 2. Thomas - O. 3. 
George - Ind. 4. William - m. 1. - -, 2. — Morton? 3. Susan Benson 
Given, 4. in W. Va.* -teacher and merchant - C-5 - Rosa (d.). 5. 
Margaret - m. John Devericks. 6. Sarah - m. James Douglas. 7. 
Delilah - m. John Vint. 8. Jane - m. William Vint. 9. Deborah - 
m. Samuel Fitzpatrick. 

C-5 of James. - 

1. Robert - m. Elizabeth Benson, 1841. 2. others - went to Ind. 

C-6* of Robert. - 

1. Matthias B. - D. '61. 2. Mary S. - d. 3. John L. - D. 1866c. 
4. William W.t - s. 5. James H.f - s. 6. Caroline A. - s. 

Misc. - 

1. Allen A. J. - b. 1835 - m. Sarah A. Smith, Pdn., 1859 - C-2. - 
Charles W.t (m. Millie Wimer, 1906) - Jamesf (m. Luella Peck, 

1896) - William (D.) - boy (dy.) - Mary S. (m. Andrew J. Weeks, 
1887) - John (m. Mary Ervine, 1890). 

2. Isaac N. - b. 1832 - m. Mary M. Eagle, Pdn., 1856 - C-2. - 
Mary M. (m. Hugh J. Wooddell, Aug., 1876) - Eliza J. - s. 

3. J. Addison - m. M— A— C-2. - 

Lillie B. (m. Henry C. Michael, 1893) - Martin V.t (m. Lillie E. 
Rexrode, 1909) - Margaret (m. James H. Simmons, 1910). 

4. Robert T.t - m. Cora E. Bodkin, 1896. 

5. John - m. Jane Curry, 1810c - O. - C. - 

Mary A. - m. Henry McCoy, 1831. Eliza - m. John Wooddell. 
Harvey - d. 15. 

6. William - m. Mary Brown, 1842. 

Bradshaw. John - m. Isabelle McKamie, Aug. - went from Hid. 
to Poca. - D. 1837 - C-2. - 

1. James - m. Isabel Stephens, G'brier - D. 1842. 2. John - m. 
— Stephens, ss. to above - went to Mo. from BV, 1840c. 3. William - 
m. Jane Tallman, Poca.,* 1817 - went to Lewis - D. 1847. 4. Thomas - 
m. Nancy K. Williams, Poca.,* 1815 - physician. 5. Margaret - m. 
John Gwin, 1809. 6. Elizabeth - m. James Hogshead, Poca.,* 1816. 
7. Jane - m. William Tallman, Poca.,* 1817. 8. Nancy - m. Levi 
Cackley, Poca.* 

C-3 of James. - 

1. John - m. Eliza J. Hook - D. 1880. 2. Robert - s. 3. William - 
s. 4. Andrew S. - s. - dentist - D. G'brier, 1885. 5. Franklin - m. 
Esteline Kiser. 6. Mary - m. Dr. - -. 7. Cynthia - m. Jacob W. Steu- 
art. 8. Nancy - m. Rev. Lemuel Waters. 9. Evelyn - m. Christopher 
Wright. 10. Margaret - b. 1832, D. 1873 - m. William Byrd. 

C-4 of Franklin. - 

1. Robert S. - 2. Nannie V. - b. 1871 - m. John H. Blagg. 3. 

History of Highland County 271 

Ada E. - m. W. Austin Briscoe. 4. James F.f - m. Radie Hull (C-5 - 
Robert). 5. Andrew F. 6. Mary C. - m. Joseph Oliver, Alleg.* 7. 
Virginia M. - m. Lebanon Young, 1900 - Alexandria. 

C-3* of JOHN. - 

1. Mary L. - m. Hezekiah Burns, Bath.* 2. Robert H. - k. '62.* 

3. Margaret I. - m. Andrew W. Gillett, Bath, 1865.t 4. Emily J. - 
m. David Roudabush, Rkm.* 5. James B.f - m. 1. Mary O. Rouda- 
bush, Rkm., 2. Mary Wamsley, Rph. - McD. 6. John N. - s. - mer- 
chant, W'ville. 7. Stephen B.f - m. Mary J. D. Graham, 1871. 

C-4t of James B. - (by 1) 

1. Ella V. - m. C. Stewart Peterson - D. 2. Cornelia F. - m. J. B. 
Watts, Pulaski - D. 3. Minnie O. - m. Squire W. Wilson, (by 2) 

4. Robert O. - m. Cosby Armstrong. 5. Charles P. - m. Signora 
Keister. 6. Harry L. - m. Camilla Gillespie - W. Va. 

C-4t of Stephen B. - 

1. Hubert T. - b. 1872 - m. Elizabeth L. Helms, 1904 - Stokes- 
ville. 2. Byron R.t - m. Minnie Ervine. 3. Charles A. - m. Martha 
Coles, Mercer - insurance agent - Bluefield, W. Va. 4. Lula E. - m. 
Charles Hicklin. 5. Harry C. - at Clifton Forge. 6. Mary F. 

Thomas (w. Margaret) - named 1767 - perhaps parent of pioneer, 
whose bro. James (w. Martha) went to Ky., 1790c. 

C-4t of Margaret I. Gillett. - 

Robert F. (m. Idena F. Carrichoff, 1895) - Mary E. (m. George 
M. Lockridge). 

Briscoe. Isaac - m. Priscilla Callahan, 1800 - C-2. - 

1. Isaac - m. Nancy Bird. 2. William - m. in W.* 3. Otho - m. 
Sarah Bird, 1825 - W. 4. Warrick - m. in W.* 5. Jacob - b. 1805 - 
m. 1. Sarah Woods, 2. Mary S. Burns, 1866. 6. Sophia H. - b. 1811, 
D. 1883 - m. James W. Wade. 7. Nancy - m. Isaac Gum. 8. Mary - 
m. James Curry. 9. Elizabeth - m. — Curry. 10. Priscilla - s. 

C-3 of Jacob. - (by 1) 

Mary (s.) - Sarah A. (s.) - J. Brownt (m. Nancy Shelton, Bath) - 
Elizabeth (s.) - William (m. in W.*). (by 2) Minnie (m. Rev. Jasper 
Sharp, Poca.) - Lucy E. (m. David C. Harouff, Bath,* 1892) - Henry 
(m. Beauty Dilley, Poca.*) - Howard (m. — Aldrich, Poca.*) - Kate 
(m. in G'brier*). 

C-4 of J. Brown. - 

1. W. Austint - m. Ada E. Bradshaw, 1904 - C-5 - Ollie B. 2. 
John - m. Nora Williams. 

Bussard. Rudolf - m. Susanna Zickafoose, 1797 - C-2. - 

1. Eli - m. Margaret Moore - Poca.* 2. Solomon - m. Rachel 
Graham, Poca., 1818 - Hid. 3. Henry - m. Mary Hannah, Poca.* 
4. Reuben - m. Mary A. Waugh, Poca. - la. 5. Sampson - m. Eleanor 
Knapp, Poca. 6. Susan - 7. Frances - m. Benjamin Bussard. 8. Hester - 
m. Henry Graham, Poca.* 9. Martha - m. Charles Graham, Poca.,* 1821. 

272 History of Highland County 

C-3 of Solomon. - 

1. A. Wesleyt - b. 1826 - m. Sarah Matheny, 1849. 2. Jesse A. - 
m. Annie P. Swadley, 1871. 3. Susan - m. William Sharp - W. 4. 
Mary - m. David Kincaid, Hid. 

C-4* of A. Wesley. - 

1. David N.f - m. Loy U. Bussard, Poca. 2. George A.t - b. 1856 - 
m. Rachel A. Carpenter, 1875. 3. Reese - dy. 4. Samilda A. - m. 
George G. Gutshall. 5. Elizabeth W. - m. William R. Carpenter, 
1887. 6. William A.f - m. Sudie Ryder - Poca. 7. Hugh S.t - m. 
Susan F. Stephenson, Bath - C-5 - Boyd L. - Lloyd A. - Olive H. 

C-5* of David N. - 

Susanna B. (b. 1875 - m. Charles B. Gibbs, O., 1892.t) - Leslie W. 
(m. Arminta J. Kincaid, 1894). 

C-5* of George A. - 

Lillie F. (dy.) - John W.t (m. Emma W. Carpenter, 1902) - 
Nathan W.f (m. Myrtie B. Woods, 1899) - Lavina S. - Eusebia J. (m. 
Perley Robertson) - Raymond E. - Eutis - Allen (dy.). 

C-4* of JESSE A. - 

1. William A. - m. Alice Trimble. 2. Charles A. - U. S. A. 3. 
Isaac B.f - m. Lola Strawen - Mry. 4. Benjamin F. - m. Martha 
Ray - O. 5. Daisy D. - m. Howard M. Slaven. 

Misc. - 

Barbara - m. Michael Arbogast, 1792. 

Campbell. Alexander - D. 1845 - m. 1. Margaret Brown, Aug., 
1797, 2. — Moore, Poca., 3. — Bussard, Poca. - C-2.* - (by 1.) 

1. James B. - D. 1852 - m. 1. Margaret Slaven, 1834, 2. Laura B. 
Russell, Mass. - n. c. 2. Thomas - b. 1800 - m. 1. Elizabeth Slaven, 
1823, 2. Mrs. — Bonner, Bath, 3. Mrs. Susan Wade. 3. John - m. 
Sarah Johnston, 1834. 4. boy - dy. 5. Samuel B. - b. 1806 - m. 1. Jane 
Woods, 1828, 2. Isabella Woods. 6. Benjamin B. - m. Alcinda Light- 
ner, Poca. n. c. 7. William M. - b. 1811, D. 1881 - m. Mary J. W. 
McGuffin, Bath. 8. A. Hanson - m. Isabelle Lewis, Bath. 9. Edgar - 
m. 1. Susan Boone, W. Va., 2. Elizabeth Lockridge, Bath - Hinton. 
(by 3) 10-12. Azariah - Milton - Laura H. - (all d. in youth). 

C-3* of Thomas. - (by 1.) 

1. Margaret - m. Roger Hickman, Bath.* 2. Isabella - m. Moses 
Moore, Poca.* 3. Matilda - twin to Isabella - d. 4. S. Adella - m. 
Anson O. Wade. 5. Austin - m. Susan Hamilton, Bath - Hinton. 6. 
Amos - m. Martha Gammon, Poca. 7-8. inf. - dy. 9. Albert - d. 
10. Rebecca - d. 11. Newton A. - b. 1844 - m. Margaret J. Bonner, 
Bath - n. c. (by 4) 12. Mary. 

C-4 of Austin. - 

1. Walter P. - m. 1. R. Gertrude Ball, 1880, 2. Emma McClintic - 
Roanoke. 2. Lillie - m. — Boyd, Hinton.* 3. Jennie - m. — Robin- 
son, Hinton.* 4-5. inf. - dy. 6. Maud - m. — Brown, Hinton.* 

History of Highland County 273 

C-4 of Amos. - 

Leonidas (m. — Kinkead, Bath - R'bridge) - Newton (unkn.). 

C-3* of JOHN. - 

1. Emily - m. Dr. Henry Patterson, Aug. 2. Morgan B.f - m. 1. 
Anne Lupton, Frederick, 2. Lillie Woodsell, Bath - physician, Mead- 
owdale. 3. Catharine M. - m. William H. M. Smythe, Scott,* 1861. 
4. Oscar J.f - b. 1848 - m. Annie L. Slaven - physician - Mry. 5. 
Amos - d. 

C-3* of SAMUEL B. - 

1. Mary A. - s. 2. Alexander - b. 1830 - m. 1. Susan E. Matheny, 
1856, 2. Margaret Hoover, Braxton.* 3. Rollin - m. Louisa Rogers. 

4. Rachel R. - m. William G. Rogers - Staunton. 5. Ananias - d. 
6. Caleb - b. 1842 - m. Phoebe Sullenberger, 1882 - Albemarle. 7. 
Margaret J. - m. Gideon M. Burns, Marion, 1873 - Tenn. 

C-3* of BENJAMIN B. - (by 1.) 

1. Martha A. - s. 2. J. Brown - b. 1840 - m. Amanda A. Fleisher, 
1867. 3. Mary E. - dy. 12. 4. Elizabeth - m. Dr. S. Pruyne Patterson, 
Aug. - Poca. 5. Stewart A. - m. 1. Agnes Slaven, Mo., 2. Emma 
Lowrey, W. Va.* 6. Luther E. - b. 1849 - m. Mary E. Benson, 1879 - 

C-4 of J. Brown. - 

1. Robert B.t - m. Carrie L. Kelly, 1881 - Mry. 

C-3* of WILLIAM M. - 

1. Louisa J. - b. 1837 - m. William H. Shumate, Alleg. - G'brier. 
2. David H. - m. Eliza J. Dever. 3. J. Kenny - m. Georgia Ball - 
lawyer - Covington. 4. Almira - m. Sydney Ruckman, W. Va. - Okla. 

5. Laura - s. 6. Clara - s. 7. William P.t - m. Annie L. Ruckman, 
1889 - Valley Center. 8. Robert - dy. 13. 

C-4 of David H. - 

1. James H. - m. Georgia Harouff, Bath, 1893. 

C-3* of A. HENSON. - 

Charles L. Mary L. - m. Lucius H. Stephenson. William A. - 
m. Mary McCoy, Pdn.* 

C-4 of William A. - 

Roy L. (m. Kate Priest, Pdn.*) - Carrie M. (m. M. S. Hodges, 
Mineral - attorney - Pdn.). 

C-4* of EDGAR. - (by 1.) 

Mary K. (m. John M. Burns, Hampshire - Fairmont, W. Va.) - 
Calvin (dy.) - Caroline (dy.) - (by 2) Alice (m. John Flanagan, Albe- 
marle - Hinton) - Thomas (m. in W.*) - Horace A. (m. in W.*) - 
boy (dy.). 

Harry P. Patterson, t hotel man, Mry. - son of Dr. S. P. Patterson. 

Chestnut. William (w. — ) - C-2. - 

1. Maria - m. Joseph Henderson, 1797. 2. Sarah - m. 1. James 
Ryder, 1798, 2. David Palmer. 3. Joseph - m. Mary Corbett, 1794. 

274 History of Highland County 

4. Sophia - m. Frederick Bird, 1804. 5. John - m. 1. Nancy J. Gul- 
ford, Poca., 2. Jane Hicklin Steuart - D. 1854. 

C-3 of John. - o, 

1. William G. - m. Sarah A. Malcomb - Bath. 2. Jennie - m. 

Dyer Bird. 3. Joseph - m. Eliza Nottingham, Poca. 4. John F. - m. 

Elizabeth A. Hiner - C-4 - Mary E. (m. William E. Hicks, 1865). 

5. Thomas - m. — Kirkpatrick - W. 6. Mary - m. Jacob Nottingham, 
bro. to Eliza - 111. 

C-4 of Joseph. - 

John A.t (m. Nancy J. Wiley) - Laura (m. John M. Wade) - 
Alice (d.). 

C-5* of John A. - 

Joseph C.f (m. Eva S. Wade, 1897) - J. Robertt (twin to Jos. C. - 
s.) - Sarah (m. William Smith, Grant*) - Elizabeth - James A.f (m. 
Edith A. Wade, 1903) - David - Russell - Gertrude (m. in Poca.*) - 

C-6* of Joseph C. - 

Gladys - Genevieve - Richard - Pressley J. 

C-6* of James A. - 

Edna L. - Ethel M. - James L. - boy. 

Chew. Ezekiel - m. Elizabeth Lantz - D. 1850 - C-2.* - 

1. Margaret - m. Henry Gum, 1831. 2. William - m. Leah Arbo- 
gast Seybert. 3. John - m. Lavina Arbogast, 1846 - n. c. 4. Jesse - 
m. 1. - -, 2. Margaret Wilson Brown. 5. Julia A. - b. 1810, D. 1887 - 
s. 6. Joseph L. - m. Mary Arbogast. 7. Mary - m. 1. Joseph Church, 
2. Christian Shrader. 8. Jonas W. - b. 1816, D. 1891 - m. Cassandra 
Mullenax. 9. Wesley - d. 10. Christina - m. Oliver Mullenax. 11. 
Sidney - s. 12. Elizabeth - m. Daniel Lantz. 

C-3 of William. - 

William M. (m. Susan Seybert, 1855 - Waynesboro) - William 
K. (s.) - Bert - Frank L. - Elizabeth (m. at Norfolk). 

C-3 of Jesse. - 

1. Christina S. - b. 1843 - m. Joseph F. Eaton, Rkm. 2. Mary A. - 
m. John D. Carroll, 1867. 3. Margaret A. - b. 1834 - m. Samuel Johns. 
4. Jonas W. - b. 1832, D. 1866 - m. Mary A. Ryder, 1854. 

C-4 of Jonas W. (3) - 

John - Floyd - (both in Kas.). 

C-3 of JOSEPH L. - 

George E. (b. 1841 - m. Lucinda Arbogast Waybright, 1879) - 
D. Stewart (m. Susan C. Simmons) - Martha W. (s.). 

C-4 of George E. - 

Salisbury N. - m. Edith Lambert, Pdn. - D. (C-5 - 3). Lillie M. - 
m. George Wimer, 1901. 

C-4 of D. Stewart. - 

Elizabeth J. (m. William M. Harper, Pdn.) -Bertie (m. John Bod- 

History of Highland County 275 

kin) - William S. (W.) - Jacob G. (m. in W.) - Mary L. (W.) - Jen- 
nie (m. in W.) - Martha - Joseph C. (dy.). 

C-3* of JONAS W. (2) - 

1. O. Piercef - b. 1856 - m. Mary M. Newman, 1889. 2. W. 
Letchert - b. 1857 - m. Lavina E. Colaw, 1877. 3. G. Leet - b. 1861 - 
m. Lucinda Colaw, 1883. 4. Sarah E. - m. Samuel B. Jordan. 5. Laura 
S. - m. James S. Nicholas. 6. Hannah - m. Loring A. Harold, 1885. 

C-4* of O. Pierce. - 

Annie E. - Lula C. - Mary O. - Gertrude M. 

C-4* of W. Letcher. - 

Pinckney S. (m. Virginia Bird - postal clerk - Harrisonburg) - 
Lenora J. (m. T. Stanley Newman) - Abbe L. (m. Orion Harper, 
Pdn.) - Sarah E. - John W. - Eva C. - Juanita (dy.) - Esther R. - 
Charles C. - Franklin P. - Elizabeth J. 

C-4* of G. Lee. - 

Clara C. - Sudie E. - Sarah B. - Mada L. - Annie L. (dy.) - Floyd 
M. - Richard M. (dy.) - Elva L. - Dennis R. - Russell C. - Herbert W. 

Cobb. (A) John A. - b. 1825 - m. Elizabeth A. Pullin - C-2.* - 

1. Samuel A.* - b. 1851 - m. Martha J. Gwin, Bath, 1873. 2. Har- 
riet F. - m. Robert M. Rogers, Aug.* 3. Elizabeth A. - b. 1854 - m. 
Moses Gwin. 4. Dorcas A. - m. Franklin P. Graham. 5. James H. 
N. - b. 1857 - m. Rebecca E. Hook, 1888. 6. Mary E. J. - m. Thomas 
L. Chestnut, Bath, 1883. 7. Susan E. - m. Whitfield Lance, Penna. - 
Okla. 8. Louisa M. - m. James C. Pullin. 9. Nancy S. - b. 1867 - m. 
George E. Curry, Poca.* 

C-3* of Samuel A. - 

William S.t (b. 1874 - m. Erne Blagg, 1900) - Charles S. F. (m. 1. 
Alice G. Stinebuck, 2. Margaret Drowers, Alexandria*) - Nixon H. 
(m. Mary E. Gwise, Braxton*) - Ella R. (m. Arthur C. Hevener) - 
David R. R. (m. Ada J. Davis) - John B. (m. Zella Eakle, Bath*) - 
Henderson S. (b. 1887) - Kenton (dy.) - Gray (dy.) 

The pioneer is descended from Joseph, landholder in Isle of 
Wight, 1642, who was probably son of Joseph (w. Elizabeth). The 
latter came from England in the ship "Treasurer," 1613. The family 
has a coat of arms. 

Colaw. Frederick (w. — ) - C-2. - 

1. Abraham - m. — Cookholtz - O. 2. m. Daniel Gaylord, 

R'bridge. 3. Daniel - Penna. 4. Charity - b. 1778, D. 1858 - m. Sam- 
uel Mullenax, 1805. 5. George - m. Elizabeth Wimer, 1811. 6. Cath- 
arine - m. Christopher Huffman. 7. Jacob - m. Mary Sutton. 8. 
Elizabeth - m. 1. — Wayman, 2. James Trimble, 1818. 

C-3* of George. - 

1. Jesse - b. 1812 - m. Catharine Arbogast - Mo. 2. William - 
m. Sabina Gum - 111. 3. Cyrupf - b. 1816 - m. Lucinda White. 4. 
George - m. Sarah A. Harper, 1842. 5. Ephraim - m. Angeline Hel- 

276 History of Highland County 

mick, 1860 - Neb. 6. Henry - m. Malinda Halterman - la. 7. Eliza- 
beth - m. Peter Life, 1845 - la. 8. Daniel - m. Sarah J. Freed, 1863. 
9. Andrew J.* - b. 1832 - m. Catharine Hammer Meadows, Pdn. 10. 
Hannah* - m. David Smith. 

C-4* of Cyrus. - 

1. Henry E.f - b. 1854 - m. Martha J. Arbogast, 1885 - merchant - 
C-5 - Virginia. 2. David E.t - m. Mary Meadows, 1880. 3. Lavina 
E. - m. W. Letcher Chew. 4. Lucinda - m. G. Lee Chew. 5. Al- 
meda - m. Eldridge D. Swecker. 6. Cyrus. f 

C-5 of David E. - 

Walter A.t - George - Ada - Benjamin H. - Cyrus - Henry - 
Hazel - Luther (reared). 

C-4 of GEORGE. - 

1. Margaret - b. 1844 - m. Jacob E. Vandevender, 1869. 2. Sarah 

V. - m. Solomon Vandevender, 1866. 3. m. William Vandevender, 

1869. 4. George - m. — Simmons. 5. Arbeline - m. Orion Fleisher, 
1887. 6. M— C. - m. S— S. Ryder. 7. Martha L. - m. William M. 
Simmons, 1898. 8. Susan - m. George W. Mullenax, 1871. 

C-4 of Daniel. - 

1. Martin A.t - m. Mary Propst, Pdn. 2. Ola - 3. Howard D. - 
m. Elizabeth L. Bland - Kas. 4. Hannah - m. Ashby Harold. 5. 
Harriet - m. Cornelius Wimer, Jr. 6. Maud E. - m. A — C. Corbin. 
7. Mary L. - m. William Smith, Rappahannock, 1884. 

C-4 of Andrew J. - 

1. Ida C. (b. 1873 - m. Rev. Robert E. Fitzwater, Barbour) - 2. 
Emma E. - m. Albert B. Nelson, 1897 (reared in Hld.).t 

C-3* of JACOB. - 

1. Sidney - m. Benjamin Townsend, 1845. 2. Cornelius - b. 1819, 
D. 1900 - m. Mary E. Newman, 1845. 3. Jonas - m. America Judy, 
Pdn. 4. Allent - m. Roxanna Judy, Pdn. - 5. Drusilla - m. Otho Gum. 
6. Josiah - s. 7. Alcinda - b. 1825 - m. James Arbogast, 1857. 8. 
Hezekiah - s 

C-4* of Cornelius. - 

1. Anderson M.t - b. 1846 - m. 1. Annie Gilkeson, 2. Cassie Nutter, 
Harrison. 2. Georgianna M. - m. Michael C. Mauzy. 3. Jacob W. - 
dy. 4. John M.f - b. 1860 - m. 1. Josephine M. Judy, Grant, 1886, 
2. Elizabeth J. Gibson, 1895 - attorney - Mry. 5. Louise M. - b. 1865 - 
m. William E. Snyder, 1888. 

C-5* of Anderson M. - (by 1) 

Mattie G. - James F. (by 2) Nellie M. - Emma E. - Cornelius 
M. - Josephine B. 

C-5* of John M. - 

Owen D. (b. 1887) - Joseph M. (b. 1891). 

C-4* of JONAS. - 

Ursula V. - m. Samuel T. Ruckman, 1879. Mary E. - m. Hezekiah 

History of Highland Comity 277 

Middleton, 1876. Howard W. - dy. Frances - m. John Lockridge. 
Martin J.t - m. Carrie Wilfong, 1893. James - m. Carrie Gregg. 
Arthur M. - m. Odie Varner, 1898 - Aug. Ernest - m. Blanche Ber- 
ger, R'bridge - Poca. Birdie. 

C-4* of Allen. - 

1. Wilber D.f - m. Nora B. Waggy, Pdn. (C-5 - Buena V. - 
Averill V. (dy.) - Gordon R.) - teacher. 2-3. Lee - Clara E. - dy. 

4. Garnett E. - murdered in Kas. 5. Lura V. - b. 1865 - m. James B. 
Hidy. 6. Leveretta - m. Robert S. Wimer. 7. Charles K. 8. J. 
Fremontt - m. Alice M. Wimer, 1897. 9. Nellie G. - m. Kemper 
Wimer. 10. B. Sherman. 

Corrigan. Michael (w. — ) - C-2. - 

Jamest - m. Amanda Doyle. 

C-3 of James. - 

Michael - James - Abigail (m. James Gardner) - Eliza (m. Albert 
Robertson) - Anne - Agnes (m. in 111.*). 

Curry. Richard (w. Janet) - b. 1740, D. 1804 - C-2. - 

1. Elizabeth M. - b. in Ireland, 1763, D. 1859 - m. John Sharp. 
2. Susanna - m. William Ervine, 1785. 3. James - m. Mary Ervine, 
1786 - D. 1832 - Carlile Run. 4. Andrew - 5. John - 6. Joseph - 7. 
Mary - 8. Catharine (Sarah Catharine?) - m. Daniel Matheny. 9. 
Jean - m. Archibald Matheny. 

C-3 of James. - 

1. Robert - m. Nancy Edmond - 111. 2. Jane - m.? John Bodkin, 
1810c. 3. Elizabeth - m. Daniel Siron. 4. Mary - m. William Wood- 
dell. 5. Frances - m. James Ralston, 1837. 6. William F. - m. 1. 
Rachel A. — , 2. Mary Malcomb, 1846. 7. James - O. 8. Edward E. - s. 

C-4 of William F. - 

1. Edward - m. Abigail Varner - 111. (C-5 - James - John - girl). 

2. Mary J. - m. — McCoy. 3. Benjamin - m. Mary A. Varner. 4. 
John - away. 5. Leanna - b. 1846 - m. John Bowers, 1869. 

C-3 of ? - 

1. Elizabeth - 2. James - m. 1. Ann Benson, 2. Mary Briscoe. 

3. Andrew - m. Susanna Malcomb - D. 1840c. 4. John - m. Jane 
Malcomb, 1823. 5. Joseph - m. Sarah Cheatham. 6. Mary - m. — 
Reed. 7. Catharine. 8. Jane. 

C-4 of John. - 

1. William - b. 1824c - m. — Hill, Poca.* 2. Samuel N. - b. 1829 - 
m. 1. Sarah Lowrey, 2. Martha E. Terry, 1856. 3. John - m. Hannah 
Ratliff - Bath. 4. Andrew - m. Elizabeth A. Wade Gum, 1867 - Bath. 

5. Amos C. - m. Rachel Terry, 1865 - Poca. 6. Peter L. - m. Sarah J. 
Bird, 1864 - O. 7. Mary - m. Eli Doyle. 8. Sarah - m. Clark Ryder. 
9. Phoebe - m. 1. — Foster, 2. Martin Smith. 10. Nancy - m. William 

278 History of Highland County 

C-5 of Peter L. - 

Ellsworth - William - John - Luther - Walter - Elizabeth - Ada. 
C-4 of JOSEPH. - 

Eliza (m. William Stephenson) - Nancy (m. Joseph Landes, 
Bath*) - Rebecca (m. in Poca.*) - Rachel (d.) - Morgan (m. in Poca.). 
Misc. - 

1. Richard - m. Kate Woods, 1812. 

2. Jane - m. Thomas Edmond, 1833. 

3. Mary - m. Robert Baker, 1834. 

4. James M. - b. 1819 - m. Phoebe Hinegarner. 

5. Sarah - m. William Bird. 

6. Eleanor - m. Henry Burner, 1817. 

7. Robert - m. Mary A. Benson. 

8. Benami (w. Mary A.) - C. - Mary H. (m. Albert Chewning, 
Nelson, 1871) - Edward E.t (m. Elizabeth Michael, 1888). 

9. Mary F. - m. David A. G. Terry. 

10. William F. (w. Rebecca) - C. - Rebecca B. (m. William E. 
Wilson, 1878). 

11. Mayberry (w. — ) - C. - Franklin (w. Elizabeth). 
Davis. Paschal (w. Mary) - C-2. - 

1. James - m. Phoebe Summers - miller - D. 1848c. 2. Deborah - 
m. John Ervine, 1803. 3. Joanna - m. John Wilson, 1802. 

C-3* of James. - 

1. Paschal - m. Rachel Carlile - Mo. 2. Elizabeth A. - m. Rev. 
Stephen Smith, Hampshire. 3. Martha. 4. Lewis - b. 1811, D. 1889 - 
m. 1. Sarah A. Trumbo, Pdn., 2. Sarah E. Hicklin, 1868 - went late 
to Craigsville, Aug. 5. Rachel. 6. Sawyers - m. Nancy Hamilton - 
Mo. 7. Barbara S. 8. Phoebe J. 

C-4* of Lewis. - (by 1.) 

1. Mary J. - D. 31. 2. Andrew S. T. - b. 1837, D. 1909 - m. 1. 
Elizabeth J. Hamilton, Fayette, 1867, 2. Frances M. Pullin, 1893.t 

3. Phoebe E. - m. 1. H— H. Fleisher, 1859, 2. John C. Eckard, Aug.* 

4. James - k.* '61. 5. John F. - m. 1. Lillie Smith, Henrico, 2. Mary 
Crifield, Henrico - railroad conductor - Richmond. 6. William R. - 
d. 14 7. Harvey W. - dy. 8. Samantha - m. John Hidy. 9. Ma- 
linda - m. 1. Adam Dettor, Albemarle, 2. George White, Albemarle - 
Neb. (by 2) 10. Amelia D. 11. Lewis A. 12. Ida E. 13. Cora L. 
14 B. Franklin. 

C-5* of Andrew S. T. - (by 1.) 

Annie L. (m. Thomas M. Hamilton) - Elizabeth P. ( d. 18) - 
Lula S. - James H. (d. 20) - John L. (d. 20) - Ada J. (m. David Cobb, 
1904) - 6 others (dy.). (by 2) Susan H. - Andrew S. - Martha T. - 
William R. 

Deihl. Amos - b. 1824 - son of John - m. Hannah Church, Pdn., 
1857 - C-2.* - 

History of Highland County 279 

1. Eliezer Y. - m. Nancy Armstrong, 1882. 2. John B. - m. 
Emily Reynolds - 111. - D. 3. Thaddeus T. - m. Tehama Armstrong - 
Aug. 4. Manuel J.f - m. Carrie E. Hyer, Pdn., 1904. 5. Caleb M. - 
m. in Aug.* 6. Solomon J. -m. Lillie Ashby, 111. - la. 7. Jacob W. - 
Mo. 8. Annie - m. John Miller - Aug. 9. Tabitha S. - Mo. 

Dever. John - son of John and Margaret - b. 1799, D. 1861 - C-2. - 

Alexander (b. 1821 - s.) - Francis (m. Matilda Harper, Poca.*) - 
Andrew J. (s. - D. 1859) - Hugh (b. 1828 - m. Alcinda Cleek, Poca.) - 
Jasper (m. Julia Kincaid) - Martin (s.) - Samuel G. (m. 1. Anne M. 
Wade, 1871, 2. Jennie Shirley, Aug.) - Eleanor (m. Samuel Gwin, 
1854) - Margaret (m. Andrew W. Moore, Poca.,* 1864) - Nancy J. 
(m. Peter Gum) - Sarah (m. William H. Moore, Bath*) - Eliza (m. 
David H. Campbell, 1869). 

C-3 of Hugh. - 

John - m. Kate Sprowl. 

C-4 of John. - 

Ewing (m. Leona Doyle, 1897) - John - Samuel G. (m. Cecile 
Faurote, Ind., 1900) - William S. (m. Jerusha A. Rowe, Bath, 1876) - 
Sarah A. - Nancy - Malinda F. (m. Michael Houlihan) - Eliza H.. 
(m. David H. Campbell, 1869) - Mary M. (m. 1. George W. S. Hull , 
1874, 2. A— M. Pullin, 1888). 

C-3 of JASPER. - 

John M. - Josephine (m. Lewis Sively, Bath*) - James P. (b. 
1874) - Geraldine (m. Joseph H. Lantz, Pdn., 1898 - D.) - William 
W. - Walter B. (s. - Md.) - Kenton (dy. 9). 

C-3 of Samuel G. - (by 1.) 

Charles F. (m. Anna M. Wade, 1895) - Paul - Kate D. (m. Sher- 
man Gibson, Poca.,* 1898) - (by 2) Anne (m. Jacob H. Lightner, 
1910) - Iven. 

Devericks. Thomas (w. — ) - D. 1810 - C-2. - 

1. Thomas - D. before 1807. 2. John - m. Mary Peebles, 1786 - 
D. 1842. 3. Sarah. 4. Margaret. 5. Mary - m. Thomas Bodkin. 

C-3 of Thomas (2). - 

John - James. 

C-3 of John. - 

1. John - m. Margaret Bodkin - b. 1796, D. 1861. 2. William - m. 
Jane Leach, 1821. 3. Julia A. - m. Andrew Given, 1832. 4. Sarah - 
m. James Morton, 1813. 5. Nancy - m. James Campbell, 1822. 6. 
Thomas - m. 1. Elizabeth Morton, 1809, 2. Jane Wilson, 1820. 7. Mary 
A. - m. 1. William Wilson, 1814, 2. Isaac Johns, 1823. 8. girl- m. — 

C-4 of William. - 

John A. (W. Va.) - James (W. Va.) - Robert (O.) - Allen (m. 
Lucinda Wilson) - William M. (m. Amanda J. Bowyer, Aug., 1878) - Mon- 
roe (Hardy) - Margaret (s. - 111.) - Lettie J. (m. Elijah S. Leach, 1854). 


History of Highland County 

C-5 of Allen. - 

1. son - dy. 2. George - s. - W. 3. Charles A. - s. 4. Malissa - 
m. in Aug. 5. Lucy - s. 6. Alberta - m. A. B. Vanfossen, Aug., 1903 - 
Kas. 7. Elizabeth - m. — Malcomb, Kas.* 8. Effie - m. in Kas. 

C-4* of John. - 

1. Anderson P. - m. 1. Rachel Campbell, 1855, 2. Louisa Smith. 
2. Boyd - m. Elizabeth Brown - Ind. 3-5. boys - dy. 6. Thomas 
M.t - b. 1837 - m. Mary M. Rogers. 7. Mary J. - m. James Morton, 
1843. 8. Martha A. m. William Wilson, 1846. 9. Frances - m. Mar- 
shall Leach. 

C-5* of Thomas M. - 

1. Albert B.f - b. 1867 - m. Sarah J. Neil, 1890. 2. Walter B. - 
m. Millie Runnels, 111.* 3. Hildah B. - m. Eldridge V. Hook, 1890. 
4. Nora B. - m. Charles Hupman, 1894. 5. Georgia B. -m. James W. 
Ervine, 1898. 6. Mary E. - m. Charles S. Armstrong, 1906. 7. Henry 
C. - dy. 14. 

Douglas. Thomas - m. Elizabeth Armstrong Morton - D. 1792 - 
C-2. - 

1. James - m. 1. Mary Ervine, 1792, 2. - -. 2. Thomas - m. Rachel 
Bodkin, 1792. 3. William. - 4. Susanna - m.? Robert McCrea. 5. 
Elizabeth - m. Jeremiah Johns. 6. Sarah. 7. Robert. 

C-3* of James. - (by 1.) 

1. Thomas - m. Jane Pullin, 1819. 2. James - m. Elizabeth Blank- 
enship, 1823 - Ala. 3. Jared - m. Lucinda Graham, Aug. - 111. 4. 
Susanna - m. Henry Monroe, Bath - Ind. 5. Edward - m. Lavina 
Meek, Aug. - Ind. 6. Robert - m. Sarah Roberts, Bath - n. c. 7. 
John - m. Elizabeth J. Armstrong, 1823 - Upshur. 8. George - m. 
Sarah Beck, Aug. - Ind. 9. Rankin - b. 1815 - m. Sarah Graham - Mo. 
(by 2) 10. Williamf - b. 1830 - m. Sarah Meadows. 

C-4* of Thomas. - 

Walter (m. in la.*) - Robert (m. in Mo.*) - James (m. Sarah 
Eagle - Upshur) - Henry (m. — Smallridge - Upshur) - Nancy (m. 
John Shobe, Upshur*) - Minerva (m. William Carpenter, Poca.*) - 
Lucinda (m. Jesse Robertson) - Mary (m. Valentine Folks) - Susan 
(b. 1825 - m. 1. Robert H. Wiley, 1841, 2. James M. Terry). 

C-4* of WILLIAM. - 

Elizabeth C. (b. 1854 - m. George W. Armstrong, 1879) - Malinda 
J. (dy.). 

Doyle. (A) Michael - b. 1779, D. 1860 - m. Ann Sprowl - C-2. - 

1. Catharine - m. John Dever, Aug. 2. Bridget - m. John How- 
dershelt, Aug.* 3. Margaret - m. Thomas Granfield, Ireland - 111. 
4. Esther - s. 5. Susan A. - m. James H. Corrigan, 1866. 6. Eliza- 
beth - s. 7. Sarah R. - m. David Groves, Aug., 1881 - W. Va. 8. Le- 
ona (reared) - m. Ewing M. Dever, 1897. 

History of Highland County 281 

Doyle. (B) Jacob C. - m. Margaret Peck, 1825 - C-2. - 

1. Eli - m. Mary Curry. 2. George W. - b. 1832 - m. Sarah J. 
Bright, Poca., 1866. 3. John - m. Catharine Ervine Bird. 4. Jacob - 
b. 1834 - m. Margaret E. Ervine, 1855. 5. William - m. Lucy Stacey, 
Poca.* 6. Olive G. - b. 1835 - m. John W. Bird. 7. — 8. — 9. 
Mary A. - b. 1830 - m. William Hiner. 10. Eliza A. - b. 1837 - m. 
Robert W. McGlaughlin, 1860. 

C-3 of George W. - 

1. John M. - b. 1871 - m. Artie C. Robertson, 1897. 2. Howard - 
m. Elizabeth Winsler, Aug., 1900. 3. C. Cam - m. Myrtle Griffin, 1908. 
4. C— A. - m. Hughart S. Crowley, 1902. 5. Clara M. - m. Samuel P. 
Shiflet,f Aug., 1891. 

C-3 of ELI. - 

Mary E. - m. William A. Crummett, 1893. 

C-4 of JACOB. - 

James F. - b. 1856 - m. Melissa A. Carpenter, 1880. 

Misc. - 

1. Lucius B. - b. 1856 - m. Lucinda D. Berry, R'bridge, 1898 - 
C-4 - Ira E. (m. Emma M. Folks, 1908). 

2. Pearl M. - b. 1885 - m. Alvin Leary, Rph., 1906. 

Eagle. (A) Christian (m. Jane Cook, Aug., b. 1782, D. 1862) - 
D. 1842 - C-2. - 

1. Samuel C. - b. 1810, D. 1883 - m. Martha McCoy, 1843. 2. 
George - s. 3. Christian - s. 4. Elizabeth - m. William Summers, 
1819. 5. Margaret - m. Edward T. Saunders, Pdn. 6. Eliza J- m. 
Andrew Beverage, 1846. 7. Elizabeth - m. John McCoy. 8. Ann - m. 
Adam P. Rusmisell, Aug., 1843 - Upshur. 9. Sarah - m. Henry Jones, 
1840 - Upshur. 10. Catharine - m. 1. William S. Arbogast, 1843, 2. 
Levi Arbogast. 11. Lucinda - m. Peter Rusmisell - Upshur. 12. 
Martha - s. 13. Cecilia - m. David Swecker. 14. boy - drowned in well. 

C-3* of Samuel C. - 

Harmon (D. '64*) - Jemima J. (m. Harrison H. Jones) - Mary E. 
(m. David V. Ruckman) - Melissa A. (m. Emory L. Berlin, Rkm.,* 
1880) - Sarah A. (dy.) - Emma C. (m. Alfred H. Jones) - Samuel C.f 
(m. Martha J. Karicofe, 1879) - M. Cora (dy.). 

C-4* of Samuel C. - 

Harmon L. - Mary E. (m. Robert Cecil, Pulaski*) - Russell M. - 
Martha M. - Samuel R. - John R. - Josiah H. - Alfred K. 

Benjamin - m. Jane Pullin, 1813 - bro. to Christian (1). 

George - s. - another bro. 

Eagle. (B) David (w. — ) - C-2. - 

1. Rebecca - m. James Douglas, 1845. 2. Jane - m. Townsend 
Price. 3. Julia A. - Upshur. 4. Sarah - m. Joseph Siron. 5. Eliza - 
m. George Andrew, Rkm. 

282 History of Highland County 

Eagle. (C) Philip - m. Sarah C-2. - 

1. John. 2. George - in W. Va. 3. Enoch - b. 1818, D. 1864 - m. 
1. — Rader, Aug., 2. Susan Siron. 4. Mary M. - m. Isaac N. Bodkin. 

C-3 of Enoch. - (by 1.) 

1. Philip R. - m. Henrietta Beverage, (by 2) 2. Jonathan C.t - 
m. Mary A. Crummett, 1885. 3. Harvey - in Bath. 

C-4 of Philip R. - 

1. James A. - b. 1872 - m. G — F. Puffenberger. 2. Ettie - m. 
Howard Smith, 1899. 3. Minnie T. - m. Rumsay A. Snyder, 1904. 4. 
Phoebe J. - m. Albert S. Wimer, 1897. 

Misc. - 

1. Susanna - m. James S. Leach, 1867. 

2. Dora C. - m. Gilbert T. Armstrong, 1891. 

Ervine. (A) Benjamin (w. Mary b. in Ireland, 1750) - C-2.* - 

1. Elizabeth - b. 1776. 2. Jane - m. Isaac Gum, 1796. 3. John - 
b. 1780 - m. — Herring - Poca. 4. Robert - b. 1783, D. 1845c - m. 

1. Naomi Herring, 2. Phoebe Propst, 1818, 3. Mary E. Curry, 1829. 
5. Benjamin. 6. Anne - or Ruth Ann? 7. Edward - b. 1790 - m. 1. 
Mary Curry, 1815, 2. — Herring - Poca. 8. Mary - b. 1793 - m. Rob- 
ert S. Hook, Rkm. 9. William - b. 1795, D. 1875 - m. Eleanor Propst. 
10. Frances - b. 1797 - m. William Ervine, 1816. 11. Susan. 12. 

C-3 of Robert. - (by 1.) 

1. Leonard H. - m. Barbara Moore - Bath. 2. Benjamin - m. 
Nancy Bruffey. 3. Edward - m. Eliza Gardner. 4. Abigail - m. John 
Propst. 5. Mary - m. John Mann, Bath? 6. Margaret - m. — Murray. 
7. Jane - s. (by 2) 8. John P. - m. Elizabeth Ruckman - Bath. 9. 
Elizabeth - m. Caleb Gardner, (by 3) 10. James R. - b. 1838 - m. 
Amanda Hicks, Bath. 11. Adelaide - m. Samuel Gardner. 

C-4 of Leonard H. - 

Robert (unkn.) - Levi (s.) - Milton (m. — McCartney, Bath - 
Poca.) - Herring - Naomi (m. John Merritt) - Nancy J. (m. Chas. 
Corbett) - Cornelia (m. William Gardner) - Margaret E. (m. Jacob 
Doyle, 1855) - Susan A. (m. Josiah Kelly, Poca.*). 

C-4* of BENJAMIN. - 

1. Patrick - dy. 2. John S.t - b. 1841 - m. 1. Margaret A. Trainor, 
1869, 2. Annie E. Rexrode, 1899. 3. James - k.* '61. 4. Sarah A. - m. 
James H. Merritt, Hampshire, 1873 - Tucker. 5. Brown - d. 6. 
Agnes - s. 

C-5* of John S. - 

Ada E. (m. William A. Hevener, 1888) - Rachel A. (m. William 
A. Sheets,! Poca., 1894). 

C-4* of EDWARD. - 

1. Francis - m. 1. Adelaide Chestnut, Bath, 2. Sarah Green, Bath.* 

2. George W. - s. 3. Hiram A. - m. Caroline L. Ervine, 1882 - Aug. 

History of Highland County 283 

4. Mary - m. 1. Michael Trainor, 2. Eli Wilfong - Poca. 5. Sarah - 
twin to Mary - m. William Ruleman - Aug. 

William (2) - nephew to Benjamin (1) - m. Frances Ervine, 1816 - 
CP., 2 miles above pike ford - C-3*. - 

1. John -b. 1817, D. 1884 - s. 2. Jane - m. Decatur H. Jones. 3. 
Benjamin C. - b. 1821 - m. Sarah Ross. 4. Mary A. -m. Samuel Jones, 
1844. 5. William E. - b. 1827, D. 1895 - m. Elizabeth Edmond. 6. 
Robert - dy. 7. Augustus - b. 1831 - m. Louise Wilson, 1861 - Bath. 
8. Susan D. - m. Benjamin T. Hook. 9. Rebecca F. - s. 10. Eldridge 
V. - b. 1838, D. 1897 - m. Sarah N. Leach - n. c. 11. Henry H. - b. 
1840, D. 1903 - m. Margaret C. Leach. 

C-4 of Benjamin C. - 

Frances (d. IS) - William E. V. (m. Ora V. Brockway, 1877 - D.) - 
Mahala (m. — Hosie, Aug.*). 

C-4* of WILLIAM E. - 

1. Robert N.t - b. 1852 - m. Emma Henderson, 1876. 2. John 
W. - m. Margaret F. Smith, 1874 - (C-5 - in 111.). 3. Martha F. - m. 
James H. Gwin, 1880. 4. Henry H.f - m. Adella F. Henderson, 1884. 

5. Thomas L. - D. 23c. 6. Mary A. - m. John Bodkin, 1890. 7. 

C-5* of Robert N. - 

Henry O. (m. Clara Moore, W. Va.*) - James A. (m. Margie 
Wiley, W. Va.*) - Minnie A. (m. Byron Bradshaw) - William L. - 
Robert E. (m. Beulah Cropp, W. Va.*) - Thomas G. - Harry T. - 
John L. - May C. - Porter H. 

C-5* of Henry H. - 

Sydney C. - Bertie L. - Hallie H. - Nellie G. - Russell F. 

C-4 of AUGUSTUS. - 

Carrie (m. Hiram Ervine, 1858) - William H. J. (m. Mary J. Arm- 
strong, 1897) - Lola B. (m. Peter V. Hupman) - Alzina (d.) - Lucy 
(m. Samuel Armstrong). 

C-4* of HENRY H. - 

Sarah F. (m. John W. Simmons) - James W. (m. Georgia B. 
Devericks, 1898 - 7 ch.). 

Misc. - 

1. William - m. Sarah Bird - C-2. - 

Harriet (m. William Townsend) - Catharine (m. Adam Bird). 

2. Ella J. - b. 1868 - m. John C. Harold. 

Ervine. (B) Jared (w. Elizabeth) - D. 1804 - C-2. - 
1. John - m. Deborah Davis, 1807 - D. 1842 - lived n. Waycross. 
2. George. 3. Agnes - m. John Armstrong. 4. Margaret. 5. Eliza- 
beth - m. William Armstrong, 1788. 6. Mary - m. James Douglas, 
1792. 7?. William - m. Susanna Curry, 1785. 

284 History of Highland County 

C-3 of John. - 

1. Jared - m. — Davis. 2. John - m. Mary B. Gordon, 1835 - 
n. c. - W. 3. Martha - m. George Fleisher, 1824. 4. Margaret - m. 
Robert Wilson, 1832. 5. Ingaby - m. John Shirley. 6. Lavina - m. 
George Arbogast, 1840. 7. Nancy - b. 1822c - s. 8. Barbara - m. 
John Wilson, 1842. 9. Joanna - m. Morgan Steuart. 10. Alzina - m. 
Nathaniel Poling, Barbour, 1865. 

Misc. - 

1. Mary - m. James Curry, 1786. 

2. Charles - m. Dorothy Steuart, 1803. 

Fisher. James - b. 1828, D. 1901 - m. Louisa J. Snyder, Fdn., 
1858 - C-2.* - 

1. William H. - m. Mary E. Hevener, 1887 - Aug. 2. Charles H. - 
dy. 3. Margaret B. - m. S — A. N. Kramer. 4. Sarah - dy. 5. George 
S.f - m. Nettie Calhoun, Pdn., 1891. 

C-3* of George S. - 

Luella L. - Harry C. - Harlie J. - Charles H. - Anna B. 

Fleisher. Peter (w. — ) - D. 1801 - C-2. - 

1. Henry - m. Catharine Peninger, Pdn. - D. 1821. 2. John - b. 
1755c, D. 1779 - m. Mary S. — . 3. Peter (m. - -). 4. Conrad - m. 

Elizabeth lived in CB. - D. 1797 - estate, $517.71. 5. Pulsor. 

6. William - m. Margaret Eckard, 1781. 7. Elizabeth - m. Martin 
Life, 1784. 8. Barbara. 9. Sophia - m. Philip Eckard, 1799. 

C-3 of John. - 

1. Henry. 2. Elizabeth. 

C-3 of CONRAD. - 

1. Elizabeth - m.? Christian Ruleman, 1799. 2. Catharine - ward 
of Isaac Hinkle - m. Henry Sinnett, 1806. 

C-3 of HENRY. - 

1. Conrad. 2. Henry. 3. John. 4. Benjamin - m. Sarah Hull, 
1812. 5. William - m. Mary Gum, 1812. 6. George - m. Martha Er- 
vine, 1824. 7. Andrew - m. Elizabeth Vandevender, 1825. 8. Eliza- 
beth - m. Edward Janes. 9. Barbara - m. Michael Hevener, 1812. 

C-4 of Benjamin. - 

1. Henry - m. Nancy Hiner - n. c. 2. Adam H. - b. 1818, D. 1889 - 
m. 1. Rachel Slaven, 2. Hannah P. Steuart, 1860. 3. Narcissa - dy. 4. 
Catharine - m. Jacob Seybert, Sr., 1837. 5. Elizabeth - m. Samuel 
Hiner. 6. Margaret - m. Jacob Seybert, Jr. 7. Susan - m. Andrew Seybert. 

C-5* of Adam H. - (by 1.) 

1. Amanda A. - m. James B. Campbell. 2. James A.t - b. 1845 - 
m. 1. Irene E. Hull, 1868, 2. Florence E. Wade, 1893. 3. Cyrus T. - 
m. Mary K. Trimble, 1874 - n. c. 4. girl - dy. 5. Rebecca - d. 6. 
Lucy J. - b. 1854 - m. Charles M. Borst, Culpeper.* (by 2) 7. Benja- 
min E. - m. Ella Arbogast - physician - D. 1900. 8. Henry - m. — 
Renick, G'brier* - physician. 9. Carrie S. - d. 17. 

History of Highland County 285 

C-6* of James A. - 

1. Ratie M. - b. 1871 - m. Jacob W. Hevener. 2. Abigail W. - m. 
Charles M. Lunsford. 3. J. Adam - b. 1881, D. 1900 - physician at D 

C-6* of BENJAMIN E. - 

Carrie - Lucile. 

C-4 of GEORGE. - 

H— H. (m. Phoebe E. Davis, 1859). 

C-4* of ANDREW. - 

1. Solomon - m. Eliza J. Snyder. 2. Susan - m. Andrew Way- 

C-S* of Solomon. - 

1. John S. -b. 1852, D. 1910 - m. Rachel V. Gum, 1874 - Pdn. 
2. Oriont - m. Arbeline Colaw, 1887 - C-6 - Louise. 3. Clara - m. 
Edward Siever. 4. Barbara E. - m. William H. Arbogast. 5. Arbe- 
line - d. 6. Harris C. - m. Mary M. Hull - Kas. 7. Susan - m. Syl- 
vanus W. Mullenax, Fdn. 8. Charles T. - b. 1865 - m. Sarah E. Nich- 
olas, 1890 - Pdn. 9. William E.t - twin to Chas. T. - m. Annie M. 
'Nicholas, 1890 - h'stead. 10. Paul - d. 11. Austin - m. 1. Mary M. 
Wagoner, 1890, 2. Mary Gum. 12. Finnic 

C-6* of John S. - 

Charles N. (m. Margaret Snyder) - Orpah (m. Alexander B. Hal- 
terman) - Sarah (m. O. Boyd Wagoner) - Maud (m. Minor Rexrode) - 
Dean - Kate (m. Jesse Arbogast) - Florence (m. Sully Beverage) - 
Brown - Edna. 

C-6* of CHARLES T. - 

Sarah E. - Nannie S. - Bonnie K. - Charles M. 

C-6* of WILLIAM E. - 

Frances M. - Henry - Estie J. - Bunk - Ethel - Monty. 

C-4 of HENRY - propably same as Henry of John (2). - 

1. John. 2. Jehu. 3. Barbara - m. Charles Dean, 1822. 4. Peter - 
m. Susanna Lamb, 1831. 5. Susan - m. George Eagle, 1827. 6. Mar- 
garet - m. — Hevener. 7. Joseph - m. Matilda Smith, 1836. 8. Emily - 
m. Valentine Siron, 1846. 9. Henry J. - m. Barbara Eckard, 1846. 

C-5* of Henry J. - 

1. Hannah M. - b. 1847 - m. Robert M. Malcomb, 1870. 2. 
Thomas - m. in 111.* 3. Henry. 4. Laura C. - m. Joseph P. Malcomb, 
1873. 5. Elizabeth - m. James Wilson. 6. Jane - m. Jared Ralston. 
7. Jackson - m. twice in 111.* 8. George O.f - m. Mary M. Wilson, 

C-6* of George O. - 

William E.f (m. Margaret J. Blagg, 1898) - Henry B.t (m. Eva M. 
Blagg, 1900) - Myrtle V. 

C-5 of JOSEPH. - 

Isabella - b. 1837 - m. Andrew Ralston. 

286 History of Highland County 

Misc. - 

1. Mary S. - m. John Jones, 1832. 

2. Esther - m. Abraham M. Wilson, 1834. 

3. James P. - m. Louisa C. — . 

Fleming. William W. - m. Margaret L. Lewis, Poca. (of Dr. 
Chas. A. Lewis) - C-2. - 

1. Mary J. - m. 1. Dr. Samuel A. Brown, 1860, 2. Alfred Schilling, 
Parkersburg - Kas. - 7 C-3. 2. Clara J.f - 3. Belle - m. Jared A. Jones. 

4. Robert H. - m. Lucy W. Randolph - Pres. minister, Lynchburg - 
C-3 - Mary R. 5. William C. - Pres. minister - D. 

Folks. See Fox. 

Fox. Michael (w. — ) - C-2. - 

1. Michael (w. - - ). 

2. Susannah (h. - - ) - 1823. 
C-3 of Michael (2). - 

1. John - m. Elizabeth Rexrode, 1819. 2. George - m. Margaret 
Stone, 1824. 3. William - m. Mahala Harper - Rph. 4. Julia A. - m. 
Samuel Swecker, 1833. 5. Adam - m. Mary White, 1837. 

C-4 of John. - (This branch uses the name Folks.) 

1. Amos - m. Lavina Hevener - D.* '61. 2. Susan - m. Jacob Swadley. 

C-5 of Amos. - 

1. Reuben D.f - b. 1862 - m. 1. Rachel Hevener, 2. Martha E. 
Jack, 1893. 2. Washington - m. Frances Mullenax - Okla. 

C-4 of ADAM. - 

1. Susan - s. 2. Eleanor - s. 3. William - D.* '61. 4. Eliza - m. 
Thomas Ice, Harrison. 5. Mary - m. George A. Rexrode. 6. Catha- 
rine - b. 1850 - m. Jacob G. Hevener. 

C-4 of GEORGE. - (This branch spells the surname Folks.) - 

1. Valentine - m. Mary E. Douglas - BV. 2. Henry - m. Nancy J. 
Gillespie - Bath. 3. Anderson H. - b. 1840- m. Malvina Carpenter, 
1880 - Bath. 4. Susan - m. William M. K. Morrison, Harrison,* 1866. 

5. Hannah - m. David Gwin. 

C-5 of Valentine. - 

1. William F. - m. M. Susan Carpenter, 1880. 2. Thomas M. - m. 
1. Cora Robertson, 1888, 2. Emma A. Gum, 1894, 3. Elizabeth McAl- 
lister, 1906. 3. Margaret A. - m. Levi F. Hite, 1880. 4. Lillie J. - m. 
James A. Hiner, 1884. 5. Mary B. - m. Kenton H. Trimble, 1886. 

C-6 of William F. - 

Charles C.t (m. Nola E. Corbett, 1910) - David O.f (m. Mary V. 
Corbett, 1909) - Emma F. (m. Ira E. Doyle). 

C-5 of HENRY. - 

Ella J. - b. 1858 - m. Robert P. Lockridge. 

C-3 of — . - 

1. William H. - b. 1816 - m. Margaret Hodge. 2. Jared M. - m. 
M — Gillespie. 

History of Highland County 287 

C-4 of William H. - 

Charles H.t (m. Lavina Hinkle) - Malinda (m. Scott Reynolds) - 
Martha J. (m. Samuel C. Reynolds, Pdn., 1867) - Caroline (m. William 

C-5 of Charles H. - 

Curtis (m. Levy Mullenax) - Arthur (m. Abigail Rexrode) - 
Howard (m. Elizabeth Middleton) - Erne M. (m. Clay Simmons, 
Pdn.) - Blanche - Lucy (m. Howard Arbogast) - Lula H. (m. Clar- 
ence A. Waybright). 

C-4 of JARED M. - 

Wooddell - Jasper L. - Ruhama A (m. James B. Townsend) - 
son - (m. Moore Gillespie) - Eva F. (m. W. V. Watson, G'brier, 

Gardner. James A. - m. H. Rata Frye, Aug. - k. '63* - C-2. - 

1. John W. - b. 1851 - m. Jennie Ryder, 1885 - 111. 2. Junius N.t - 
b. 1855 - m. Sarah McGlaughlin, 1877. 3. Frank - m. Alice Hicks. 4. 
Anne - dy. 

C-3 of Junius N. - 

James W. (m. Lucy J. Corbin, 1902) - Viola (m. Harry Fulton, Ill.t). 

Gibson. Samuel L. -(son of David, b. at Kilraine, Ireland, 1743, 
D. 1833) - b. 1774, D. 1841 - m. Sarah Given, 1812 - C-2.* - 

1. Margaret J. - b. 1813 - m. Chambers Mustoe, 1831. 2. David 
W. - b. 1815, D. 1842 - m. Susan Benson. 3. Robert G. - d. 13. 4. 
Mary A. - d. 15. 5. Samuel L. - b. 1822, D. 1900 - m. Frances Hicks, 
1861 - Poca. 6. William D. - b. 1824, D. 1889 - m. Elizabeth A. See- 
bert, 1859. 7. Harvey L. - D. 22. 8. Sarah A. - b. 1828 - m. Joseph 
Rhodosky, Ireland - Mo. 9. John L. G. - b. 1830, D. 1896 - m. Alice 
S. D. Lightner, 1860. 

C-3* of William D. - 

1. Rebecca E. - m. David M. Kyle, Aug., 1881. 2. Clara M. -3. 
Elizabeth J. - m. John M. Colaw, 1895. 4. Joseph S.f - merchant. 5. 
Mary K. - teacher. 6. William A. - 7. Charles K. - D. 1908. 

C-4 of Rebecca E. Kyle. - 

William F.f (m. Rosa N. Ward, Rph., 1910 - Mry.) - Roy R. - 
W. Guy. 

C-3* of JOHN L. G. - 

1. Mary E. - b. 1861, D. 1902. 2. Willisf - b. 1865 - county treas- 
urer. 3. Jennie M. - m. 1. James Benson, 2. James L. Gum, 1910. 
4. inf. 5. Charles L. - dy. 2. 6. Bessie - dy. 2. 7. Althea E. 8. Lillie 
W. 9. Sarah M. 

Gilmer. Samuel - (one of 15 brothers, all of whom had families; 
there were also 4 sisters) - b. 1760, D. 1848 - m. Eleanor Bailey, Rkm., 
b. 1758, D. 1832 - C-2.* - 

1. Eliza - b. 1801, D. 1882 - m. John Dever. 2. Alexander - b. 
1803, D. 1883 - m. Sarah Slaven. 

288 History of Highland County 

C-3* of Alexander. - 

1. Stewart W. - b. 1830 - m. Sarah A. Johns. 2. Elizabeth M. - 
m. Jacob P. Strickler. 3. Rachel A. - m. James F. Patterson, 1854. 
4. Samuel A.f - b. 1835 - m. Jemima Jordan. 5. Jesse S. - b. 1838. 

C-4* of Stewart W. - 

Jennie (m. Rev. Smith Welborn - Mo.) - Sarah (m. - -. - in Mo.) - 

Frank (d.) - Harry (d.) - Rachel (d.). 

C-4* of SAMUEL A. - 

Ratie E. (b. 1859 - m. Roger F. Williams, 1880) - John A. - Pa- 
melia E. (m. Harris F. Herold, Poca.f) - Jesse P. (m. Susan McGuffin - 
Louisa) - Sarah A. (d.) - Stuart M. ( m. Sarah V. Taylor). 

Graham. John - pioneer of Aug. - bought 696 A. on Great Calfp., 
1746, for $78.25 - C-2. - 

1. Robert (w. — ) - D. 1771 or earlier. 2. Lancelot (w. Elizabeth 
— ) - Hid. - D. 1780. 3. James - Bath? 4. John (w. Dora) - Chris- 
tian Cr. - C-3 - John - James - Lancelot. 5. girl (m. Andrew Lock- 
ridge). 6. Christopher - D. 1748, naming Robert his executor - uncle 
or bro. to him? 

Robert - same as above? - C-2. - 

1. Christopher - b. 1755, D. 1841 - m. Jane Carlile. 2. James. 3. 
Margaret. 4. Sarah (or Sarah Elizabeth ) - b. 1763c. 

C-3* of Christopher. - 

1. Robert - b. 1776. 2. George W. - b. 1778, k. 1837 - m. — 
Devericks. 3. John - b. 1780, D. 1857 - s. 4. Nancy A. - s. 5. Ra- 
chel - b. 1784, D. 1855 - m. John Carlile. 6. Thomas - b. 1786, D. 1869 - 
m. Elizabeth Koontz, Rkm., b. 1829, D. 1909. 7. Virginia - b. 1788, 
D. 1865 - s. 8. Susan - b. 1790, D. 1858 - m. Robert Wright. 9. Eliza- 
beth - m. James Given, 1806. 10. Margaret - b. 1792, D. 1817 - m. 
John Hannah, 1816. 11. Rebecca - b. 1794, D. 1874 - m. Alexander 
Hamilton, 1825. 

C-4 of George W. - 

Sarah - m. Rankin Douglas. 

C-4* of THOMAS. - 

1. John C. - b. 1849 - m. Jemima A. Swope, 1874. 2. Mary J. D. - 
m. Stephen D. Bradshaw. 3. F. Pierce - b. 1852 - m. Dorcas A. Cobb, 
1876 - Okla. 4. George T.f - m. Susan C. Hamilton, 1882. 5. Saman- 
tha A. - m. George W. Hicklin - D. 6. David C.t m. Anne Helms. 
7. William R. - m. Emma Morris, la. - Mo. 8. Elizabeth S. - m. Rob- 
ert Hamilton. 9. Archibald S.t b. 1866 - m. Mary E. Hupman, 1898. 
10. Charles H. 

Misc. - 

Robert - D. 1763 - estate appraised by John and Robert Carlile 
and Thomas Hicklin - C-2. - 

Thomas - Elizabeth - Margaret - Rebecca - Jean. 

History of Highland County 289 

Griffen. William - m. Martha Shively - C-2. - 

1. Nancy - m. Morgan Harold, Aug.* 2. W. Jacksonf - b. 1826 - 
m. Rachel J. McCloud, Poca. 3. Robert H.t - m. Sarah Robertson. 
4. Sarah A. - m. Peter W. Carpenter, Poca.* 5. Jane - m. Mathias 
Turner. 6. Elizabeth - m. Archibald Ratliff. 7. Susan - m. — Jenks, 
Penna. - Poca. 8. John S. - b. 1843 - m. 1. Rachel M. May, 2. — 
Varner - Poca. 

C-3* of W. Jackson. - 

Mahala (m. Paul McCloud, Rph.*) - William R. (m. Cornelia 
Doyle - Poca.) - Uriah C. (m. Mary L. Gregory, 1886 - Aug.) - John 
H.t (m. Florence Carroll - C-4 - 6) - James E. (dy.). 

C-3* of ROBERT H. - 

Jesse M. (m. Adona J. Gregory, Bath*) - L. Luther (m. Sarah A. 
Malcomb - Aug.) - James - J. Robert - Florinda (m. John F. Kelly) - 
Laura A. (m. Frank Detimore - Alleg.) - Caroline (m. Charles Var- 
ner) - Minnie (m. — Graham - Aug.) - William (m. Eliza J. Harrison, 
Hid., 1884). 

Misc. - 

Floydt (w. Belle) - C-2. - 

Myrtle - m. C. Cameron Doyle, 1908. 

Grogg. John (w. — ) - b. 1768, D. 1856 - C-2. - 

1. Henry H. - b. 1811 - m. 1. Christina Grogg, 2. Sarah E. Hel- 
mick, 1866. 2. Jonathan - s. - Lewis. 3. Phoebe - s. 4. Susan - m. 
William Nicholas, 1819. 5. Mary - m. Daniel Simmons. 6. Catharine - 
m. John Simmons. 7. Sarah - m. David Simmons. 8. Elizabeth - m. 
John Snyder. 9. Martha M. (reared) - m. John A. Caldwell, Rkm., 

C-3* of Henry H. - (by 1.) 

John (m. Louisa Long - W.) - Sarah (m. Hunter D. Vint, Pdn.) - 
William (D.* '61) - Eliza (b. 1840 - m. John E. Cross, 1864) - George 
(m. Barbara Ronck - W.) - Julia A. (s.) - Henry (m. Barbara Spon- 
angle, 1879) - (by 2) Dyerf (m. — Lantz) - Davidt (m. Jane Arbo- 
gast) - Robert - Phoebe J. (b. 1874 - m. John M. Grogg, 1892). 

C-4* of Henry (3). - 

Alton D.f (m. Elsie Snyder) - Homer B. (m. Mary K. Simmons, 
1910) - Dora E. - Mary F. 

Misc. - 

1. John - m. 1. Mary Eye, 2. Agnes Rexrode, 1796 - same as 
John (1)? 

2. Adam (w. Charlotte) - C-2. - 

Samuel (b. 1845 - m. Myers McCoy, 1909) - Amanda J. (m. Jacob 
P. Allmen, Lewis, 1878). 

3. Nicholas (w. Phoebe) - C-2. - 
Andrew H. (m. Nan E. Fuffenberger, 1868). 

4. Samuel (w. Margaret) - C-3. - 

290 History of Highland County 

Lee (b. 1869 - m. Mary M. Tracy, W. Va.) - Ernest (m. Myrtie 
Malcomb, 1907) - Howard (b. 1886 - m. Nadie Simmons, 1907). 

Gum.§ (A) John (w. — ) - C-2. - 

1. Isaac - b. before 1753 - (w. Mary). 2. Jacob - b. before 1761, 
D. 1S20 - (w. Dorothy). 3. Abraham - m. Priscilla Wade, 1785 - D. 
1806. 4. William - b. before 1761. 5. John - D. 1827 - m.? Mary 
Dice, Pdn. 6. Leonard - m. Mary Wade Henderson. 

C-3 of Isaac. - 

1. Mary - b. 1778, D. 1861 - m. Jacob Seybert, 1798. 2. McBride - 
m. Elsie Gum, 1807 - D. 1830. 3. Isaac - m. 1. Jane Ervine, 1796, 2. 
Elizabeth Peck, 1828. 4. John E. - b. 1796, D. 1866 - m. Jane — . 5. 
Charles. 6. Abraham - m. Priscilla Callahan. 7. Jacob. 8. Charlotte 
J. - m. — i Arbogast. 

C-4 of McBride. - 

1. William - m. Elizabeth Higgins. 2. John - m. Mary Gum. 
3. Isaac - b. 1817 - m. Virginia Gum Gum, 1866. 4. Matthew - b. 1820 - 
m. Susan Gum, 1856 - Lewis. 5. Matilda - s. 

C-5 of John. - 

1. A. Franklin - m. 1. Susan I. Kinkead, 1869, 2. Lydia F. Swadley, 
1875. 2. Harden - s. 3. George W. - k. '64* 

C-6 of A. Franklin. - 

J. Harden (m. Althea Palmer - Aug.) - J. Dyer (m. Gertrude 
Yeager, Poca.*) - J. William (m. Caddie E. Hildebrand, 1908) - Beth- 
saida - Pinckney L. - Albert P. - George G. - Mary P. 

C-4 of JOHN E. - 

1. Amos - m. Sarah Rexrode, 1837. 2. John E. - m. Mary S. Bev- 
erage, 1865. 

C-5 of Amos. - 

Matilda (m. Samuel Mowrey) - Rachel V. (b. 1855 - m. John S. 
Fleisher) - Grace (m. Anderson Puffenberger) - Harrison (m. Sarah 
White) - William (m. Mary Colaw) - John - James K. P. (m. Louisa 
A. Halterman, 1870) - Ephraim A.f (m. Mary A. Church) - Garnett 
(m. Odie Wimer, 1904) - Preston - Charles - Mary C. (m. Howard L. 

C-3 of JACOB. - 

1. Jacob - m.? Martha Houchin, Poca.* 2. Adam - m. Susanna 
Lantz, 1810 - D. 1846. 3. Jesse. 4. Mary - m. William Fleisher, 1812. 
5. Sarah. 6. Eleanor - m. Andrew Jenkins, 1825. 7. Isaac. 8. girl. 

C-3 of ABRAHAM. - 

1. John - m. Sophia Ruckman, 1810 - Upshur. 2. William - m. 
Nancy Higgins, 1812. 3. Elizabeth - b. 1790c - s. 4. Otho - m. Eliza- 
beth Lightner, 1819. 5. Abraham - m. Mary Wade. 6. Isaac - b 
1802, D. 1891 - m. 1. Mary Ruckman, 2. Nancy Briscoe. 

C-4 of William. - 

^Tracing the Gums was exceptionally difficult and unsatisfactory. 

History of Highland County 291 

1. Abraham - m. Nancy McCloud - W. Va. 2. Virginia - b. 1816 - 
m. 1. Cornelius H. Gum, 2. Isaac Gum, 1866. 

C-4 of OTHO. - 

1. Susan - m. 1. Stewart Wade, 2. Thomas Campbell. 2. Priscilla - 
m. Jacob Keckley, Poca.* 3. Sarah - m. William McGlaughlin, Poca.* 

4. Mary G. - m. Wellington Daniels, Rph.* 5. Adam L.f - m. Sarah 
Ryder - n. c. 6. Abraham W. - m. 1. Elizabeth Lightner, 2. Mary 

A. Ryder, 1854 - Kas. 7. Peterf - b. 1837 - m. 1. Nancy J. Dever, 
1861, 2. Mary E. Lightner, 1896. 8. Otho - m. Virginia C. Wade, 1865. 

C-5 of Abraham W. - 

William H. P. (dy.) - Hortense (b. 1858 - m. A. G. Wolf) - 
Alfaretta ( m. Jesse L. Allen) - Lorenzo D. (dy.) - Charles D.| (m. 
Mary Burdett - 6 C-6) - Rosanna. 

C-5 of PETER. - 

Robert L.f (m. Ruby Williams, Poca.) - Cameron O. (D.) - Harry 

5. - John H. (D.) - Homer (D.) - Paul L. - Otho C. (D.) - Dennis 
H. - Clara V. (d.). 

C-6 of Robert L. - 

Russell C. - Kenton - Arthur R. - Mary V. - Arnett P. - Eulah 
G. (m. Lockridge Harold). 

C-5 of OTHO. - 

H. Albert! (m. Adelia E. Wiley) - Allie D. (m. Henry Slaven) - 
Mary E. (m. William H. Wilson, 1904) - James L.f (m. Jennie Gibson 
Benson, 1910) - Rouvenia D. (m. William Bird) - Maud K. 

C-4 of ABRAHAM. - 

Charles A.f (m. Virginia Gum, 1904) - Elizabeth H. (m. Charles 

B. Hamilton, Upshur) - William W.t (b. 1839 - m. Nancy C. Wade - 
n. c.) - James B. (D.* '61) - Otho W. (m. Matilda Gum - Poca.) - 
Abraham R. (dy. 12) - Mary C. (dy.). 

C-4 of ISAAC. - 

1. James N. - dy. 2. James E. - D. '61* - m. Elizabeth Wade. 
3. Aaron D. - b. 1838 - m. Mary Wade. 4. Giles H. - m. Hester Tom- 
linson - Okla. 5. Abisha R. - D.* '61. 6. Nancy E. - m. Archibald P. 
Strother. 7. Margaret C. - d. 17c. 8. Priscilla E. - m. Henry Tomlin- 
son - W. 9. Mary E. - d. 

C-5 of Aaron D. - 

James E. (m. Gertrude Wade) - Arminta S. (m. David O. 
Woods) - Lucy P. (m. O — E. Wade) - Julia E. - Isaac N. 

C-3 of JOHN. - 

1. Roger - m. Matilda Holcomb. 2. Leonard - m. Mary Seybert. 
3. Elsie - m. McBride Gum, 1807. 

C-4 of Roger. - 

Timothy (m. — Underwood, G'brier) - Jesse (m. — Hevener) - 
Cornelius H. (m. Jane Gum) - Alice (m. McBride Gum). 

292 History of Highland County 

C-3 of LEONARD. - 

John - Otho (w. — ) - Henry - William S. - Charles M. - Jehu 
(w. — ) - Keziah (s.) - Sarah (m. — Gum) - Huldah (m. Zachariah 
Tomlinson) - Rachel (m. Michael Trainor) - Mary (m. John Gum). 
C-4 of Otho. - 

1. Amos - b. 1834 - m. Frances Terry - Bath. 2. Virginia - m. 
Charles Gum. 3. Mary A. - drowned, 6. 4. Thomas G. -m. Elizabeth 
Curry, 1861. 5. Keziah - m. 1. Warwick Terry, 2. Morgan Wade. 
6. Charles - d. 7. Margaret - s. 8. Mitchell - dy. 9. Bryan (reared) - 
m. Laura E'rvine - Poca. 

C-5 of Thomas G. - 

Mary B. (b. 1865 - m. James F. Griffen) - Emily A. (m. Thomas 
M. Folks) - Ella (m. Grant Dilley, Poca.*) - Willis - Albert S. (m. 
Mary S. McAllister, 1909) - Harmon - Etta. 

C-4 of JEHU. - 

James M. (m. Sarah E. Trainor, 1876) - Jesse - Elizabeth - 
Annis - Emily - Henry - William - Grant. 

C-3? of WILLIAM. - 

1. James - m. 1. Sarah A. Grogg, 2. Amelia A. Hoover. 2. Marga- 
ret E. - m. 1. James Logan, R'bridge, 2. John Grogg. 3. McBride - 
b. 1810, D. 1892 - m. Elsie Gum. 

C-4 of James. - 

1. Warwick - D. 1864c. 2. Clark - unkn. 3. Margaret C. - m. 
Washington Greathouse, Barbour. 4. Commodore - Cal. 5. Matilda - 
m. W. Scott Gum. 6. McBride - dy. 7. Oliver H.f - m. Mary Ryder, 

C-4 of McBRIDE. - 

Matthew - m. Susan Gum, 1856. Margaret C. - m. Alexander 
Greathouse, Barbour, 1865. 

Gum. (B) Adam (w. — ) - came later than John (A) - C-2. - 

1. Peter - m. Barbara Nicholas. 2. Henry - m. Margaret Chew, 
1831 - Lewis. 3. Adam - m. Lucinda Mullenax, 1834. 4. Mary - b. 
1817 - m. John Gum. 5. Eleanor - s. 6. Christina - m. John Nich- 
olas - G'brier. 7. Susanna - m. Matthew Gum. 8. Eliza - m. Esau 
Rexrode. 9. Matilda - m. George Nicholas, 1830. 

C-3* of Peter. - 

Sarah V. (m. Martin M. Jack) - Edmonia (s.) - Isaac N.f (m. 
Ola V. Colaw, 1894) - Cynthia A. (s.) - Amanda (m. Addison Simmons). 

C-3 of ADAM. - 

Frances A. - b. 1856 - m. Charles Arbogast. 

Gwin. David - b. 1742, D. 1822 - son of Robert, who bought 544 A. 
on Calfp., 1745 - wealthy landholder - officer in colonial wars - m. 1. 
Jane Carlile, 2. Viola Crawford - C-2.* - (by 1.) 

1. James - m. Rachel Stephenson - D. 1844. 2. Robert - b. 1782, 
D. 1869 - m. Mary Stephenson, 1805. 3. Mary - m. Robert Lockridge. 

History of Highland County 293 

4. John - m. 1. Margaret Bradshaw, 2. Lydia Gum. 5. Elizabeth - m. 
Samuel Given, 1812. 6. Jane - m. John Cleek, Bath.* 7. Nancy - m. 
1. Hugh McGlaughlin, 2. James Wiley. 8. Sarah - m. Thomas Kin- 
kead, 1809. (by 2) 9. Isabella - m. Capt. William Hogshead. 10. Mar- 
garet - m. Robert Coyner, Aug.,* 1818. 11. Rachel - m. William Mc- 
Clung, 1821. 12. Susan - m. Capt. Silas Hinton. 13. David S. - b. 
1809 - rec'd by will $3,333 and lands bought of Peebles on BP. - m. 
Frances T. Beckham. 

C-3 of James. - 

1. Matthew. 2. David - m. 1. Martha E. Pray, 1842, 2. - -. 3. 
James - m. Mahala Pray - C-4 - Armenia A. (m. John W. Jordan, 
1867). 4. Samuel - m. Ellen Dever. 5. John - m. Nancy McGlaugh- 
lin. 6. Eliza - s. 7. Rachel - m. John Hiner. 8. Ann - s. 9. Lu- 
cinda - m. in Rkm. 

C-4* of David. - (by 2.) 

Emma V. (m. Henry Rogers) - David W. (Elizabeth J. Carpen- 
ter) - Margaret R. (d.) - Moses B. (m. Martha A. Burns - Bolar). 

C-5* of Moses B. - 

Carmen E. E. (m. Hollie Gutshall) - Marvin E. (d. 17) - Fred 
W. - Margaret L. - Layton E. - Annie L. 

C-3* of ROBERT. - 

1. Jane - m. Thomas Blundell, Bath.* 2. David - b. 1809, D. 1872 - 
m. 1. Jane Lockridge, Bath, 2. Hannah Folks. 3. Cynthia - m. Thomas 
Brown, Franklin. 4. James - m. Margaret Bodkin - Bath. 5. Hettie - 
m. David Stephenson. 6. Emily - m. Robert Lockridge, Bath.* 7. 
Amanda - m. Nelson Rodgers. 8. Robert - s. 9-10. Caroline and 
Mary A. - dy. 11. Houston F. - m. Jane Seybert. 12. Mosest - m. 
Elizabeth A. Cobb. 

C-4* of Cynthia Brown. - 

Elizabeth - b. 1833 - s. James - William - Irene - Martha. 

C-4* of HOUSTON F. - 

Clarence - Elizabeth - William - Robert - Hiram. 

C-4* of MOSES. - 

William T. (merchant - Bolar) - Frances B. (twin to Wm. T. - 
dy.) - Mary A. (dy.). 

C-3 of JOHN. - (by 1.) 

1. David - m. Eliza Stephenson. 2. John W. - m. Emmeline 
Gillespie - D. 93. 3. Jane - m. George Starr, Bath. 4. Elizabeth - m. 
Mustoe Given. 5. Nancy - m. — McGlaughlin. 6. Luella S. - m. Wil- 
liam A. Kincaid, 1871. (by 2) 7. Caleb - s. 8. James K. P. - s. 9. 
Eleanor - twice m. in 111. 

Caleb and Jas. K. P. perished in a forest fire in W. 

C-4 of David. - 

Anna E. - m. 1. Gawin Bonner, Bath, 2. Ellsworth Wright, 3. — 
Taylor, 111.* 

294 History of Highland County 

C-4* of JOHN W. - 

John C. (m. America A. Gillespie) - B. Austin (s.) - Roberta V. 
(m. Charles A. Robinson, Alleg.*) - Margaret A. (m. Caleb A. Mox- 
ley, N. Y. - Bath) - Clara B. (s.) - David F. (m. Minnie Lockridge, 

0. - Bath) - Luella R. (m. Dallas D. Dollins, Albemarle*) - Rosella 
J. (s.) - Annie L. (m. James O. Wood, Alleg. - Bath) - Georgia M. 


Gwin. (B) Joseph - bro. to David (1) - on CP - D. 1817 - C-2. - 

1. John - m. — Pickens - his C. all s. 2. Jehu. 3. Moses - b. 
1797, D. 1867 - m. — Kincaid. 4. Mary - m. Robert Lockridge. 5. 
William K. - m.? Jane Kincaid, 1823. 6. Elizabeth - m. Andrew Kin- 
caid. 7. Jane - m. William Steuart. 

C-3 of Moses. - 

William B. - m. Rachel Gwin, dau. of Wm. K. - C-4 - Nelson - s. 

Misc. - 

1. Joseph (m. Mary J. Benson) - bro. to David (1). 

2. Samuel (m. Elizabeth Speece) - bro. to David (1). 

3. Steuart (w. M— ) - C. - Rebecca J. (b. 1859 - m. George L. 

4. Charles - m. M — i A. C. - 1. Dorothy B. (m. Mayberry L. 

Leach, 1904) - 2. Signora J. (m. William B. Wright, 1898). 

5. David (w. — ) - C. - Catharine J. (m. Francis M. Trimble, 1866). 
Halterman. Charles (w. — ) - C-2. - 

1. Jacob - s. 2. Henry - m. Amelia Skidmore, Pdn.,* 1812. 3. 
Adam - m. Sarah Peck, 1813. 4. George - m. Elizabeth Rexrode, 1820. 
5. Peter - m. Mary Arbogast, 1815. 6. Charles - m. Phoebe Summers. 
7. Elizabeth - m. George White, 1812. 8. Barbara - s. 9. Andrew 
(reared) - m. Sarah J. Vandevender, 1857. 

C-3 of Adam. - 

1. William - m. Elizabeth Grim, 1840 - Ritchie. 2. George - m. 
Mary Waybright - 111. 3. Elizabeth - m. Job Puffenberger, 1841. 
4. Margaret - m. John Vandevender, 1836. 5. Catharine - m. Solomon 
White, 1841. 6. Mary - m. Adam Huffman, 1834. 7. Malinda - m. 
Henry Colaw. 8. Peterf - b. 1832 - m. 1. Margaret White, 2. Elizabeth 
Helmick Grogg, 1895. 

C-4 of Peter. - 

1. Andrew J.t - b. 1854 - m. Lucy A. Bowers, 1875. 2. Albert 
M.f - m. Ann R. Simmons, 1891. 3. Louisa - m. 1. J. Polk Gum, 2. 
Elijah Kee. 4. Sarah - m. Christian Puffenberger. 5. Minnie L. - m. 

1. J. Hamilton Varner, 1896, 2. Peter Harold. 

C-5 of Andrew J. - 

Robert L.f (m. Emma J. Wagoner, 1905) - Alexander B (m. 
Orpah Fleisher, 1909). 
C-3 of HENRY. - 
1. Joseph - m. Elizabeth Rymer. 2. Solomon - b. 1833 - m. Mar 

History of Highland County 295 

garet A. Beverage, 1868. 3. Peter - m. Elizabeth Nelson, Pdn. - 
k. '61?. 

C-4 of Joseph. - 

Sarah (m. Uriah Wagoner) - Harrison (m. Ada Kitzmiller, Md. - 
Poca.) - George (m. Barbara Wagoner - Pdn.) - Silas (m. Annie J. 
Mullenax - Poca.) - Margaret (m. Charles Bodkin) - J. Frankf (m. 
1. Sarah J. Church, 2. Sarah Sponaugle, 3. Margaret Varner) - Willis 
(s.) - Uriah W.f (m. Cora Propst). 

C-4 of SOLOMON. - 

Annis (m. Wellington Hevener) - Chapman B.f (b. 1875 - m. 
Mary F. Bodkin). 

Hansel. Benami - son of Chas. W., of Frederick and Martha 
(Wooddell, Aug.) - b. 1806, D. 1883 - m. Mary Wallace, Bath, 1827 - 
C-2.* - 

1. Sarah E. - dy. 2. Charles C. - dy. 9. 3. Martha J. - dy. 4 
John H. - b. 1833, D. 1899 - m. Margaret Hiner, 1858. 5. Amanda M. - 
b. 1837, D. 1880 - m. John W. Arbogast. 6. Mary A. - b. 1839, D,. 
1896 - m. Benjamin Hiner. 7. Matthew W. - D. '62.* 8. Sarah E. - 
dy. 9. Martha J. - b. 1847, D. 1909 - m. Jacob H. Hidy. 

C-3* of John H. - 

1. B. Hiner - b. 1859, D. 1900 - m. Susan S. Alexander, 1886.f 2. 
C. Cameront - b. 1861 - m. Susan F. LeCompte, Md., 1907 - banker. 
3. Mary O. 4. Emma J. 5. Frances - dy. 6. M. Ernest - b. 1873 - 
m. Elizabeth Jones - Loudoun - 4 C. 

C-4* of B. Hiner. - 

Robert S. - John S. - Marguerite (dy.) - Louise S. - Elizabeth M. 

C-4* of C. CAMERON. - 

Margaret H. - Elizabeth B. 

Helms. James - m. Jane Carlile, 1835 - C-2.* - 

1. Elizabeth A. - s. 2. Sarah - m. Joseph Winegard, Aug.* 3. T- 
Strother - m. Mary A. Lockridgef - D. 4. James - s. 5. Clemensia - 
m. Valentine Harouff, Bath.* 

C-3* of Strother. - 

Emma V. (m. David C. Graham) - William S. (m. Sarah Pullin) - 
Frances J. (m. Charles W. Samples, 1910) - Elizabeth L. (m. Herbert 
T. Bradshaw) - Jeremiah - Leota S. (m. William T. Hamilton, 1896). 

Strother - bro. to James - s. - physician - Tenn. 

Hevener. (A) Jacob - b. 1773, D. 1860 - m. Catharine Swadley, 
Pdn., 1795 - C-2.* - 

1. Jacob - b. 1797, D. 1876 - m. 1. Mary Stone, Pdn., 2. Elizabeth 
Rexrode, 1861. 2. Henry - b. 1803, D. 1867 - m. Naomi Swadley, 1829. 
3. Elizabeth - m.? Adam Hull. 4. Harmah^_b^JJ30i=_m~George Bev- 
e rage, 1830. - *Q^J*> rt> 

C-3* of Jacob. - \ 

1. Amos - b. 1817 - m. Arista Lightner, Lewis - Rph. 2. William - 

296 History of Highland County 

b. 1820, D. 1891 - m. 1. Barbara Snyder, 2. Luvenia Jordan. 3. Uriah - 
b. 1822 - m. 1. Martha Mathews, Poca., 2. Mary Rogers, G'brier, 3. 
Nannie McGlaughlin - Poca. 4. Henry - D. 25. 5. Hannah - m. 
David Snyder. 6. Elizabeth - m. Erasmus Rhodes, Rkm. 7. George 
W.t - b. 1831 - m. Mary C. Summers, Shen., 1859! 

C-4* of William. - 

William (m. L. May Mullenax, 1903) - Jacob (m. Osie McNeal, 
Poca., 1900 - Aug.) - Uriaht (m. Carrie Mauzy) - Mary. 

C-4* of GEORGE W. - 

1. Jacob W.t - m. Katie M. Fleisher, 1892. 2. Elizabeth C. - m. 
Charles A. Brock, Md. 3. Mary S. - b. 1863 - m. George D. Dudley, 
Aug., 1883. 

C-5* of Elizabeth C. Brock. - 

George H.t (m. Lucy Hull) - Mary - Elizabeth ( m. William 

C-3* of HENRY. - 

1. Joseph H. - b. 1831, D. 1892 - m. Malinda White, 1858. 2. Peter 
S. - D. '63.* 3. Mary C. - m. Washington Riggleman. 4. Jacob P.t - 
b. 1838 - m. 1. Rebecca Mullenax, 2. Phoebe J. Lunsford, 1878. 5. 
Washington W.t - b. 1840 - m. Lavina White. 6. Sarah E. - m. Solo- 
mon Puffenberger. 7. Lavina E. - b. 1845 - m. Joshua Lunsford. 8. 
Hannah E. - b. 1849, D. 1887 - m. John Swadley. 

C-4* of Joseph H. - 

Emma (d.) - Edward A. (m. Phoebe A. Mullenax, 1883 - Aug.) - 
Peter (m. — Teter, Fdn. - Kas.) - Delia A. F. (m. John Malcomb - 
Aug.) - Henryt (m. 1. Minnie Hevener, 2. Sarah E. Rexrode, 1896). 

C-4* of JACOB P. - (by 1.) 

Launa (m. John Eckard - Aug.) - John H.t (m. Nora Anderson) - 
Hubert H.t (m. Mary L. Rexrode, 1891) - Wellingtont (m. 1. Lena F. 
Rexrode, 1899, 2. Annis Halterman. (by 2) Kemper E. (m. Jennie T. 
Herold, 1909) - Gertrude (m. Tilden E. Mullenax) - Alvah. 

C-4* of WASHINGTON W. - 

Loretta F. (m. George Waybright) - Mary E. (m. William H. 
Fisher) - Naomi E. (m. Leonidas S. Snyder) - Henry H.t (m. Hester 
E. Snyder, 1894). 

Hevener. (B) John - first cousin to Jacob (1) - b. 1780, D. 1856 - 
m. Eleanor Wimer, 1816 - C-2.* - 

1. Margaret - m. John Beverage, 1837. 2. Barbara - m. Thomas 
Wright. 3. Elizabeth - m. John Hull. 4-5. Henry - Jacob (dy.). 6. 
William D. - b. 1827, D. 1890- m. Jane Sutton, b. 1834, D. 1893. 

C-3* of William D. - 

1. Jacob G.t - b. 1846 - m. 1. Catharine Folks, 1868, 2. Irene Way- 
bright Palmer, 1883. 2. John W.t - b. 1848 - m. Mahulda Keister, 
Pdn., 1884. 3. Samuel Ct - b. 1849 - m. 1. Nancy Beverage, 1875, 2. 

History of Highland County 297 

Emily Lockridge Beverage, 1905. 4. Nicholas K. - d. 14. 5. Dora - 
m. J. Lee Hiner. 6. Andrew J. - m. Irene Carpenter - Bath. 7. Wil- 
liam A.f - m. Ada E. Ervine, 1888. 8. Jonas F.t - m. 1. Emma A. C. 
Hughs, Poca., 1889, 2. Rhoda O. Wilson, 1891. 9. James H.t - b. 1861 - 
m. Susan Wimer Arbogast, 1897 - C-4 - 5. 10. Barbara A. 11. Henry 
C.t - b. 1870 - m. Bertie L. Phillips, Poca., 1900 - C-4 - 4. 12. Laura 
M. - m. William M. Smith, 1890 - Aug. 13. George W. -dy. 

C-4* of Jacob G. - (by 1.) 

Charles - A. Franklinf (m. Carrie V. Nicholas, 1901) - Sarah C. 
(m. Luther Rexrode) (by 2) Grover C. (m. Georgia Vanosdale, 
Poca.) - Robert G. - Elizabeth. 

C-4 of JOHN W. - 

Clemmie V. - Robert K. - William S. - Emma M. - James R. - 
Jared E. (dy.). 

C-4* of SAMUEL C. - 

Arthur C.t (m. Ella K. Cobb, 1906) - John D. (m. Sarah B. Gum, 
1905) - Minnie F. (m. Edwin Smith, 1900) - Lula G. (m. W— A. 
Armentrout, 1907). Nellie -s. 

C-5* of JONAS F. - 

Martha (m. McKenton Hull) - Maria - Myrtle (dy.) - Lester - 
John - Raymond - Clarence - Elsie - 2 others. 

Havener. (C) Adam (w. Catharine) - bro. to John (1) - C-2. - 

1. George - m. Elizabeth Fox - away. 2. Reuben - m. Elizabeth 
Eye - Lewis. 3. Adam. 4. Barbara - m. Sampson Wagoner. 5. 
Susanna - m. Abraham Crider. 6. Mary. 7. Ann. 

Hevener. (D) Peter (w. — ) - probably uncle to Jacob, John, 
Adam - was in CB 1790, when there were 3 tithables in his household - 
left after 1820. 

Hicklin. Thomas - exempted from head tax, 1766 - D. 1772 - C-2. - 

1. John (w. Jane) - D. 1820. 2. Hugh (w. — ). 3. girl - m. Lewis 
Taggert - Ky. 4. Sarah - m. John Montgomery, 1785. 

C-3 of John. - 

1. Hannah - D. 1856 - m. John Steuart, 1785. 2. Agnes - m. Jo- 
seph Mayse, 1786. 3. Mary - m. Lewis Tucker, 1796. 4. George - b. 
1779, D. 1859 - m. Elizabeth Carlile, 1800 - weighed 316 pounds. 5. 
Jane - m. William Steuart, 1811. 6. James - m. Sarah Roberts, 1824. 
7. others - dy. 
• C-4 of James. - 

Jane (m. William Steuart of James) - others (d.). 

C-4* of GEORGE. - 

1. Nancy - m. Elisha Wright. 2. Margaret - s. 3. Sarah - m. 
John Bishop. 4. James C. - b. 1807 - m. 1. Rebecca Ross, 2. Malinda 
Beathe. 5. Caroline - m. Leonard Propst. 6. Harvey H. - b. 1812 - 
m. Julia Pullin. 7. Jane - m. 1. William Steuart, of John, 2. John 

298 History of Highland County 

C-5* of James C. - 

1. William A. - m. Elizabeth M. Moore, Aug. 2. Arilda J. - m. 
Strother Chandler, Rkm. - Aug. 3. Sarah B. - b. 1845 - m. Lewis 
Davis. 4. George W.t - b. 1847 - m. Samantha A. Graham, 1874. 5. 
Hannah S. - m. George H. Hicklin. 6. Margaret M. - b. 1851 - m. 
James R. Beathe. 7. Laura - m. Jeremiah W. Johns. 8. Harvey B. - 
dy. 9. Jesse H. - m. Julia M. Brill, Bath.* 

C-6* of George W. - 

James T. - Robert C. (m. Rosa Vance) - William R. (m. Rosa 
Armstrong) - Archer G. - Charles D. - Elizabeth R. - Paris C. 

C-5* of HARVEY H. - 

John S.t - b. 1843 - m. Martha E. Wilson, 1873. Susan E. - m. 
Lewis Gentry, Mo.* James R. - m. Susan M. Douglas - W. George 
H.t - m. Hannah S. Hicklin, 1877. Adam S. - m. Nannie Rogers, 
1881 - Aug. - D. Nancy J. - b. 1853 - m. 1. Osborne Jenkins, Rkm., 
1875, 2. Robert Taliaferro, Aug.* Eugene A. - b. 1855, D. 1911 - m. 
Sarah C. Beverage, 1878. 

C-6* of John S. - 

Charles P. (m. Lula S. Bradshaw) - William H. - Vida J. (dy.) - 
Franklin P. - Rosser S. 

C-6* of GEORGE H. - 

Ida (dy.) - James H. (m. Mary Ralston, Bath)* - Anna B. - 
John W. 

C-6 of ADAM S. - 

Robert - 4 others (dy.) 

C-6* of EUGENE A. - 

Girl (dy.) - Clarence S. - Lula K. - Jesse P.f (m. L. Kate Rex- 
rode, 1909) - Ruby M. - Orlin C. - Ethel. 

Thomas - bro. or nephew to John (2) - D. 1839 - C-2. - 

James - m. Sarah Roberts. Mary - m. Robert Wiley, 1824. Cyn- 
thia - m. James Wilson. 

Hicks. John - m. Annie Smith, Pdn. - C-2. - 

1. John - m. Elizabeth Benson - Poca. - D. 82. 2. James A. - b. 
1821c - m. in Rph. 3. William - m. Margaret Benson. 4. Jane - m. 
Addison Bumgardner. 5. Elizabeth - b. 1835c - m. M — Ruckman. 
6. Frances - m. Henry Gum. 7. Phoebe - m. James Wilson. 

C-3 of William. - 

Susan A. (m. Jesse H. Pullin, 1869) - Louisa (s.) - Mary A. (m. 
Frank B. Gardner, 1877) - boy (dy.). 

Hidy. John - m. Christina A. D. 1823 - C-2. - 

1. Margaret - m. — K — . 2. Catharine - m. — Life. 3. Sarah - 
m. Jacob Yeager, 1812. 4. Christina A. - m. — Smith. 5. George - 
m. Susanna Wimer, 1821. 6. Joseph. 7. John - m. Catharine Wag- 
oner, 1809. 8. William. 9. Joel - m. Elizabeth Newman. 1852 - teacher. 

History of Highland County 299 

Jacob - bro. to John (1) - m. Kate Hull - C-2. - 

1. Jacob - m. — Newman - Ind. 2. John A. - m. Matilda Penin- 
ger, 1833 - teacher - D. at 77. 

C-3 of John A.f - 

I. Catharine - b. 1834 - m. Andrew Lantz, 1852 - Mo. 2. Mary J. - 
b. 1836 - m. Jeremiah E. Arbogast, 1856. 3. William J. 4. Caroline 
V. - m. Joseph Gray, 1857 - 111. 5. Sarah F. - m. John Seiver, 1867 - 
Winchester. 6. Jacob H. - b. 1849 - m. Margaret J. Hansel, 1874. 7. 
Henry C. - twin to Jacob - m. Sarah B. Sitlington, 1874 - 111. 8. John 
R. - m. Samantha Davis, Aug., 1874 - Albemarle - 5 C-4. 9. Samuel 
F. - s. 10. James B.t - b. 1855 - m. Lura V. Colaw, 1888. 

C-4 of Jacob H. - 

Charles - Mary E. (m. Charles G. Alexander) - William - Virgil - 
Sarah - 2 inf. (dy.) 

C-4 of JAMES B. - 

1. Edna L. (m. William D. Wimer - 4 C-5). - 2. Warren C. - 3. 
Mary C. - 4. James F. - 5. Osie M. - 6. Charles W. (dy.). 

Hinegarner. Godlove - m. Nancy J. Armstrong, 1831 - D. 1895c - C-2. - 

1. Mary A. - s. 2. John - G'brier. 3. Henry B. - m. 1. Margaret 
J. Wright, 1867, 2. — Curry - W. Va. 4. Rebecca J. - b. 1845 - m. 
George A. McAllister, 1868. 5. Phoebe - m. James M. Curry. 6. 
Adam - m. in Shen. Valley.* 7. Josepht (reared). 

Hiner. John - b. 1742 - m. Magdalena Burner - C-2.* - 

1. Esther - b. 1774 - m. John Siron, 1794. 2. Jacob - b. 1776, D. 
1862c - m. 1. Sarah McCoy, 1799, 2. — Johnson. 3. Joseph - b. 1778, 
D. 1865 - m. Jane Armstrong, 1808. 4. Jane - twin to Jos. - s. 5. 
John - m. Rachel Hoover - Ind. 6. Harmon - b. 1782, D. 1842 - m. 
Jemima McCoy, 1805. 7. Mary - m. John Blagg. 8. Alexander B. - 
b. 1787, D. 1873 - m. Harriet Blagg. 9. Agnes - b. 1789, D. 1867 - m. 
Jared Armstrong. 10. Magdalena - m. Joseph Gamble. 11. Eliza- 
beth - b. 1793 - m. James Armstrong. 12. Samuel - b. 1797. 

C-3 of Jacob. - 

1. Mary A. - m. Rev. — Butler, English - Bath. 2. Young J. - 
m. Malinda Anderson, Aug. - D. 1853c on journey W. 3. Nancy - m. 
Henry Fleisher. 4. Bailey - m. Joanna Vint. 5. Jacob - m. Rachel 
Todd, Aug. - Mry., later, Mo. 6. Samuel - m. Elizabeth Fleisher. 7. 
Theresa - d. 8. Joseph - m. Margaret Rexrode. 9. Sarah - twin to 
Jos. - s. 10. William J. - b. 1826 - m. 1. Mary J. Blagg, 1860, 2. Martha 
Kee - Mo. 

C-4 of Young J. - (all in la.) 

Mary J. (m. — Patterson) - Hannah (m. — Hicks) - E — S. - 
Joseph A. - Hettie (m. — Borden). 

C-4 of BAILEY. - 

William M. (b. 1842 - Methodist preacher - Ky.) - Martin J. 
(dy.) - Frederick R. (dy.). 

300 History of Highland County 

C-4* of SAMUEL. - 

Robert K. (m. Caroline Stone, Pdn.*) - Nancy (s. - Rkm.) - 
Hester (m. Oliver M. Hiner) - Virginia (m. George Armstrong - 
Fauquier) - Kate (m. John Miller - Roanoke City) - Minnie (m. John 
Smith - Rkm.). 

C-4* of JOSEPH B. - 

Peter (dy.) - James (b. 1856 - m. Alice Eddings - Hardy) - John 
E.t (m. Cora E. Wilson, 1888) - Alice K. (m. Henry Armstrong) - 
Joseph L.t (b. 1865 - m. Dora Hevener). 

C-5* of John E. - 

William - Ella C. (m. Byron A. Beverage) - Blanche - Matie - 

C-5* of JOSEPH L. - 

Leola M. (b. 1890) - Lottie J. - Grace B. - Mary H. - Dennis M. - 
Harper S. - Audrey L. 

C-3* of JOSEPH. - 

1. Magdalena - b. 1809, D. 1855 - m. Joel Siple. 2. Nancy - m. 
Kee Hively, Pdn.* 3. Samuel - b. 1811, D. 1878 - m. Christina Michael, 
Aug. - W. Va. 1855. 4. Margaret - m. C. Wesley Wilson. 5. Mahala - 
b. 1815 - m. George Siple. 6. Jane B. - m. John Armstrong. 7. John. 
8. Joseph - b. 1821, D. 1882 - m. Mahala Armstrong. 9. Sarah - s. - 
D. 1905. 10. George - b. 1825 - m. Lucinda B. Armstrong, 1849. 11. 
William - b. 1827, D. 1905 - m. Elizabeth C. Sanger, Aug., 1856. 12. 
Amanda - s. 13. Clarissa - b. 1836. 

C-4 of Joseph. - 

1. Granville A. - m. Laura Armstrong - Pdn. 2. Hettie. 

C-4 of GEORGE. - 

1. Sarah - s. 2. Jared A.t - b. 1865 - m. Rebecca Judy, Pdn. 3. 
5 others - dy. 

C-4* of WILLIAM. - 

Susan J. - dy. 9. Joseph H. - b. 1864 - m. Estelle Wilson. John 
T. - m. Mary Siron. Lydia F. - b. 1869, D. 1905 - m. J— M. Jones. 
George D. - m. Flora Anderson. Lucinda B. - m. Josiah Armstrong. 
Martin S. - m. Belle Neff, Aug. David K. - m. Millie M. Siple. 

C-3* of HARMON. - 

1. Josiah - b. 1807, D. 1862 - m. 1. Lydia Siple, 2. Hannah Rex- 
rode. 2. Benjamin - b. 1809 - m. 1. Mary Seybert, 2. Mary A. Hansel, 
1861. 3. John - D. 1876 - m. 1. Margaret Seybert, 2. Mary J. Gray. 
4. Martha - m. Samuel C. Eagle. 5. Lucinda - m. Henry Seybert. 6. 
William - b. 1822, D. 1862 - m. Katharine Kee. 7. Elizabeth M. - D. 
1900 - m. John Bird. 

C-4 of Josiah. - (all away) - (by 1.) 

Lucy - Sarah - (by 2) Thomas J. - Josiah (teacher in Business 
College, Ky.). 

History of Highland County 301 

C-4* of BENJAMIN. - (by 1.) 

Jemima - s. Margaret - b. 1838 - m. John H. Hansel. Harmon - 
m. Louisa F. Harrison, Surry. J. Ridgley - s. John J. - b. 1854 - m. 
Margaret J. Jones, 1877 - Staunton, (by 2) Mary - Helen - Eliza- 
beth - Bertie - Lucy - William. 

C-5* of Harmon. - 

1. Benjamin H. - m. Maud McClung - attorney - Pdn. - C-6 - 
Ralph M. - Helen R. 2. Arthur R. m. Elizabeth J. Saunders, Pdn.* - 
C-6 - Mabel R - May L. - Frank S. 3. Beatrice - m. William M. 
Boggs, Pdn.* 4. Mary L. - m. Dr. W. W. Monroe. 5. Louie E. 

C-4* of JOHN. - (by 1.) 

Mary (m. John C. Saunders) - (by 2) - all in Aug. James K. P. - 
Jemima - Amelia - Carrie - Robert E. L. (m. A — M. Wimer, 1887) - 

C-4 of WILLIAM. - 

Eskridge (b. 1848 - m. - - in Fauquier) - Oliver M. (m. Hester 
Hiner - Fauquier) - James M. (m. in Aug.*) - Harmon (m. Ella 
Kile - Kas.) - Margaret (m. William Vint). 

C-3* of ALEXANDER B. - 

1. John - b. 1810, D. 1890 - m. 1. Rachel Gwin, 1841, 2. Mary J. 
McGlaughlin, 1863. 2. Samuel - m. Susan Jones. 3. William - b. 
1813 - m. 1. Eliza Malcomb, 2. Mary A. Doyle, 1860. 4. Joseph B. - 
b. 1815, D. 1901 - m. Ruth Jones. 5. Bennett - m. Lydia Wilson - n. c. 
6. Harmon A. - m. Martha A. Moyers - D.* '61. 7. Elizabeth A. - m. 
James^Bird. 9. Frances - s. 10. .William H. - m. Julia._A~ Bird, 1869. 

C-4* of John. - (by 1.) 

1. Almira - b. 1842 - m. John C. Pruitt. 2. James P.t - b. 1844 - 
m. Berdicia J. Mick, E. Va. 3. Harden A. - k. by tree, 1866c. 4. Ben- 
jamin F.t - b. 1848 - m. Mary E. Townsend, 1871. 

C-5* of James P. - 

Asbury W. (m. Linnie McGlaughlin) - M. Rosa (d.) - Georgi- 
anna (d.) - Susan A. (m. Peter K. Kramer - W. Va.) - Edward (dy.) - 
Josephus (m. Edith Ruckman) - Patrick R. (m. Bertha L. Gutshall, 
1906) - John B. (d.) - Minnie E. (m. Hamilton Burns) - William C. - 
James E. - Lloyd W. 

C-5* of BENJAMIN F. - 

Sarah E. - Jerusha A. (m. David M. Gutshall, 1897) - David H. 
A. - Charles W. (d. 19) - Laverna J. (dy.) - Stella J. - Henry T. (b. 

C-4* of WILLIAM. - (by 1.) 

Harmon A. (k. '62*) - John (k.* '61) - Uriah B. (b. 1845 - m. 
Sarah V. Pullin, 1867 - Poca. - D.) - Sylvanus B. (m. — Jack, Bath - 
Estelle Howdershelt, 1885) (by 2) James A.t (m. Lillie J. Folks, 
1884) - inf. (dy.) - Mary E. (m. Henry McAllister) - Alvira M. (k. by 
a swing). 

302 History of Highland County 

C-5 of Sylvanus B. - 


C-5* of JAMES A. - 

Edward C. - Forrest A. - Lottie M. (m. Floyd Corbett) - Ada- 
line E. 

C-4* of JOSEPH B. - 

Harriet B. (m. 1. Henry I. Trimble, 2. Aaron Ryder, Poca.) - Gid- 
eon J.t (b. 1846 - m. Frances A. Lowman, Rkm., 1872) - J. Letcherf 
(m. Jane Williams, Pdn.) - Henry (s. - D. 41) - Joseph A.t (b. 1857 - 
m. Lucy E. Rexrode, 1882) - James O. (m. Nancy J. Sipe, 1889 - Poca.) 

C-5* of Gideon J. - 

1. David G. - m. Grace Varner - D. - C-6 - Marvel F. - Owen G. 
2. Tate H. - m. Bertie Gum - Barbour - C-6 - Virginia. 3. G. Jesse. 
4. Mackey C. - dy. 5. Elsie H. 

C-5* of J. LETCHER. - 

Clyde - Clarence - Connell - Ruth (dy.) - Grace - Florence 
(dy.) - Dewey. 

C-5* of JOSEPH A. - 

5 (dy.) - Vernie - Ettie - John - William - Rhoda - Howard. 

C-5* of JAMES O. - 

Henry - Sula - Clara - 2 (dy.) - Marvin - Russell - Madeline. 

C-5 of WILLIAM H.t - 

Frederick C. (b. 1872 - m. Mary L. Wade, 1892 - Poca.) - Ellett 
B. (m. Martha S. Woods, 1898) - Henry M. (m. Cora E. Wade, 1897, 
Poca.) - William V. (m. Grace C. Wade, 1904 - Poca.) - Elizabeth - 
Lucy - Early - 3 others (dy.). 

Alexander (s.), who lived in Penna., was a bro. to John (1). 
Misc. - 

1. Martha A. - b. 1834 - m. Charles A. Hamilton, 1866. 

2. Annie E. - m. R. Bernard Slaven, 1898. 

3. Robert R. - m. Mary J. Bishop, 1897 - b. 1838 - away. 

4. B— J. - m. Annie J. McNulty, 1908 - Pdn. 
Hodge. John - b. 1775c - (w. — ) - C-2. - 

1. William - b. 1806 - m. Jane Ham. 2. Thomas - s. 3. Jere- 
miah - m. Mary Armstrong - Ritchie. 4. John - m. Harriet Hook - 
E. Va. 5. Sarah - m. James Smallridge, 1829. 6. Margaret - m. 
William H. Fox, 1836. 

C-3* of William. - 

1. James H.t - b. 1827 - m. Elizabeth A. Eckard, Pdn. 2. Mary - 
b. 1833 - m. Robert McCray. 

C-4* of James. - 

George H. (m. Martha J. Todd, 1877) - Abraham (m. in 111.*) - 
Bryson (m. in 111.*) - William A.t (m. Louisa Simmons) - Martinf (m. 
Hanna F. Simmons. Pdn., 1907) - Sarah J. (m. Solomon Brown, Poca.*). 

History of Highland County 303 

Misc. - 

1. John - m. Mary Devericks. 

2. Stephen (w. — ). 

3. Jeremiah - m. Rachel Morton, 1811. 
Hook. Robert S. - m. Mary Ervine - C-2.* - 

1. Harriet - m. John Hodge. 2. Eliza J. - m. John Bradshaw. 
3. Rebecca R. - m. James W. Blagg. 4. Joseph W. - d. 5. George - 
m. Margaret Gwin - 1 son (d.). 6. Benjamin T. - b. 1826, D. 1911 - 
m. Nancy A. Armstrong. 7. John M. - m. Dorothy E. Edmond.t 8. 
Robert N. - m. Susan Ervine. 

C-3* of Benjamin T. - 

1. Robert J. - m. Louisa J. Leach, 1879 - D. 2. George W.t - m. 
Phoebe Todd, Fdn. 3. Sarah V. - s. 4. Lucy A. - m. E. K. D. Curtis, 
Rkm., 1884. 5. Albert - m. in Aug.* 

C-4 of Robert J. - 

Lucy M. - m. Jacob C. Armstrong, 1906. 

C-3* of JOHN M. - 

1. Jane - m. James Ralston. 2. Samantha A. - m. Daniel Ralston. 

3. Rachel - m. Jacob L. Fisher, Aug., 1872. 4. Thomas G. - m. Cath- 
arine Beathe - Aug. 5. Lemuel - b. 1856 - m. Catharine M. Beathe, 
1878. 6. Rebecca E. - m. James H. R. Cobb - Okla. 7. John - m. in 
Cal.* 8. Lillie - s. 9. George - m. in Poca.* 10. Andrew J.t - m. 
Esther Howdershelt, Poca.,* 1886. 

C-3* of ROBERT N. - 

1. James T. - b. 1858 - m. Sarah M. Simmons, 1887. 2. Rebecca 
J. - m. David Williams, Wis.* 3. Eldridge V. - m. Hildah V. Dev- 
ericks, 1890. 4. Emory S. - m. in Albemarle.* 5. Minnie - m. Arthur 
Propst. 6. Ella V. - dy. 12. 

Misc. - 

1. Margaret - b. 1826 - m. James S. Hupman, 1859. 

2. Eliza - m. Samuel Ralston, 1841. 

3. Joseph - m. Hannah Wilson, 1820. 

Houlihan. Michaelf - b. 1842 - m. Malinda F. Dever, 1869 - C-2. - 
1. John - m. Elizabeth Fenton, 111.? 2. Charles P.f 3. Emmett. 

4. Kate - m. John Sipe. 5. Grace - m. Charles Doyle - D. 6. Mar- 
garet - d. 10. 

Hull. Peter (w. — ) - D. 1776 - C-2. - 

1. Peter - m. Barbara Keith - D. 1818. 2. Adam - m. Esther 
Keister, Pdn. - D. 1836. 3. William. 4. Gxflrgf , (w _) _ G'brier. 

5. Henry (w. — ). 6. Mary - m. Abraham Burner. 7. Margaret - m. 
Adam Arbogast. 8. Catharine - m. Peter Zickafoose. 9. David. 10 
John. 11. girl. 12. girl. 

C-3* of Peter. - 

1. Henry - Pdn. 2. Peter - b. 1783, D. 1854 - m. Rachel Renick, 
Aug. 3. Susanna - m. Thomas Kinkead - D. 1816. 4. Barbara - m. 

304 History of Highland County 

John Sitlington, 1806. 5. Adam - m. Elizabeth Hevener, 1812 - W. 
6. Jacob - m. Jane D. 1808. 7. Elizabeth - m. William Harvey. 

C-4 of Peter. - 

1. George W. - m. Sarah A. Swope, Aug. - D. 1862. 2. Felix H. - 
m. Eliza Mathews, Poca. - D. 1862. 3. Peter K. - m. — Houston - 
physician - O. 4. Margaret A. - m. James Brown, Albemarle - 111. 

C-5* of George W. - 

1. Qeorge W. S. - m. Mary Dever - Cal.* 2. William R. - m. 
Virginia Wilson, Aug. - D. 

C-6 of George W. S. - 

Clarence - Georgia - Fayette - Howard - Bonnie. 

C-6* of WILLIAM R. - 

1. Lena T. - m. Dr. William J. Green - Seattle. 2. Renick W. - 
m. Lola Ralston. 

C-4 of JACOB. - 

Henry J. - Mary J. - Welton. 

C-3 of ADAM. - 

1. Sarah - b. 1792, D. 1881 - m. Benjamin Fleisher. 2. Peter A. - 
b. 1794, D. 1838 - m. Rachel Crawford, Poca. 3. Frederick K. - m. 
1. Amelia Wilson, 2. Julia Whitelaw. 4. Jacob - b. 1806, D. 1861 - m. 
Mahala Hoover, Pdn. - n. c. 5. Catharine - m. Jacob Hidy. 6. 
Susan - m. John Long, Rph.* 7. Hannah - m. Adonijah Ward, Rph.,* 
1814. 8. John - m. Margaret M. Warwick, 1821. 9. Hester - m. Rob- 
ert Warwick, 1821. 10. Elizabeth - m. Jacob Warwick. 

C-4* of Peter A. - 

1. James P. - m. Mahala Armstrong - Upshur - D. 86. 2. John 
P. - m. Elizabeth Hevener - Lewis. 3. Rebecca A. - m. James Tall- 
man, Poca.* 4. Martha I. - m. Thomas J. Glenn, Va., 1855. 5. Wil- 
liam B. - m. Mary Hoover - D. 80. 6. Matthew H. - b. 1825, D. 
1911 - m. Annie Rexrode. 7. Crawford A. - m. 1. Elizabeth Phillips, 
Poca., 2. Mary Crist, G'brier - Tex. 8. Nancy E. - m. Cyrus Tallman, 
Poca. - Kas. 9. Mary A. - b. 1833 - m. John E. Sipe. 10. Adam L. - 
m. Susan Davis, Tnd. - Colo. 

C-5* of Matthew H. - 

1. Jacob N.f - b. 1846 - m. Eliza J. Rexrode. 2. William C.t - 
b. 1847 - m. 1. Minnie A. Rexrode, 2. Sarah Keplinger, Grant. 3. 
Charles C.f - twin to Wm. C. - m. Sarah C. Layman, Grant. 4. Cyrus 
S.t - b. 1850 - m. Eunice E. Rexrode, 1874. 5. John A. - dy. 

C-6* of Jacob N. - 

Minnie A. (s.) - Ida J. (b. 1871 - m. Samuel Berry, Rkm., 1902) - 
John H. (m. Camilla Auvil, Tucker - D. 22) - Harriet M. (m. Wal- 
lace D. Faurote, Ind.) - James I. (m. Frances Dickson, 1909) - Wil- 
liam F. - Elzada B. (m. Alva G. Wine, Rkm., 1901) - Annis K. (m. 
Benford Soule, Rkm.) - Homer T. - Harrison M. - Hubert H. - 
Emma E. - Ethel W. 

History of Highland County 305 

C-6* of WILLIAM C. - (by 1.) 

Charles A. (b. 1877 - m. L— H. Whitelaw, 1896) - (by 2) Nora 
(d.) - Wilber (d.) - Myrtle (m. Frank Strother) - Frances - Albert. 

C-6* of CHARLES C. - 

Cornelia (dy.) - Cora (m. James Markwood) - Stella (m. Charles 
Rexrode) - Emma (m. Charles Nine, Grant*) - Rosa (m. John Reel, 
Grant*) - William - Lucy (m. Roy Nordeck, Monongalia*) - Arley - 
Elsie - boy (dy.). 

C-6* of CYRUS S. - 

Elza P. (m. Jessie H. Wimer, 1899) - Nettie (dy.) - William G. 
(m. Stella F. Stover) - Daisy (dy.) - Robert L. - Eve P. - Edward H. 

C-5 of CRAWFORD A. - 

1. Mary E. - m. Andrew W. Beverage, 1879. 2. Kirby S. - m. 
Emma P. Wiley, 1889 - Tex. 

C-4* of FREDERICK K. - (by 1.) 

1. John W. - b. 1838 - m. Sarah Seybert, 1866 - Kas. 2. Joseph - 
b. 1839 - m. Amanda J. Beverage, 1868. 3. Morgan, (by 2) 4. Luella 
V. - b. 1859 - m. Edward A. Dudley, Aug.* 

C-5 of John W. - 

Mary (m. — Fleisher, Kas.) 

C-5* of JOSEPH. - 

Edward R.t (b. 1871 - m. Harriet Rexrode, 1896) - Luther C.f 
(m. Artie Rexrode, 1895) - William F.f (m. Maud Mullenax) - James 
W.t (m. Lottie Rexrode) - George F. (m. Mary Sale, Roanoke - 
Poca.) - Lucy A. (m. George H. Brock) - Allie P. (m. Annie F. Eye, 
1909) - Ernest V. (m. Theodosia Morrison, Upshur - Poca.) - Thomas 
R. - Kenton J.f (m. Mattie J. Hevener, 1910). 

C-4 of JOHN. - 

1. Warwick - s. 2. Sarah - s. 3. Nancy - m. Peter H. Hull. 4. 
Margaret - m. Christopher Wallace. 5. Robert - m. in W. Va. 6. 
Andrew - m. in Rkm.* 7. Irene E. - b. 1844, D. 1892 - m. James A. 
Fleisher, 1868. 

C-3 of GEORGE. - 

1. Elizabeth - m. David Bird, 1806. 2. Rachel - m. Joseph Smith, 
1812. 3.? George - m. Mary A. Smith, 1812. 

Misc. - 

1. Hannah - m. George Perkins, 1821. 

2. Samuel B. - b. before 1806. 

Hupxnan. Peter - m. Mary Steuart, 1821 - C-2.* - 
1. Jacob - m. Martha Benson. 2. James S. - b. 1826 - m. 1. Mar- 
garet Gwin Hook, 1859, 2. Hester H. Kincaid, 1866. 3. Jane - m. 
James Shreve - Fayette. 4. Esteline - m. John Fauber, Aug.* 5. 
Robert - m. Lucy A. Schouler, Spottsylvania, 1876. 6. John - m. 
Louisa Hupman - D.* '61. 7. Martha - m. Charles Gwin. 8. Peter 
H.f - b. 1842 - m. Anne B. Wilson, 1869. 

306 History of Highland County 

C-3 of Jacob. - 

George H. (b. 1847 - m. Sarah A. Swadley Lunsford, 1886) - 
Mary A. (m. Warwick C. Kincaid, 1881) - John H. (m. Cynthia 
Rowe - W. Va.) - Sarah B. (m. Edward Kimblef from N. C, 1870c) - 
Margaret (m. 1. Samuel Wilson, 2. Newton Freel - W. Va.). 

C-4 of George H. - 

Elizabeth E. (m. Robert J. Armstrong). 

C-3* of JAMES S. - 

Peter V.f (b. 1868 - m. Lola B. Ervine, 1894) - Emma V. - John 
L. - Mary E. (m. Archibald S. Graham). 

C-3* of ROBERT. - 

Martha H. (d.) - Stephen W.t (m. Daisy Bright Armstrong) - 
Mary V. - Emma V. (m. James Armstrong) - Hannah M. - Sarah A. - 
Newton B. 

C-3* of JOHN. - 

Mary S. - George L.t (b. 1861 - m. Rebecca J. Gwin, 1883). 

C-3* of PETER H. - 

Lillie A. (d.) - Charles A.t (b. 1872 - m. Nora B. Devericks, 
1894) - William A. (dy.) - Cammie (dy.) - Edda B. (m. William 
Schmidt, Aug.*) - Ora H. (m. William Beath) - Kennie B. - Sarah 
A. (m. Edward Armstrong, 1904) - John F. (m. Elizabeth H. Kincaid, 

Jack. John - b. 1790, D. 1861 - m. Sarah Beverage, 1813 - C-2.* - 

1. Margaret G. - s. 2. Jacob K. - s. 3. David C. - m. Mary 
Hoover, 1839 - away. 4. Eva B. - d. 5. John - m. Hester Nicholas, 
1843 - Oregon. 6. Anne - m. Edward Vossler, Germany - Grant. 7. 
Solomon - U. S. A. - unkn. 8. Martin M.t - b. 1827 - m. Sarah V. 
Gum, 1867. 9. Magdalena - m. Solomon Radabaugh, Grant.* 10. 
Levi S. - m. 1. Mary E. Kugler, Rkm., 2. Emma Pullin, 1884 - Poca. 
11. Susan F. - b. 1832 - m. Andrew J. Beverage, 1872. 12. Barbar - s. 

C-3 of David C. - 

Susanna (m. Wesley Rexrode) - Cain (D. 62c*) - Jacob (s.) - 
Harmon (D. '62c*) - Martin (m. in W. Va.) - Sarah E. (m. Martin 
M. Armstrong, 1878). 

C-3* of MARTIN M. - 

1. Martha E. - b. 1868 - m. Reuben D. Folks. 2. John S.f - m. 
Lula J. Hildebrand, 1898 - C-4 - Robert M. 

Misc. - 

1. Jacob - m. Esther Siron, 1820 - bro. to John (1). 

2. Thomas - m. Frances Hoover, 1837. 

3. Nancy - m. Robert Dixon, 1879. 
Johns. Isaac (w. — ) - D. 1797 - C-2. - 

1. William - m. Sarah Wood, 1786 - D. 1805. 2. Sarah - m. Ed- 
ward Morton. 3. James - m. Rebecca Wood, 1793. 4. Jeremiah - m. 
Elizabeth Douglas. 5. Isaac (w. — ). 6. John - m. Delia Vint, Pdn. 

History of Highland County 307 

C-3 of William. - 

1. Martha (m. James Wood, 1811) - 2. William (m. — Wilson, 
1819) - 3. James (m. Sarah Bodkin, 1823) - 4. Isaac (m. Anne Dever- 
icks, 1823 - 111.*) - 5. Elizabeth (m. William Church, 1828) - 6. Mary 
(m. James Hodge) - 7. Sarah (m. James Douglas, 1829) - 8. Zach- 
ariah (m. Jane Fitch - W. Va.) - 9. Edward (s.). 

C-4 of James. - 

Mary A. (m. in Monroe*) - Phoebe J. (m. Thomas J. Meadows). 

C-4* of WILLIAM. - 

1. William (w. — ). 2. Samuel - b. 1827 - m. 1. Sarah Campbell, 
2. Margaret Chew, 1854. 3. David - m. Cynthia A. Vint - k.* '61. 
4. Jeremiah W.f - b. 1835 - m. 1. Anna Smith, 2. Laura R. Hicklin, 
1892, 3. Mary E. McCoy, 1907. 5. Margaret A. - m. David Gwin. 6. 
Matilda - m. David Long. 

C-5* of Jeremiah W. - (by 1.) 

William H. - m. in 111.* Brashnet - m. in 111.* Robert H. - m. 
Melissa Steuart, 1882 - Albemarle. Jacob W. - m. in 111.* Susan - 
m. Felix Kincaid. (By 2) Ira W. 

C-3 of JAMES. - (all went W.) 

Joshua - William (m. Angeline Vint, 1841) - James - Sarah - 

C-3 of JEREMIAH. - 

Harvey (m. Mary E. Beverage, 1817) - Sarah (m. James Mc- 
Mullin, 1830) - Isabella (m. Thomas Killingsworth, 1847). 

C-3 of ISAAC. - 

William - James - Mary - Jeremiah (m. Jane Fitzpatrick, 1827). 

C-3 of JOHN. - 

Lucinda (b. 1827 - m. William Burns, 1863). 

Jones. (A) Henry - m. 1. — Tinsley, N. Y., 2. Emily J. Carlile, 
Hid., 3. — Seybert - k. by wagon, 1807c - C-2. (by 2.) 

1. Margaret - b. 1774, D. 1853 - m. Benjamin McCoy, 1799. 2. 
John - m. 1. - -, 2. Martha Wright, Aug.* - n. c. 3. Joseph (w. — ) - 
W. 4. Virginia - m. Abraham Blagg. 5. Thomas - b. 1786, D. 1853 - 
m. Mary A. Euritt, Aug. - Pdn. 6. Junius - m. Priscilla Blagg - O. 
7. Henry - m. Hannah Hinkle, 1821 - Ky. 8. Samuel - m. Margaret 
Malcolm, 1827 - Braxton. 9. Hannah - m. Henry Fleisher, 1817. 

C-3 of Thomas. - 

1. John M. - b. 1811, D. 1888 - m. Phoebe J. Dice, Pdn.,* 1842. 
2. Decatur H. - m. Jane Ervine, 1837. 3. Andrew J. - m. Jane Arm- 
strong, 1841. 4. Samuel - m. Mary A. Ervine, 1844. 5. Henry C. - 
m. Victoria Armstrong. 6. Mary A. - d. 7. Margaret - m. Thomas J. 
Hartman, Pdn. 

C-4* of John M. - 

1. Charles P.f - b. 1845 - m. Martha J. Wilson, 1872 - attorney - 
Mry. 2. Mary H. - m. James W. Johnson, Pdn.* 3. Jane A. - m. 

308 History of Highland County 

John W. Wilson. 4. Hannah C. - m. Isaac C. Johnson, Pdn.* 5. 
Thomas O. - m. Frances O. Conrad, Rkm.* 6. John C. - m. 1. Ada 
Gibson, 2. Frances Ball - Loudoun. 7. Margaret M. - m. Asbury R. 
Smith - Poca. 8. Sarah D. - s. 

C-5* of Charles P. - 

1. Margaret W. 2. Charles P. - b. 1875 - m. Anne Lear, 1905. 
3. Edwin B.f - m. I. Jeanntte Turner, 1906 - C-6 - Edwin B. - Ralph 
T. - Charles P. and John S. (twins) - attorney - Mry. 4. Phoebe D. - 
m. Frank Wilson, 1907. 5. Thomas R. - 6. Mabel H. - 7. Richard C. - 

8. Martha V. - 9. John M. - 10. Mary E. 

C-4* of DECATUR H. - 

1. John W. - D. '61. 2. Thomas C. - s. - D. 1910. 3. Mary A. - 
m. Robert D. Leach. 4. Frances J. - s. -D. 1911. 5. William H. - 
m. — Siple - n. c. 6. Susan - d. 7. Nancy - s. 8. Martha V. - s. 

9. Samuel A.t - s. 

C-4* of ANDREW J. - 

1. Henry H.t - b. 1842 - m. Jemima J. Eagle, 1867 - physician - 
D Hill. 2. inf. - dy. 3. Thomas M. - d. 1862c. 4. Jared A. - b. 1847, 
D. 1910 - m. Isabella E. Fleming, 1873. 5. Mary M. - d. 14c. 6. Eliza- 
beth J. - d. 1862c. 7. William A.t - b. 1853 - m. Margaret H. Sey- 
bert, 1881. 8. Alfred H.f - b. 1856 - m. Emma C. Eagle, 1891. 9. 
Martha J. - s. 10. Signora - m. Dr. J. Luther Sheppe. 11. Edward 
J. - D. 1910. 

C-5* of Henry H. - 

1. Cora E. - m. Harry Moore - W. Va. 2. Arley - m. Ann Shan- 
ahan - physician - Covington. 3. Elva G. - m. Sydney Wilson - 
Columbus, O. 4. Elizabeth - m. M. Ernest Hansel. 5. Samuel A. - 
D. 6. Martha O. - dy. 7. Emma G. 

C-5* of JARED A. - 

1. Clarence C. - m. W. Vera Chenoweth, Md., 1901 - physician, 
Staunton. 2. Andrew L.t - m. Katharine C. Bird, Aug., 1910 - attor- 
ney - Mry. 3. Mary W. - twin to Andrew L. 4. Margaret L. 5. 
William F.t - m. Janetta W. Kerr, Aug., 1898. 6. Robert A. 

C-5* of WILLIAM A. - 

Jemima J. (m. L. Webb Shoulder, R'bridge) - Alpheus S. - Mary 
H. (teacher) - Louie E. - Laura L. 

Jones. (B) James H. - m. 1. - -, 2. Mary — , 1808 - C-2. - 

1. Isaac. 2. James - m. Peninah Jordan, 1823. 3. Joseph - m. 
Sarah Trimble - D. 1860c. 4. Henry - m. Lucinda Hiner, 1814 - 
Tex., 1825c. 5. John - s. - Tex., 1825c. 6. Mary - m. Sebastian 
Hoover, 1811. 

C-3 of Joseph. - 

1. John - m. Mary S. Fleisher. 2. James - m. Mary A. Blagg, 
1839 - Braxton. 3. Henry - m. Sarah Eagle, 1840 - Upshur. 4. Jo- 
seph - m. in W. Va.* 5. Ruth - m. Joseph B. Hiner - D. 1888. 6. 

History of Highland County 309 

Susan - m. Samuel Hiner, 1841. 7. Sarah - m. Andrew H. Masters. 
8. Margaret - m. Samuel H. Blagg. 

C-4 of James. - 

Joseph M. (b. 1842 - m. Aretta L. Pullin, 1867) - Frances M. (m. 
Melville H. Pullin, 1866) - John (m. Louisa Pullin) - Marshall (m. 
Dora Pullin). 

C-4* of JOHN. - 

Thomas J.t (m. Susan Simmons) - Margaret (m. Robert Mas- 
ters) - Josephf (m. Sarah A. Fisher, Aug.) - Alcinda (m. in 111.*) - 
Peninah (m. John L. Lukens - Pdn.) - Susan A. (b. 1845 - m. El- 
dridge V. Wilson) - Taylor (unkn.) - Nicholas (m. in 111.). 

C-5 of Thomas J. - 

Mary - Thomas - Ellen - Sarah - Lucy - James - Charles - 

C-5* of JOSEPH. - 

John A. (b. 1867, D. - m. Emma J. Ralston, 1888) - Robert N. 
(s.) - William B. (m. Maud M. Carroll, Tenn.*) - 4 others (dy.). 

Misc. - 

1. Thomas - m. Mary Beverage, 1799. 

2. Susanna - m. Isaac Rexrode, 1800. 

3. Rachel - m. Jacob Reintzel, 1805. 

4. Elizabeth - b. 1798c - m.? Silas Blaine, 1812. 

5. Helena - m. Nicholas Seybert, 1824. 

6. Henry - m. Sarah Eagle, 1840. 

7. Asenath - m. Samuel Wilson, 1829. 

Jordan. (1) William (w. Mary) - h'd of CP, 1768-17%. 

(1) John - BP Mtn, 1766. 

The above were probably bros. It seems impossible to distin- 
guish their offspring. 

Misc. - 

(A) John - b. 1770c, D. 1851c - m. Mary A. Jordan (cousin) - C-3. - 

1. Andrew - b. 1799, D. 1861 - m. Sarah Arbogast, 1834 - Lewis. 
2. William - b. 1804 - m. Susanna Siever - Pdn. 3. Harvey M. - m. 
Mary A. Dever - came to' Hid. 1866c. 4. Thomas - m. — Layne, 
Bath - Mo., 1860c. 5. John - m.? Frances Propst, 1837 - Lewis? 6. 
James - m. Sarah Johnston, 1837 - Lewis? 7. Samson - m. - -. 8. 
Elizabeth - m. — Murphy. 9. Jane - m.? — Wilson. 10. Rachel - m. 
Jesse Lambert, Pdn.* 

C-4* of Harvey M. - 

1. John W. - m. Armena A. Gwin, 1867 - D. - C-5 - 5. 2. Mar- 
garetf - s. 3. Mary M. - m. William Lightner. 4. Hugh A. - m. 1. 
Emma Gibson, 2. Rachel A. Pruitt - Poca. 5. Frank - dy. 6. Ma- 
lindaf - s. 7. Sarah C. - dy. 

C-4* of ANDREW. - 

Elizabeth A. (b. 1837 - m. 1. McBride Gum, Poca., 2. Adam Peck - 

310 History of Highland County 

Mo.) - Lavina (m. William Taylor) - George W. (m. in Lewis*) - 
Samuel B.f (b. 1850 - m. 1. L. Jennie Arbogast, 1877, 2. Sarah E. 
Chew, 1887) - Mary E. (m. in Lewis - Harrison) - Benjamin A. (m. 
1. Rebecca Burnside, 2. Mary Bennett Jordan). 

C-5* of Samuel B. - 

Claude - William - Emmett W. - Sudie L. 

(B) Andrew - bro. to John (A) - m. Lettie C-3. - 

William - John - Andrew - Elizabeth - Isabel - Lettie. 

(C) William - m. Lottie Bodkin - D. 1822 - C-3 - Barbara A. 
(m. Peter Smith, 1830). 

(D) William - m. Anne Canary, 1804. 

(E) Jacob - b. 1816, D. 1891 - m. Matilda Lantz, 1840 - C-4 - (all 
in W. except Luvenia A.) 

William H. - Luvenia A. (b. 1842 - m. William Hevener) - Eph- 
raim C. - Mary E. - Jonas N. - James M. - Andrew B. - Ellender V. - 
Henry V. - Henry F. - Sarah (dy.). 

Kelly. William - m. Marah Shively, 1812 - C-2. - 

1. Ann. 2. David - m. Jane Davis - Bath. 3. Mary. 

Misc. - 

(A) C-3 of — . - 

1. Andrew J. - m. Louisa Ratliff, 1865 - Aug. - C-4 - Frances A. 
(m. Elijah S. Samples, 1889). 2. Harriet D. - m. Given Ratliff, 1867. 
3. Mary. 4. John F.f - m. Florinda J. Griffen, 1873. 5. Henry. 6. 
Martha - m. George Harris, Ireland - D. 

C-4 of John F. - 

Harmie (m. Lena Robertson, 1906) - Ruhama (m. L — Price) - 
Cordelia (m. J. Robert Sprouset - Aug.) - Rosa (m. Early Lamb) - 
Mary - Margaret - W. Allen (m. Elizabeth Sprouse - away) - How- 
ard - Otis. 

(B) C-3 of — . - 

John - James - Mary A. (d.). 

Killingsworth. Richard (w. — ) - C-2. - 

1. William (w. — ). 

C-3 of William. - 

1. Thomas - m. Isabelle Johns, 1846. 2. John - m. Jane Dalton - 
Upshur. 3. Richard. 4. William. 5. James. 6. Simeon. 7. Mary - 
m. Samuel Smith - Fayette. 

C-4 of Thomas. - 

Susan E. (m. Alfred Hatcher, Rkm., 1879) - Rebecca J. (m. Henry 
McCrea, 1882) - Margaret (m. George E. Bodkin, Aug., 1894) - Julian 
(reared). t 

Kinkead. Thomas - m. Susanna Hull - D. 1844 - C-2.* - 

1. Ann - m. Benjamin Pendleton. 2. Margaret J. - m. John Wat- 
son. 3. Peter H. - b. 1802, D. 1880 - m. Nancy J. Hull, 1855. 4. John 

History of Highland County 311 

J. _ s . _ D. 1853. 5. William P. - b. 1818 - m. 1. Hannah B. Wilson, 
1839, 2. Grace Mauzy, 1862, 3. Elizabeth C. Swadley. 

C-3* of Peter H. - 

1. Felix H. H. - b. 1856, D. 1881. 2. Ida M. - m. Samuel W. Ster- 
rett, 1878. 

C-3* of WILLIAM P. - (by 1.) 

1. Elizabeth - dy. 9. 2. Susan J. - b. 1840 - m. Adam F. Gum. 

3. Louisa - m. James Newman, (by 2) 4. Mary - m. 1. William G. 
Arbogast, 1881, 2. Warwick J. Collins, G'brier.* 5. John J.t - b. 1866 - 
m. Carrie F. Rexrode, 1890. 6. Grace M. - m. William Mullenax. 

C-4* of John J. - 

Reed - Josephine - Marshall - Thomas - Helen - Glenn - Sterl. 

Kramer. Conrad - m. 1. - -, Aug., 2. Barbara Hoover - C-2. - 

(by 1.) 

1. Anthony - m. in W.* 2. Philip - m. Ann Malcomb - W. Va. 
(by 2) 3. John K. - m. 1. — Payne, Tex., 2. Sarah Arbogast - Poca. 

4. J. Hull - m. Kate Shrader - Poca. 5. S. A. Normant - m. Margaret 
Fisher. 6. Peter K. - m. Susan A. Hiner - Poca. 7. Lucy - m. New- 
ton Woods. 8. Mary E. - m. James C. Wiley. 

C-3 of John K. - 

Maud (m. W— W. Waybright, 1907.) 

C-3* of S. A. N. - 

Myrl C. (m. Edith Wimer - W. Va.) - Kenton - Eda - John D. - 
Dewey N. - Riba. 

Lamb. John - m. Eliza J. C-2. - 

1. John - m. Mary E. Bright, Pdn. 2. Mary C. - m. Benami Arm- 
strong, 1854. 3. Susan - m. Peter Fleisher, 1831. 4. Elizabeth - m. 
William Lamb, Poca. 5. Peter F. - b. 1836 - m. Palmyra Armstrong, 

C-3 of John. - 

Margaret (m. Noah Whitecotton, 1870). 

C-3 of PETER F. - 

Margaret O. (m. Jesse M. Siron, 1909). 

Lantz. Bernard (w. Mary) - D. 1786 - C-2. - 

1. George (w. Mary) - D. 1802. 2. Joseph - b. 1758c, D. 1818 - 
(w. Susanna). 3. Conrad - b. 1760c - (w. Sarah). 4. Anna - m. Mar- 
tin Life. 5. Elizabeth. 6. Mary. 

C-3 of Joseph. - 

1. Susanna - m. Conrad Crummett, 1794. 2. Mary. 3. Catharine. 
4. Benjamin - m. Jemima Cunningham - D. 1852. 5. Jonas - b. 1787, 
D. 1853 - m. Eleanor Arbogast, 1810. 6. Joseph - m. Phoebe Hinkle, 
Pdn.,* 1811. 7. Barbara - b. 1794, D. 1861 - m. Henry Wagoner. 

C-4 of Benjamin. - 

1. Cyrus (w. — ) - C-5 - William - Charles. 2. George. 3. Dan- 
iel - m. Elizabeth Chew, 1844. 4. Joseph - s. 5. Benjamin - b. 1835 - 

312 History of Highland County 

m. Hannah Lambert, Pdn., 1859. 6. Jemima - s. 7. Mary S. - m. 
Andrew J. Beverage. 

C-5 of Daniel. - 

Reuben D. (b. 1850 - m. Margaret E. Shrader, 1875) - girl (dy.). 

C-6* of Reuben D. - 

Minnie F. (m. William I. Simmons, 1897) - Earlyt - Lee P. - 
Elizabeth M. - Emma L. 

C-4* of JONAS. - 

1. Magdalena - b. 1816 - m. Jacob Jordan, 1840. 2. Eleanor - m. 
in Mo.* 3. Phoebe - m. Amos Wimer. 4. Mary - b. 1822 - m. Am- 
brose Swecker. 5. Susanna - m. Peter Waybright. 6. Ephraim - m. 
Mary Snyder - Mo., 1860c. 7. Eleanor - m. in Mo.* 8. Andrew - m. 
Catharine Hidy - Mo. 9. Margaret E. - m. — Brown - O. 

Misc. - 

1. Nicholas (w. Barbara). 

2. Andrew J. - D. 1863. 

3. Levi (w. Elizabeth). 

4. Margaret - m. Samuel Grogg, 1866. 

5. E — (w. Christina) - C. - Elizabeth M. (b. 1826 - m. Daniel 

Leach. John - m. Margaret Pierson - C-2. - 

1. Abigail - m. Elijah ? Campbell - W. 2. Eleanor - m. Thomas 
Morton. 3. Jane - b. 1795, D. 1869 - m. Thomas Devericks, 1821. 4. 
Elizabeth - m. Jesse Skidmore. 5. Mary - m. Richard Kuykendall, 
Grant. 6. Margaret - s. - W. 7. Letitia - m. John Ratliff - W. Va. 
8. Dorothy - m. George Monroe, 1823. 9. James - m. Sarah Skidmore 
Hyer. 10. John - b. 1803 - m. 1. Jane Summers, 2. Catharine McCray, 
1855. 11. Robert - m. — Ervine. 12. Julia - m. James Monroe, 1823. 

C-3 of James. - 

1. John M. - m. Christina Burns, Bath. 2. Elijah S. - m. 1. Le- 
titia J. Devericks, 2. Cynthia G. Hupman, 1869. 3. Rachel S. -s. 4. 
William M. - m. Frances Devericks - Pdn. 5. Robert D. - m. Mary 
A. Jones. 6. Margaret C. - m. Henry H. Ervine. 7. Sarah A. - twin 
to Margaret C. - m. Eldridge V. Ervine. 8. Samuel W. - dy. 9. Ed- 
ward O. - m. Laomi Simmons - Pdn. 

C-4 of John M. - 

Benjamin F. (m. Malzina Morton - Webster) - James P. (m. — 
Gross - Webster). 

C-4 of ELIJAH S. - (by 1.) 

Louisa J. (m. Jasper Hook) - James W.t (b. 1856 - m. Sarah A. 
Hyer, 1888) - boy (dy.) - (by 2) Ervine (m. Frances Armstrong) - 
Lillie (m. — Watson, Tex. - Aug.). 

C-4 of ROBERT D. - 

John W. (s.) - Mayberry L. (b. 1872 - m. Dorothy B. Gwin, 1904) - 
Alvira V. (s.) - Charles S. (s.) - Alice J. (m. Joseph Whistleman). 

History of Highland County 313 

C-3 of JOHN. - (by 1.) 

Tippecanoe (k.* '61) - Sylvester (s.) - Timothy (D. '61) - Eliza- 
beth V. (m. Robert J. McCray) - Amanda J. (b. 1846 - m. John 
Thomas, W. Va.*) - (by 2) Roxanna (b. 1857 - m. James C. Leach, 
W. Va.) - Ursula (s. - Aug.) - Emily (reared - m. Benami Armstrong). 

C-4 of James C. - 

Virginia C. (m. in 111.*) - Lillie O. (m. Olin Siron - D.) - Joseph 
T. (m. in 111.*) - Sarah C. (m. Granville Armstrong) - Nathan C. - 
James A. - Grover L. - Sylvester - Edward H. - French L. - Jesse P. 

Lightner. 5 sons of William, of Penna., came to this region 
1790c. William was naturalized 1778. 

(A) Peter - m. Annie E. Harper, Pdn., 1796 - C-2. - 

1. Mary - m. Sheldon Clark - W. Va. 2. Phoebe - m. John 
Cleek - Poca. 3. Elizabeth - m. Joseph Sharp, 1818 - Poca. 4. Peter - 
s. 5. Jacob - m. — Moore. 

C-3 of Jacob. - 

1. John M. - m. Susan McGlaughlin - attorney - Poca., later, Tex. 

2. Samuel - m. — Poage. 3. Mary - m. Rev. John W. Hedges. 4. 
Alcinda - m. James Campbell. 5. Alice - s. 

Lightner. (B) Samuel - m. — Sensebaugh - Aug. 

Lightner. (C) Christopher - m. — Zickafoose - Ky. 

Lightner. (D) Adam - m. Susanna Harper, 1798 (sister to Annie 
E.) - C-2. - 

1. John - m. Virginia Moore. 2. Adam - m. Eleanor Slaven - 
D. 75. 3. William - m. Mary D. Hamilton. 4. Peter - b. 1821 - m. 
Rachel Hamilton - Mo. 5. Jacob - b. 1821 - m. Nancy J. Warwick, 
Poca. 6. Sarah - m. Jacob Bible - Poca. 7. Elizabeth - m. 1. Otho 
Gum, 2. Hugh McGlaughlin. 

C-3 of John. - 

1. Rachel - m. John A. McCauley, afterward President of Dicken- 
son College, Penna. - n. c. 2. Susan - m. James Gay. 3. Paul - D. 
1888 - attorney. 4. Elizabeth - m. — Rice. 

C-3 of ADAM. - 

1. John - D. '62.* 2. Samuel - b. 1836 - m. Kate Bird, 1879 - n. c. 

3. William S. - b. 1832 - m. Mary Jordan, 1867. 4. Anthonyt - m. 
Charlotte Lightner, Aug. 5. Isabella M. - m. 1. David Bird, 1862, 2. 
John C. McGlaughlin. 

C-4 of William S. - 

Signora (m. — Trout - Alleg.) - Marietta (m. — Ayres - Manas- 
sas) - Lelia (m. — Monroe - Fauquier) - Samuel ( m. — Westerman - 
Alleg. - 1 son). 

C-4 of ANTHONY. - 

Lucy P. (m. Rev. L. L. Lowance, 1906) - Ada S. (s.) - Adamt 
(m. Lucy Poague). 

314 History of Highland County 

C-5 of Adam. - 

Tate - Poague - John A. 

C-3 of WILLIAM. - 

1. Madora - m. W. T. Lightner, Aug. 2. Alice S. D. - m. John G. 
Gibson, 1861. 3. Charles - m. Allie Lightner. 

C-4 of Charles. - 

Anna M. (m. John Gum) - Austin (m. Florence Wealthy, Poca.*). 

C-3* of JACOB. - 

1. Malcena C. - m. George W. Cleek, Bath.* 2. Virginia R. - rri. 
John G- Wallace, Bath.* 3. Mary E. - m. Peter Gum. 4. John A. - 
m. Myrtle Gum - W. 5. Robert W.t - m. Helena A. Bird, 1877. 6. J. 
Brown - m. Elizabeth Curry. 7. Peter H. - m. Caroline Siple, Poca. - 
G'brier. 8. James C. - m. Theodora G. Gwin - Bath. 9. W — C. - 
D. 35. 10. George W. - dy. 

C-4* of Robert W. - 

Sarah J. (m. Coe Beverage, 1896) - Margaret A. (m. Edward C. 
Beverage) - Georgia E. (m. Mack P. Wade) - Jacob H.t (m. 1. Abbie 
M. Swadley, 1904, 2. Anna F. Dever) - Harry T. - Delana C. 

C-4* of JAMES C. - 

James C. - John K. - Fay M. 

Elizabeth - sister to Peter (1) - m. Joseph Sharp - Poca. 

Lockridge. Andrew (w. Jean) - D. 1791 - C-2. - 

1. John. 2. Elizabeth - m. — Gwin. 3. Margaret - m. George ? 
Henderson. 4. Eleanor - m. — Dinwiddie. 5. Andrew - Rkm.? 6. 
James. 7. William - m. Elizabeth Benson - D. 1798 - C-3 - Jane. 
8. Robert - b. 1775c, D. 1856 - m. Mary Gwin, 1798. 9. Lancelot - m. 
Elizabeth Benson, 1802 - Poca. - C-3 - Jane (m. Edward Callahan, 
1815). 10. Sarah J. - m. David Kincaid, 1800. 11. Rebecca. 

C-3* of Robert. - 

1. David - b. 1799 - m. Mary Kirkpatrick, Bath.* 2. Andrew - m. 
Elizabeth Carlile, 1823 - Bath. 3. George W. - m. in W. - Ky. 4. 
Virginia - m. David Gwin. 5. John - s. - Ky. 6. Robert - b. 1809, 
D. 1855 - m. 1. Rachel Carlile, 1831, 2. Emma Gwin. 7. William - b. 
1811 - m. 1. Susan Burns, Bath, 2. Eliza Hafford Poole, Aug. 8. Mary - 
m. Jacob R. Keister, Pdn. - W. Va. 9. Elizabeth - s. 

C-3* of ANDREW. - (all the sons in Confederate Army.) 

Mary (m. Rev. Stewart Ryder) - Elizabeth (m. Edgar Campbell) - 
Robert (m. in O.*) - A. Jackson (s.) - Agnes (s.) - John W. (m. 
Elizabeth Baldwin) - Cooper (drowned) - Lewis C. (s.) - William 
H. (m. in W. - Col.) - Lanty (in Col.). 

C-4* of Robert. - (by 2.) 

1. Susan R. - b. 1840 - m. John R. Revercomb. 2. Stephen A. - 
m. 1. Laura Ervine, 2. Julia Nottingham Sutton. 3. William - s. 4. 
Mary A. - b. 1849 - m. Jeremiah S. Helms. 5. Ruhama - m. John S. 
Hamilton. 6. Pierce - m. Ella Folks - Bath. 7. David E.t - b. 1856 - 

History of Highland County 315 

m. Susan V. Vance, 1883. 8. George H.f - rn. Adaline H. Kincaid, 
1895 - C-S - J. Robinson. 9. Frances E. - m. George W. Bratton, 
Bath.* 10. John J.f - m. Frances Colaw. 

C-5* of Pierce. - 

David M. (m. Eleanor Mackey) - Stewart - Robert - Howard - 

C-5* of DAVID E. - 

David E.f (m. Elizabeth Bratton, Bath) - Sarah (m. George W. 
Bratton, Bath*). 

C-5 of JOHN. - 

Clifton H. - Myrl G. - James C. - Julian J. - Granite G. 

C-4* of WILLIAM. - 

1. A. Reesef - b. 1852 - m. Amanda Hafford, Aug., 1877. 2. Eliza- 
beth J. - m. George Shaffer. 3. William P. B.t - b. 1857 - m. H. Jane 
Hafford, Aug., 1883. 4. Mary - s. 5. Emma R. - m. 1. Wesley Bev- 
erage, 2. Samuel C. Hevener. 6. George M.f - m. Mary E. Gillett, 1895. 

C-5* of A. Reese. - 

John W. E. (m. Harriet J. Pullin - Bath) - Annie F. - Casper B. 
(dy.) - Kenny C. (m. Etta E. Marshall, Bath*) - James K. (m. Lottie 
M. Hamilton - Aug.) - Edward R. - Abraham I. J. - Andrew L. - 
Pinckney S. - Grover C. (dy.). 

C-5* of WILLIAM P. B. - 

Blanche E. - Carrie E. (m. Daniel D. Atkins, Va. - Washington, 
D. C.) - Leona M. (m. Arley A. Carpenter, Bath, 1907) - Lucius H. - 
Nellie - Emory - William - Mildred - inf. (dy.). 

C-5 of GEORGE M. - 

Margaret - also 2 girls (dy.). 

Lunsford. John - m. Susan Arbogast, 1804 - C-2. - 

1. Lewis - Lewis. 2. William - b. 1813c, D. 1863c - m. Naomi 
Simmons. 3. Margaret - m. Daniel Varner. 4. Nancy - m. Henry 
Beverage, 1833. 

C-3* of William. - 

1. Noah (w. — ) - Poca. 2. Joshuat - b. 1841 - m. Lucinda E. 
Hevener, 1870 - merchant - Mry. 3. Susan - m. — Rexrode, Lewis.* 
4. Phoebe J. - b. 1845 - m. Jacob P. Hevener. 5. Harmon - m. — 
Middleton - Lewis. 6. Naomi - m. George S. Collins, 1882 - G'brier. 
7. William M. - m. Sarah A. Swadley, 1876 - D. 

C-4* of Joshua. - 

1. Cora E. - b. 1873 - m. Albert M. Eastham, 1902. 2. Bertie M. - 
m. Charles W. Trimble. 3. Harry C. - 4. William H.t - m. Helen 
Campbell, 1904. 5. Jacob P. - Wis. 

C-4* of WILLIAM M. - 

1. Charles M.t (m. Abigail Fleisher) - 2. Maud. 

Malcomb. Joseph (w. — ) - son of George, g'son? of John (D. 
1761) - D. 1822- C-2. - 

316 History of Highland County 

1. Robert - b. 1767, D. 1850 - m. 1. Margaret Malcomb, 2. Sarah 
White. 2. Joseph - m. Hannah Wilson, 1821. 3. Samuel - Nicholas. 
4. James - m. — Wilson. 5. William - m. Mary Jordan. 6. John - m. 
Jane Smith, 1825 - D. 1842. 7. Alexander (w. — ). 8. girl - m. James 
Steuart. 9. girl - m. Robert Carlile. 

C-3 of Robert. - 

1. Joseph C. - m. 1. Elizabeth Wilson, 2. Sarah Bowyer, Monroe. 
2. John - m. Rebecca Mowrey. 3. Ferguson S. - b. 1814, D. 1897 - m. 
Margaret M. Jones. 4. Margaret - m. John B. Steuart, 1839. 5. 
Mary - m. 1. William Curry, 2. Joseph Crummett. 6. Jemima - s. 7. 
Rachel A. - m. Francis Curry. 

C-4* of Joseph C. - (by 1.) 

1. Baxter - b. 1833 - m. Margaret C. Bowyer, Monroe, 1869 - 111. 
2. Martin V.f - b. 1835 - m. Elizabeth Detimore, Aug. 3. William R. - 
D.* '61. 4. Jared M. - m. Lavina Michael, 1872. 5. Esther - m. John 
Ralston. 6. Jemima - m. Hezekiah Ralston, (by 2) 7. Wallace - m. 
Alverda Steuart - 111. 8. Joseph P. - m. Laura C. Fleisher, 1872. 9. 
Frank - m. in 111.* 10. Malinda - m. in 111.* 

C-5* of Martin V. - 

William A. (b. 1860 - m. Sarah Bodkin, 1886 - 111.) - Jared B. (m. 
Jennie Bowers, Kas.*) - Albert E. (D. 26) - John V. (m. Mary M. 
Pullin, 1901 - Kas.) - Mary C. (m. Harrison Rusmisell, Bath) - Henry 
L. (m. A— F. Wooddell, 1894) - Joseph P. (m. Irene E. Ralston, 1891 - 
D.) - Luella J. (m. William E. Ralston) - Robert M. (m. Myrtle Mar- 
tin, 111.*) - Jacob O.f (m. Grace V. Wooddell) - Lydia E. (m. Robert 
Rusmisell) - Dolar F. (m. Elizabeth Siron, 1905 - Col.) - Dora A. 
(twin to Dolar F. - m. Arley V. Wooddell). 

C-5 of JARED M. - 

William - Peter - Harrison (m. Dora Armstrong) - Radie B. 
(b. 1871 - m. Peter S. Lamb) - Jane - Lena E. (m. Luther Griffen, 
Bath,* 1892) - Lola. 

C-4 of JOHN. - 

James M. (m. Josephine Moyers) - Rachel A. (m. Abel Mowrey) - 
Mary M. (b. 1855 - m. John R. Beverage) - Phoebe A. (m. Adam 
Kiser) - Stephen (in Kas.) - Nancy J. (d.) - John R.f (m. 1. — 
Mitchell, 2. Ida S. Hoover, 1909) - S. Esteline (m. J. Dove Crummett, 

C-5 of James M. - 

Edward (m. Essie Blagg) - George K. - Lula. 

C-5 of JOHN R. - (by 1.) 

Ernest (m. - -) - (by 2) J— R. (m. Jane Mitchell, 1884). 

C-4* of FERGUSON S. - 

Robert M. (b. 1850 - m. Hannah M. Fleisher - 111.) - Mary M. - 
James S.f (b. 1853 - m. Margaret Siron, 1894 - n. c.) - E. Brownt (m. 
Laura A. Rusmisell). 

History of Highland County 317 

C-5* of E. Brown. - 

Claude - Thomas W. 

C-3 of JAMES. - 

1. Walter - m. Sarah E. Carroll. 2. George - m. Jane Fleisher. 
3. Sarah A. - m. William Chestnut. 4. Margaret - m. William Wil- 
son, 1821. 5. Eliza - m. William Hiner. 

C-4 of Walter. - 

Jane (b. 1860 - m. U. W. Burner, Poca.*) - Robert W. (m. Anne 
R. White, 1873) - Lucy A. (m. Philip Kramer, Aug., 1873). 

C-3 of ALEXANDER. - 

Margaret (m. Samuel Jones, 1827) - James - Lavina (m. William 

C-3 of JOHN. - 

John A. - b. 1836 - m. Nancy P. Gum, 1856. 

Misc. - 

1. James (m. Jane Burns, 1823). 

2. James (m. Jane Benson, 1817). 

3. John (m. Phoebe Davis, 1829). 

4. Jane (m. John Curry, 1820). 

5. Margaret (m. William Wilson, 1821). 

6. Mary (m. William Curry, 1842). 

7. Rachel A. (m. Jacob Iman, 1839). 

8. Sarah (m. William Bird, 1823). 

9. Silas (m. Elizabeth Raines, 1834). 

10. Susanna (m. Andrew Curry, 1825). 

11. Virginia (m. Silas K. Sims, 1861). 

12. Walter (m. Sarah — ) - C-2. - Robert W. (m. Anna R. White, 

13. Delilah (b. 1835 - m. 1. — Neil, 2. Peter Michael, 1877). 

' Maloy. Patrick - b. 1815, D. 1893 - m. Emma J. Layne - C-2.* - 

1. Joseph W. - physician - Fla. 2. Emmet J.f - m. Georgia B. 
Vance, 1892. 3. Jesse S. - m. 1. Rhoda Lowe, 2. Gertrude Wyckoff - 
physician - Shinnston, W. Va. 

Marshall. William - m. 1. — Huffman, 2. Matilda Swisher, Hardy, 
3. Phoebe Arbogast - C-2.* - (by 1.) 

1. John A. - m. Mary Arbogast - Pdn. 2. Emily J. - m. Joseph 
Snyder, Va.* 3. Caroline - m. Hezekiah Rexrode. (by 2) 4. Warren - 
away. 5. Franklin J.t - b. 1840 - m. Elizabeth Mauzy. (by 3) 6. Hen- 
rietta - m. Hezekiah Rexrode (h. of Caroline). 7. Webster W.f - b. 
1854 - m. Lynn M. Newman, 1886. 8. Martha - dy. 9. Mary - dy. 
10. Milton. 11. Asbury. 

C-3* of Franklin J. - 

Maud (dy.) - Myrtie (m. Edward Harper, Pdn.) - Joseph (m. 
Frances Stone) - Ina (m. Ellis Allen) - Martha G. (m. Ira E. Ma- 
theny, 1909) - John. 

318 History of Highland County 

C-3* of WEBSTER W. - 

Henry - Francis - Charles (dy.) - William - Ina - James - 
Lillie - Eva - Madeline - boy. 

Matheny. Daniel - m. Sarah Curry - D. 1824 - C-2. - 

1. Cecilia - m. Rev. Robert Boyd, 1819 - O. 2. Nancy - m. John 
Hazlett, 1811 - O. 3. Susanna - m. — Moreland. 4. Levi - m. Mary 
Hazlett - O. 5. Abijah - m. Margaret Bird, 1819 - D. 1837. 

C-3 of Levi. - 

Thomas E. (m. Margaret Hite - 111.) - Robert B. (m. Christina 
Cleek, Bath) - Silas - John G. (m. Mary J. Cleek, Bath) - Sarah C. 
(m. P. H. Warwick). 

C-3* of ABIJAH. - 

1. Cecilia - b. 1820, D. 1901 - m. George W. Hite, 1844. 2. John 
B. - m. Margaret Callahan - 111. - D. 1853. 3. Jared M. - d. 13. 4. 
Levi - D. 41. 5. Daniel - b. 1827, D. 1886 - m. Sarah E. Warwick, 
1852 - G'brier. 6. David B. - dy. 7. 7. Sarah - b. 1831 - m. A. Wesley 
Bussard. 8. Susan - b. 1833, D. 1874 - m. Alexander Campbell. 9. 
Jacob C. - b. 1837, D. 1908 - m. 1. Elizabeth J. Byrd, 1864, 2. Elizabeth 
E. Flaherty, 1879. 

C-4* of Daniel. - 

Esther A. (b. 1853 - s.) - Melissa A. (b. 1855 - m. Charles T. 
Bird) - William M. (dy.) - Robert (m. Lula GabbarO - Wallace (W. 
Va.) - others (dy.). 

C-4* of JACOB C. - (by 1.) 

1. William H.f - m. Belle Liggett, Aug., 1893 - county clerk. 2. 
J. Cliftont - m. Lenora Bird, Mo., 1902 - banker. 3. Cecil - dy. 6. 
(by 2) 4. Emma S. - m. Robert R. Ruff, 1902 - Lexington. 5. Edith - 
dy. 3. 6. Blanche C. 


Levi F. (m. Margaret A. Folks, 1880 - D.) - George (d.) - Webb - 
Marcellus (m. Annie Gutshall) - May - Mary C. (m. Clinton R. Gut- 
shall) - Martha S. (m. Charles R. Carpenter) - Mary E. (m. A. Tay- 
lor Carpenter) - Sarah E. (m. Eli McGlaughlin) - others (dy.). 

C-5* of William H. - 

Jacob L. - J. Robert - William H. (dy.) - James F. - Elizabeth 
J. - Virginia B. - Margaret A. 

C-5* of J. CLIFTON. - 

Frances E. - 2 (dy.). 

Archibald - bro. to Daniel (1) - m. Jane Curry - C-2. - 

Reuben (m. Ann Wanless) - John (m. Ann Wade) - Rebecca (m. 
Thomas Ryder, 1812) - Mary (s.) - Margaret (m. Robert Sharp) - 
Sarah (m. Leonard Wade, 1825). 

Misc. - 

1. Adam - m. Mary Lightner, 1813. 

History of Highland County 319 

2. Sarah - m. David Ryder, 1821 - dau. of William. 

3. William - m. — Gwin, 1817. 

McClung. John, of Ireland, settled n. Lexington in "The Forks" - 
D. 1785. His son John (b. 1733, D. 1830) came to Bath, 1751 - in. 
Sarah McCutcheon - C-3. - 

1. Margaret - m. James Musson, 1797. 2. Robert - m. Martha 
McDonald, 1808. 3. Sarah - m. William Wilson, 1812. 4. Nancy - m. 
Samuel Cummins, R'bridge - Ind. 5. Hannah - m. Robert Hender- 
son, 1803. 6. Jane - m. Thomas Thompson, 1795. 7. Dorothy - m. 
William Sitlington, 1816. 8. John - m. Rebecca Bratton, 1818. 9. 
William - b. 1793, D. 1865 - came to Hid., 1805 - m. Rachel V. Gwin. 

C-4 of William. - 

1. John H. - b. 1822, D. 1898 - m. Martha F. Borton, Madison - 
Qa. 2. David G. - b. 1824, D. 1901 - m. Sarah Maupin, Rkm. - Pdn. 
3. William A. - D. 21. 4. Sarah S. - s. 5. Andrew C. - d. 17. 6. 
Silas B. - b. 1832 - m. Nancy J. Lemon, Botetourt - Pdn. 7. Frances 
V. - b. 1836, D. 1908 - m. James M. Seig. 8. Mary M. - b. 1838, D. 
1901 - m. John S. McNulty. 9. Susan A. - b. 1840 - m. William Sum- 
mers. 10. Samuel A. - dy. 11. inf. - dy. 12. Lewis M.t - m. 1. 
Sudie E. Reamer, Aug., 2. Lucy D. Blair, Aug., 1887. 

C-5 of Lewis M. - (by 1.) 

Addie (dy.) - Frances S. (m. George W. Wallace, Bath) - Joseph 
B. (dy.) - Frank W. (dy.) - Reamer (dy.) -Harry C. B. - Lewis E. 

McCoy. John - m. Sarah Oliver (D. 1807) - C-2.* - 

1. Robert - b. 1761 - Ind. 2. Elizabeth - b. 1763, D. 1842 - m. 
John McClure, Pdn.* 3. Oliver - b. 1765, D. 1828 - m. Margaret 
Johnson, Pdn.* 4. Jane - m. William Gamble, Pdn., 1792 - Ind. 5. 
William - b. 1768, D. 1835 - m. Elizabeth Harrison - Pdn. 6. John - 
m. Catharine Williams - D. 1811. 7. Benjamin - b. 1772 - m. Margaret 
Jones, 1799. 8. Sarah - b. 1774 - m. Jacob Hiner. 9. Joseph - m. 
Margaret Bodkin, 1796 - Mo. 10. Jemima - b. 1779, D. 1860 - m. Har- 
mon Hiner. 11. James - in. in O.* 

C-3* of Benjamin. - 

1. William - b. 1800 - m. 1. Caroline McCoy, 2. Mary J. Moomaw, 
Pdn.* 2. John - m. Lydia Eagle, 1824. 3. Oliver - s. 4. Henry - b. 
1804 - m. Mary A. Bodkin. 

C-4* of Henry. - 

1. Andrew J. - m. Sarah E. Good, Rkm. 2. Benjamin - m. 1. 
Cynthia A. Malcomb, 2. Emily Wilson. 3. Caroline - b. 1836 - m. 1. 
Samuel Wilson, 2. Townsend Price. 4. Margaret - b. 1838 - m. Har- 
vey Armstrong. 5. Eliza J. - dy. 6. Matilda E. - m. Hezekiah F. 
Wilson. 7. Martha E. - m. William R. Keister. 8. Mary C. - b. 1845 - 
m. Jared M. Wilson. 9. Elizabeth - m. Henry B. Pullin. 10. Henry - 
D.* '61. 11. John - s. - Ariz. 12. Amanda - m. Jacob B. Siron. 13. 
Lucy - m. — Kirkpatrick, Rkm. - 111. 

320 History of Highland County 

C-5 of Andrew J. - 

1. Elizabeth - m. Jeremiah W. Johns. 2. William - m. Julia A. 
Price - D. 3. Palma - m. James E. Bodkin. 4. Margaret - m. William 
L. Siron. 5. Oliver - D. 6. Carrie - m. in 111.* 7. J. Edward - m. 
Daisy Marshall - 4 C-6. 

C-6 of William. - 

Arley (m. Blanche Smith - Rkm.) - Price (111.) - Jane (m. in 
111.*) - William (m. in 111.*) - Ella (m. in 111.*) - Mattie (111.). 


1. Laura - by 1 - d. 2. Rosa (m. — Spielman, Frederick - la.) - 
3. Ida (m. in la.*) - 4. William (m. Eva Siron - Kas.) - 5. John (m. 
in 111.*) - 6. Ella (m. in 111.*) - 7. Mary (m. in la.*) - 8. Benjamin 
(m. in la.*). 

John (1) was probably grandson of the John who proved his 
importation in 1735 and died 1745c. In the latter year one Robert 
McCoy was a road surveyor at the foot of the Massanutton Mtn. 

McCrea. Robert - b. before 1776 - m. — Douglas - C-2. - 

1. Mary - m. James Bodkin, 1806. 2.? Elizabeth - m. Robert 
Given, 1816. 

C-3 of — , probably son of Robert. - 

Sinclair - m. Margaret Simmons. 

C-4 of Sinclair. - 

1. Joshua - Bath. 2. Joseph - m. Elizabeth Leach - k.* '61. 3. 
Thomas - k.* '61. 4. Robert - m. Mary A. Hodge. 5. Alexander - m. 
Mary A. Losh, Aug.* 6. Nicholas - s. 7. Ellen J. - s. - Rph. 8. 
Elizabeth - m. 1. — Vanpelt, 2. Azariah White. 9. Barbara - m. John 
Brady, Lewis.* 10. Kate - m. John T. Leach, 1855. 11. Martha - m. 
— Hushaw. 12. Sinclair - k.* '61. 

C-5* of Robert. - 

1. Ellen J. - s. 2. Elizabeth S. - m. 1. George Armstrong, 1885, 
2. George R. Crummett, 1893. 3. Mary A. - m. Bryan A. Lamb. 4. 
Sarah A. - m. in W. Va.* 5. Henry - b. 1860 - m. 1. Rebecca J. Kill- 
ingsworth, 2. Kate Armstrong, 1899. 6. Peter - m. Clara Snodgrass, 
W. Va. 7. William - s. - D. 8. Dora B. - b. 1865 - m. Amby J. 
Gragg, Pdn. 9. O. Reesef - m. Lillie Armstrong. 10. George G. - s. 
11. Lucy A. (reared) - m. John Bodkin, 1893. 

C-5 of ALEXANDER. - 

Minnie (m. H— H. Crummett, 1896) - Esther V. (m. Robert L. 
Bodkin) - Christina (m. William H. Smith). 

Misc. - 

1. James - in militia, 1794. 

2. John - in militia, 1794. 

3. Porter - b. 1802. 

McGlaughlin. John - b. 1801, D. 1862 - m. A— M C-2. - 

1. Daniel - in. Mary Carpenter, 1823 - Poca. 2. Robert - s. - k. 

History of Highland County 3211 

1840c. 3. Hugh - m. 1. Nancy M. Given, 1825, 2. Elizabeth Sharp, 
Poca.* 4. Samuel G. - b. 1807 - m. Elizabeth Wright. 5. Mary - m. 
William Benson. 6. Nancy - m. John? Carpenter.? 7. John - m. 
Sarah Wiley Hamilton. 8. one other?. 

C-3* of Samuel G. - 

Robert W. (b. 1835, D. 1890 - m. Elizabeth A. Doyle, 1860) - Gil- 
bert (dy.) - Esther A. (dy.) - Nancy J. (m. Marx Sharp, Bath, 1841) - 
Hugh P. (b. 1843 - m. Alcinda Bird - Poca.). 

C-3* of JOHN M. - 

I. Sarah E. - d. 12. 2. Ewing A. - b. 1847, D. 1911 - m. Sarah E. 
Hite, 1874.1 3. Maria L. V. - d. 12. 4. John L. - s. 5. Henry H. - 
d. 19. 

C-4* of Ewing A. - 

Ada E. (m. William A. McGlaughlin, Poca., 1893) - Minnie E. 
(m. J. Letcher McGlaughlin, Poca.,* 1897) - Sarah E. (m. Ira D. Gut- 
shall) - Harriet E. (m. P. Berlin Gutshall) - J. Boyd (m. J. May 
Corbett, 1910) - boy (twin to J. B.) - William O. (m. Dora Varner) - 
Kenton (dy.) - Emma. 

Misc. - 

1. Edward - m. Jane Hughart, 1796. 

2. Hugh - m. Jane Wiley, 1794. 

3. John - m. Lucretia Gregory, 1810. 

4. Jane - m. Alexander Benson, 1809. 

5. Mary - m. William Carpenter, 1823. 

6. William - m. Nancy Wiley, 1825. 

7. Jane - m. John McAvoy, Bath, 1824. 

8. Jane - m. John Galford, 1811. 

9. Nancy - m. Jacob Cassell, Pdn., 1805. 
10. Abigail - m. Thomas Galford, 1822. 

II. Jacob - m. Margaret Doyle - C-2. - Elizabeth M. (m. Samuel 
D. Bright, 1867. 

12. James (w. Isabella) - C-2. - Nancy (m. John Gwin, 1875). 

13. J m. George W. Shaffer, Rkm., 1884. 

The obtainable record of the McGlaughlins is hence very imper- 
fect. John (1) appears to be a son or grandson of a Revolutionary 
soldier of the same name. 

McNulty. John - b. 1769, D. 1846 - m. Margaret Stephenson, 
1812 - C-2.* - 

1. David - b. 1813, D. 1900 - m. Hannah Hampden, O. 2. James - 
s. - D. 1842. 3. Daniel - s. - D. '62.* 4. Margaret - dy. 5. Nancy S. - 
m. Francis H. Carver, Louisa. 6. Franklin - b. 1827, D. 1893 - m. 
Frances M. Wilson, 1862. 7. John S.t - b. 1833 - m. Mary M. Ale- 
Clung, 1865. 

C-3* of David. - 

1. Louisa (s.) - 2. Margaret (m. 1. — Robertson, 2. — Robertson). 

322 History of Highland County 

C-3* of FRANKLIN. - 

1. John S. - b. 1863, D. 1890. 2. James F.t - b. 1866 - m. Florence 
H. Snider, 1886. 3. Annie L. - m. Emory M. Arbogast. 4. Patrick 
H. - m. Lula Clark, Poca., 1899 - Bath. 5. Charles S. - m. Annie A. 
Anderson, R'bridge - attorney - Roanoke City. 6. Mary F. - m. T. 
Summers McNeal, att'y, Poca.* 

C-4* of James F. - 

James G. - A. Frank - John S. 

C-3* of JOHN S. - 

William M. (s.) - Edwin A.t (m. Cornelia Adams Pearsall, N. 
Y.) - Louis D. (m. Nettie Wallace) - Harriet C. (m. Rev. Charles H. 
Dobbs, Miss., 1897 - Tex.) - Annie J. (m. Benjamin J. Hiner, 1908). 

Three bros. to John (1) came from Ireland; Daniel to Botetourt, 
Peter to N. Y., another to Tenn. They never met again. 

Michael. John - b. 1788, D. 1866 - (w. Elizabeth) - C-2. - 

1. David - b. 1823 - m. Mary J. Whistleman, 1855. 2. Peter - m. 
1. Lydia Varner, 2. Delilah Malcolm Neil. 3. George - m. Mary 
Moyers, 1827. 4. Joseph F. - m. Susan — . 

C-3 of David. - 

Lavina (b. 1856 - m. Jared M. Malcomb) - James R.t (m. Mary 
Armstrong) - Harrison ^m. in Fauquier*) - Martin (m. in Fauquier*) - 
Mary E. (d.) - Daniel T. (m. E— V. Splawn). 

C-3 of PETER. - 

Henry C. (b. 1865 - m. Lillie B. Bodkin, 1893) - Mary T. (b. 1867 - 
m. Franklin N. Gwin, 1882) - Sarah (m. George A. Bodkin) - Eli C. 
(m. E — A. Simmons, Pdn., 1875) - Robert (m. in Aug.*). 

C-3 of JOSEPH F. - 

Almira (b. 1853 - m. Flavius N. Lowrey, 1882) - Elizabeth (m. 
Edward E. Curry, 1888) - Martha A. (m. Gilbert G. Lowrey, 1891). 

Misc. - 

William (w. Barbara) - militiaman in CB, 1794 - sold to Joseph 
Lantz, 1805. 

Mullenax. (A) John (w. Jane) - C-2. - 

1. James - m. 1. Mary Arbogast, 1785, 2. Mary Yeager, 1795 - 
D. 1816. 2. Samuel - m. Mary Full, 1795. 3. John - m. Jane Culbert- 
son, 1793. 

C-3 of James. - (by 1.) 

1. Abraham - m. — Kile, Pdn.* (by 2) 2. William - m. 1. Chris- 
tina Vance, 1814, 2. Nancy A. Murphy, 1825. 3. Jacob - m. Hannah 
Arbogast, 1814. 4. George - m. Elizabeth Lambert, Pdn., 1817 - C-4. - 
Lucinda (m. Solomon Wagoner, 1860"). 

C-4 of William. - 

1. Joseph - m. Abigail Phares, Pdn., 1840. 2. Elizabeth - m. Abel 
Long, Rph.* 3. Ruhama - m. Nathan Wimer. 4. Edward - m. 1. 
Winifred Calhoun, Pdn., 2. Mary Mowrey. 5. William - b. 1837, D. 

History of Highland County 323 

1904 - m. Sarah Calhoun, Pdn., 1859. 6. Henry - b. 1838 - m. Eliza- 
beth Vance Wimer, 1865. 7. Christina - m. Daniel Waybright, 1848. 
8. Mary - m. Solomon Vance, 1852. 9. Lucinda - m. Adam Gum. 
10. Abraham - k. by fall, 15. 11. Susan - m. Henry Wiant. 12. 
James - m. Susan Laurence Bland, Pdn. 13. Martha - s. 

C-5* of Edward. - (by 1.) 

Annie C. (m. Amby Harper, Pdn.,* 1875) - Elizabeth (m. Jeffer- 
son D. Rexrode) - Mary J. (m. Matthew Potter) - William J. (m. 
Annie Waybright) - James E. (m. Sarah E. Moyers, Pdn.*) - Martha 

D. (m. Sylvester Nelson) - Emma (m. Norval High, 1897t - C-6. - 
Edward - Geneva and Opal (twins) - girl (dy.). (by 2) Claude - John 

E. (m. Nora Rexrode) - Manasseh - Ernest (m. Nettie Simmons). 

C-5* of WILLIAM. - 

Martha J. (b. 1862 - m. James H. Hinkle, Pdn., 1910) - William 
A.t (m. Grace Kinkead) - Susan P. (m. Luther Beard, Aug.*) - 
Phoebe A. (m. Edward A. Hevener) - Garnettf (m. George Wag- 
oner) - James (d.) - Lillian (m. Charles Moyers) - Lena (twin to 
Lillian) - Tilden E.t (m. Gertrude Hevener, 1904) - Maud (m. Wil- 
liam Hull) - L. May (b. 1879 - m. William Hevener). 

C-5* of HENRY. - 

Virginia (m. Harrison M. Calhoun, Pdn.,* 1889) - Lucy B. (m. 
Lemuel D. Waybright) - Cassie E. (m. Samuel H. Ralston) - Martha 
(m. Minor K. Simmons) - Hannah? (dy.) - Salisbury N.t (m. Mar- 
garet E. Newman, 1897) - Walterf (m. Mary Collins) - Abraham D. - 
Aaron C.f (m. Arbelia Wimer). 

C-4 of JACOB. - 

1. George - m. Sarah Simmons. 2. John - m. Rachel Rexrode, 
1837. 3. Catharine - m. George Vandevender. 

C-4 of GEORGE.. - 

1. James - m. Phoebe Zickafoose, 1842. 2. Mary - m. Lewis Rex- 
rode - Ritchie. 3. Oliver - m. Christina Chew, 1845. 4. Melinda - m. 
Noah Rexrode, 1834 - Ritchie.* 5. Martha - m. Daniel Waybright. 
6. Cassandra - m. Jonas W. Chew. 7. Lucinda - m. David Kinkead. 

C-5 of James. - 

Asbury (dy.) - George W.f (m. Susan E. Colaw, 1871) - Green 
B. (m. Ida Taylor - Pdn.) - Osborne (m. in Ritchie.*). 

C-5 of OLIVER. - 

Clark (m. Sarah Fitzwater) - Mary (m. Isaac Waybright) - Ed- 
ward C. (b. 1847 - m. Sarah Fitzwater, 1870). 

Mullenax. (B) — (w. — ) - probably bro. to John (1) - C-2. - 

1. Samuel - m. Charity Colaw, 1805. 2. John - m. Mary Mon- 
gold, 1800 - D. 1815. 

C-3 of Samuel. - 

1. William - m. Margaret Bird. 2. Mary E. - m. Abraham Mul- 

324 History of Highland County 

lenax. 3. Margaret - m. Salathiel Mullenax. 4. Mary - dy. 5. Sam- 
uel - b. 1816, D. 1879 - m. Matilda Wimer - Pdn. 

C-4 of JOHN. - (all went W.) 

Jane (m. — Cartwright) - James - Archibald. 

Misc. - 

1. Abraham Jr. (m. Elizabeth Mullenax, 1839). 

2. Samuel (m. Phoebe Spielman, 1847). 

3. Kenton L. (b. 1866 - m. Ollie Arbogast). 

Newman. Jacob - m. Malinda Trumbo, Pdn., 1824 - C-2.* - 

1. Mary E. - m. Cornelius Colaw, 1845. 2. John S. - b. 1827 - m. 
Sarah Hansel. 3. Andrew T.t - b. 1829 - m. Sarah E. Rymer. 4. 
Margaret A. - b. 1836 - m. Thomas Hildebrand. 5. Salisbury! - b. 
1837 - m. Phoebe A. Rymer. 6. James C. - b. 1841 - m. Louisa M. 

C-3* of John S. - 

Mary L. (m. Walter Wimer) - Frances (m. Ira Q. Simmons) - 
Robert C. (m. Lena Strathy). 

C-4* of ANDREW T. - 

Margaret E. (m. Salisbury Mullenax) - Mary L. (m. Perley M. 
Propst) - Thomas S. (m. Lenora Chew). 

C-4* of SALISBURY. - 

Mary (m. O. Pierce Chew) - Linnie (m. Kemper Rexrode) - 
Sarah E. (m. Charles L. Wagoner) - Walter (m. Sarah Rexrode) - 
Claude (m. Myrtle Waybright). 

C-5* of JAMES C. - 

Fleetwood (m. in Aug.*) - Malinda (b. 1864 - m. Webster W. 
Marshall) - Lonnie (m. Robert L. Waybright) - Charles (m. in 
R'bridge) - Lena (m. John Wagoner) - Thomas K. (m. in E. Va.*) - 
Odie (m. William P. Will) - Edward (m. in Frederick*) - Eugenia 
(m. in Aug.*). 

Elizabeth - sister to Jacob (1) - m. Joel Hidy, 1825. 

Nicholas. George (w. Barbara) - D. 1780 - C-2. - 

1. George (w. Barbara) - G'brier before 1796. 2. William - m. 
Isabella Daugherty, 1796. 3. Barbara - m. Philip Yeager, 1794. 4. 
Catharine - m. Joseph Wagoner, 1794. 5. Francis - b. 1775, D. 1865 - 
m. Catharine Waybright, 1800. 6. Joseph. 

C-3 of Francis. - 

1. Solomon - m. Elizabeth J. Teter, Pdn. 2. William - m. Susan- 
nah Grogg, 1819 - Pdn. 3. Joshua. 4. Henry - b. 1805, D. 1895 - s. 
5. Francis - m. Barbara Simmons, 1835. 6. John - s. 7. Sarah - s. 
8. Elizabeth - s. 9. Ann R. - m. Miles Waybright, 1844. 10. Hester - 
m. John Jack, 1843. 11. Barbara - m. Peter Gum. 12. Leonard - m. 
Elizabeth Jack. 13. Addison - m. Mary C. Simmons, 1842. 14. 
George - m. Matilda Gum, 1830. 

History of Highland County 325 

C-4* of Solomon. - 

1. Amby H. - m. in 111.* 2. Henry B.f - m. Serena Cobb, la. - 
carpenter. 3. Callahan - dy. 4. George A. - m. Phoebe J. Stone - D. 

5. Annie - dy. 6. James N. - m. Laura S. Chew, 1884 - Kas. 7. 
Frances M. - m. William E. Fleisher. 8. Sarah E. - m. Charles T. 
Fleisher. 9. Robert S. - d. 15. 10. Noah S. - dy. 7. 

C-5* of Henry B. - 

Don J. (m. in W. Va.*) - Florida (dy.) - Frances L. (m. James 
B. Wimer, 1901) - William R.f (merchant) - Carrie V. (m. Chas. G. 
Hildebrand, 1902). 

C-5 of GEORGE A. - 

Frances L. (m. Paul W. Arbogast, Poca., 1906) - Phoebe J. (m. 
Isaac H. H inkle, 1901). 

Misc. - 

1. James - m. Christina Gum, 1840. 

2. Barbara - b. 1787c - m. Thomas Roby, 1812. 

3. Eldridge - b. 1855 - m. Julia Wilson, 1877. 

4. Andrew M. - b. 1835 - m. Sarah C. Rexrode, 1856. 
Peck. Michael (w. — ) - C-2. - 

1. John - m. Elizabeth Beverage. 2. Jacob - m. Anna Life, 1799 - 
D. 1852. 3. Michael. 4. Sarah - m. Adam Halterman, 1813. 

C-3 of John. - 

1. Almira - m. John Bowers. 2. Henry - m. Kate Harold - W. 
3. Andrew - m. Caroline Arbogast - W. 4. John - m. Susan Ruck- 
man - Lewis. 5. Jacob - b. 1837 - m. Margaret C. Bowers, 1866. 

6. Eliza - m. William Wimer. 7. Enos - m. Mahulda Wimer. 8. 
Elizabeth - m. Adam Arbogast. 9. Julia A. - m. Jacob Gum. 

C-4 of Henry. - 

Malinda (m. Philip Helmick) - Sarah (m. in W. Va.*) - Mary 
(m. in W. Va.*) - Louisa (m. in W. Va.*) - Adam (m. Elizabeth Jor- 
dan - D. 1860c) - Solomon (la., 1860c) - Thomas (Braxton). 

C-3 of JACOB. - 

Isaac - m. Susan Simmons, 1844 - 111. 2. Abraham - m. Susan 
Houchin - unkn. 3. Susanna - s. 4. Jacob - m. Mary Whitecotton - 
n. c. 5. Elizabeth - s. 6. Theresa. 7. Anna - s. 8. Margaret - m. 
Jacob Waggy. 9. Sarah - m. Jacob Shinneberger, 1833. 

C-4 of Abraham. - 

1. Barbara - b. 1846 - m. William Bowers. 2. Emily C. - m. 
John H. Cobb, Ga., 1868.f 

C-5 of Emily C. Cobb. - 

Frances (m. Elbert Rexrode) - Mary - John - Minnie (m. — 

Garrett (w. Margaret) - bro.? to Michael - D. 1812 - C-2. - 

326 History of Highland County 

1. Susanna - m. George Keister, 1797. 2. Catharine - m. George 
Cleek, Bath, 1805. 
Misc. - 

1. Susanna - m. William Fleisher, 1793. 

2. Mary - m. Christian Pickle, 1794. 

3. Adam - b. 1782, D. 1856. 

4. Margaret - m. Jacob Doyle, 1825. 

5. Elizabeth - m. Isaac Gum, 1828. 

6. Christina - m. Peter Shinneberger, 1829. 

Price. Townsend - b. 1817 - m. 1. Jane Eye, 2. Caroline McCoy 
Wilson, 1864 - C-2.* - (by 1.) 

1. Sarah C. -b. 1847 - m. Wilfiam Armstrong. 2. Martha V. - m. 
J. Burner Wilson. 3. Eliza A. - b. 1857 - m. Joseph W. Blagg. 4. 
Julia A. - b. 1860 - m. William McCoy. 5. William A. - m. Martha 
E. Rusmisell, 1878. (by 2) 6. Lillie. 7. Henry M. - Okla. 8. Jared 
M. - m. in Alleg.* 9. B. Kenneth - b. 1875 - m. Harriet G. Siron, 
1899. 10. Ollie E. (reared) - m. Marcus J. Cupp, Rkm. 

C-3* of William A. - 

1. Elizabeth M. (m. Pinckney Crummett, Pdn., 1899) - 2. Bucher 
J. (m. Geneva Malcomb, 1904) - 3. Jared (m. Martha Blagg) - 4. 
Samuel (m. — Eagle) - 5. Charles. 

Pullin. Loftus - b. 1720c, D. 1801 - m. Ann Jane Usher, 1750c - 
left of personal property, $522.32 - C-2. - 

1. John - m. Elizabeth Benson - D. before 1805. 2. Solomon - 
Ky. 3. Jonathan - Tenn. 4. Thomas - m. Jane Benson? 5. Jane - 
m. — Estill. 6. Martha - m. Hugh Henry, 1794. 7. girl - m. — 
Cook - C-3 - Loftus. 8. Samuel - b. 1770c, D. 1858c - m. Nancy 

C-3 of Jonathan. - 

J. Loftus - m. Mary Smith, 1805. 2. Henry (w. Sarah). 

C-3 of JOHN. - 

1. Thomas - m. Margaret Williams. 2. William - s. - W. 3. 
Mathias - W. 4. Nancy. 5. Jane - m. Thomas Douglas, 1819. 

C-4 of Thomas. - 

Jesse H. - b. 1834 - m. Susan A. Hicks, 1869. 

C-3 of THOMAS. - 

1. Henry - b. 1796, D. 1865 - s. 2. Sarah J. 3. Loftus - m. 
Susanna Bible, Pdn., 1831 - n. c. grew up. 4. Jesse H. - m. Kate 
Moyers - n. c. 5. John S. - b. 1810 - m. Nancy Pray, 1835 - W. Va. 
6. James - s. - k. 7. Nancy - s. 8. Mary - s. 9. Jane - s. 

C-4 of John S. - 

1. John E. C. - m. 1. Sarah A. Gwin, 2. Louisa C. Bird, 1868. 2. 
J. Asbury - m. Rachel J. Bird, 1859 - Bath. 3. Melville H. - b. 1844 - 
m. Frances M. Jones, 1866 - Braxton. 4. Jesse M. - k.* '61. 5. Aretta 

History of Highland County 327 

L. - b. 1852 - m. Joseph M. Jones, 1867. 6. Dora - m. Marshall Jones. 

C-5 of John E. C. - 

1. Emma (b. 1864 - m. Levi Jack, 1884) - (by 2) 2. Cameron - 
(k. by tree) - 3. John (m. — Patterson, Poca. - n. c.) - 4. Alice H. 
(m. Rev. Albert Vandeventer, Pdn., 1908) - 5. Ella (m. Rev. Henry 
C. Sponaugle, Pdn.) - 6. Homer (d.) - 7. Mary (m. Thayer Collins, 
Poca.) - 8. McKean - 9. Elbert - 10. Clarence. 

C-3* of SAMUEL. - 

1. Loftus - b. 1795c, D. 1840 - m, Frances Hammer, Pdn., 1819. 

2. Ann J. - m. Benjamin Eagle, 1813 - Lewis. 3. Mary A. - m. 
Joseph Beathe, 1816. 4. John H. - b. 1801, D. 1861 - s. 5. Samuel - 
m. Sarah Propst, 1826. 6. Sarah - m. Thomas Armstrong, 1822. 

C-4* of Loftus. - 

1. Samuel S. - b. 1827 - m. Susan E. Ruleman, 1856. 2. Balsor 
H.f - b. 1828 - m. 1. Martha Dever, Aug., 2. Elizabeth C. Lamb, 1873. 

3. Elizabeth - m. George Rexrode. 4. Adam - m. 1. Caroline Sisler, 
2. Mary Dever - D. - C-5 - (by 1) Tilden (d.). 5. George - D.* '6L 
6. Sarah - m. Thomas Rexrode. 7. Mary A. - m. Andrew Rexrode. 
8. Henry B. - b. 1835, D. 1907 - m. Elizabeth McCoy. 

C-5* of Samuel S. - 

Nettie (dy.) - Henry B. (m. in W. Va. - Col.) - Samuel (in Col.). 

C-5* of BALSOR H. - 

Frances M. (m. Andrew S. T. Davis) - Caroline - s. Frank J.f 
(m. Bertha Wooddell) - (by 2) Mary M. (m. John V. Malcomb, 
1901) - Etta (m. — Ralston) - Eliza J. (m. E— M. Shull, Aug. - D.) - 
Paul (m. — Ryder) - Loftus (m. in Aug.*) - Rosser. 

C-5* of HENRY B. - 

Cora (m. in W. Va.*) - Corneliaf (m. Albert M. Girard, Aug.) - 
Mary L. (m. George K. Simmons, Pdn.) - Annie (m. John R. Rex- 
rode) - Emma - George - Samuel (dy.) - William (m. Harriet Arm- 
strong) - Margaret (dy.). 

C-4 of SAMUEL. - 

1. Harriet - m. Elijah Samples. 2. Elizabeth A. - m. John A. 
Cobb, 1849. 3. Sarah F. - m. George Armstrong. 4. Samuel H. - b. 
1835 - m. Henrietta V. Oakes, 1859. 5. Sarah - m. Thomas Arm- 
strong. 6. Hughart M. - m. Mary A. Rogers. 7. Mary M. - m. 
Joseph A. Bishop, Albemarle. 8. George - dy. of scalding. 9. Ra- 
chel - D. 21. 

C-5 of Samuel H. - 

1. William R. - m. Jane Wilson. 2. Maria - m. American A. 

C-5 of HUGHART M. - 

Edward L. (m. Maud Rogers) - William M. (d.) - Charles - 
Harriet F. (m. John W. E. Lockridge) - Sarah V. (m. William S. 

328 History of Highland County 

Helms) - Amanda E. (m. James E. Carwell, Bath, 1910) - Isaac (d.) - 
James - Henry (dy.) - Elizabeth - Susan - John. 

Ralston. Samuel - m. — Curry - D. 40c - perhaps descended 
from the Robert who proved his importation in 1741 - C-2. - 

1. James A. - m. Frances Curry, 1837. 2. Josiah - m. 1. Phoebe 
'Montony, 2. Malinda Waggy, 3. Jemima Malcomb Taylor. 3. An- 
drew - m. Isabel Fleisher - missing since 1865c. 4. John - m. Nancy 
Bodkin. 5. Nancy - m. Benoni Wilson, 1833. 6. Margaret - m. 
Henry W. Wilson, 1837. 7. Samuel - m. Eliza Hook, 1841. 

C-3 of James A. - 

1. Samuel A. - b. 1839 - m. Margaret Waggy, 1867. 2. James 
A.t - m. Mary E. Malcomb. 3. Malinda - b. 1849 - m. Hudson Arm- 
strong. 4. Mary - m. Abel Siron. 5. Ellen - m. John M. Ralston. 
6. Amanda M. - b. 1855 - m. John R. Beverage. 

C-4 of Samuel A. - 

George - John - Oliver - William - Samuel - Sarah S. (m. Charles 
P. Wiseman, 1890) - Ida. 

C-3 of JOSIAH. - 

Margaret E. (b. 1867 - m. E. Ashby Hammer) - John M. (m. 
Ellen Ralston) - Crawford (W.) (m. — Malcomb). 

C-3 of ANDREW. - 

1. — (W.) 2. — (W.). 

C-3 of JOHN. - 

1. Elizabeth J. - m. Jeremiah J. Propst, Pdn., 1869. 2. Mary M. - 
•b. 1853 - m. James R. Beathe. 3. Jared M.t - b. 1855 - m. Susan J. 
Fleisher, 1877. 4. Conradf - b. 1859 - m. Nancy J. Beathe, 1883. 5. 
Louisa A. - b. 1865 - m. Jacob H. Bodkin. 6. Jemima S. - m. Daniel 
T. Michael. 

C-4 of Conrad. - 

Grace (m. Isaac B. Hammer, 1906). 

C-3 of SAMUEL. - 

1. Mary C. - b. 1841 - m. John W. Cook, 1856. 2. Louisa F. - m. 
Joseph A. K. Beathe, 1868. 3. Susan A. - b. 1846 - m. William Good, 
Rkm., 1870. 4. James M.t - b. 1850 - m. Mary J. Hook, 1872. 5. 
Jefferson - Md. 6. George - Md. 7. Robert - m. 1. Rena Vint, 2. 
.Dorothy V. Gum. 8. Daniel C.f - m. S. Annie Hook, 1878. 9. John - 
m. Patience Hamilton - Poca. 

C-4 of James M. - 

Louie (m. W.*) - Elizabeth (m. Dr. — Webster, Ind.*) - Flora 
(m. in Cal.*) - Richard (m. Alice Jones) - Wilber (m. Cornelia .Rex- 
rode) - Lola (m. Renick W. Hull) - Florence (dy.) - Clarence - 
Walter - William A. - Benjamin - Ethel - Frank. 

C-4 of ROBERT. - 

Emily J. (m. John A. Jones, 1888) - M— H. (m. Robert L. Wil- 
liams, Aug., 1894). 

History of Highland County 329 

C-4 of Daniel C. - 

Cecil (m. Mary Beverage) - Edith - Charles (m. Elizabeth Bev- 
erage) - Daniel C (m. Maud Samples, 1909) - Harry - Dorothy - 
Ollie - Bonnie. 

Revercomb. George - m. Rebecca Grififen, Aug. - C-2.* - 

1. William H. - m. Susan Bollar, Bath.* 2. Griffith H. - m. 
Martha Bratton, Bath - Mo. 3. George B. - b. 1831, D. 1897 - m. 
Sarah E. Wallace, Bath.f 4. Nancy B. - m. James H. Bonner, Bath,* 
1871. 5. John R. - b. 1836, D. 1892 - m. Susan R. Lockridge, 1857. 
6. Harrison T. - m. Harriet Cleek, Bath.* 7. Jacob A. - k. '64.* 8. 
Charles F. - m. Annie Cleek, sister to Harriet - Clifton Forge. 9. 
Mary E. - m. John Bonner, bro. to Jas. H. - Bath. 

C-3* of George B. - 

Mary A. (m. John C. McGuffin, Bath* - D.) - Andrew W. (m. 
Lena Summers - Harrison) - Ella R. - Elizabeth B. - George T. - 
William M. (m. Bertha Campbell, Kas. - physician - Clifton Forge). 

C-3* of JOHN R. - 

George R. (m. Lucretia Burns, Bath*) - M. Anne (m. John C. 
Marshall, Bath,* 1900) - Mary E. (m. J. Floyd Wamsley, Rph.,* 
1894) - Archibald (m. Jane Armstrong) - Ruhama B. (m. William 
B. McGuffin, Bath,* 1896) - John (m. Emma Lyle, Bath) - Rathe - 

Reynolds. Stephen J. - b. 1817, D. 1909 - m. Elizabeth A. Lohr, 
Aug. - C-2.* - 

1. William H. H. - b. 1843, D. 1873. 2. Signora E. - m. J. N. 
Fisher, Aug. - 111. 3. Winfield S. - m. Malinda Fox - Idaho. 4. 
Alexander T. - m. in Wash.* 5. Margaret S. - m. Jonathan Wilson. 

6. Evalina E. - m. William H. Henderson, 1884 - Aug. 7. Mary F. - 
m. 1. Charles H. Marshall, 2. — Jenkins - D. 8. Baldwin S.t - m. 
Emma E. Crummett, 1894c. 9. Cora A. - m. J. Riley Crummett, 
1894. 10. Edward G. - dy. 

C-3* of Baldwin S. - 

Taylor J. - William R. - Winnie E. - Paul S. - Robert L - Mar- 
garet E. 

Misc. - 

Evelyn - b. 1837 - m. Jared Ervine, 1854. 

Robertson. William (w. — ) - C-2. - 

1. William - m. Mary Horn. 2. John. 3. James. 4. Anna. 5. 
Margaret. 6. Lydia - m. — Wiley. 

C-3 of William. - 

1. John - s. - Bath. 2. Jesse - m. Lucretia Douglas. 3. William 
J. - m. Sarah C. McAllister. 4. James - unkn. since 1865c. 5. An- 
drew J. - m. Mary J. McAllister. 6. Mary - m. Taylor Pritt, Bath.* 

7. Sarah - m. R — H. Robertson. 8. Martha - m. Morgan Carpenter. 
9. Elizabeth - m. Samuel Woods. 

330 History of Highland County 

C-4 of Jesse. - (all away) 

John - Morgan - Susan - Elizabeth J. - Asa - Lee. 

C-4 of WILLIAM J. - 

John (m. in Bath*) - James C.f (m. Louisa Kelly) - Michael (m. 
— Douglas) - Tilden - Grace - Stephen - Elizabeth (b. 1857 - m. 
Clark T. Lowrey) - Rebecca (m. Adam Ryder) - Lucy R. (m. Or- 
lando Lowrey, 1882) - Lucinda - Martha (m. Joseph Griffen ) - Ma- 
linda C. (m. William I. Gregory, 1879 - W. Va.). 

C-5 of James C. - 

Perley F. (m. Eusebia J. Bussard, 1905). 

C-4 of ANDREW J. - 

Eva S. (b. 1864 - m. Charles E. Kelly) - Rufus (m. Louisa Rex- 
rode) - Melvin (dy.). 

Misc. - 

C— R. - m. L— E. - C? 1. Artie C. (m. John W. Doyle, 1897. 
2. Riba J. (m. W. L. Hinkle, 1903). 

Ross. John - m. — Moats, Pdn. - came 1830c - S. Dist. - C-2. - 

1. John - D. 1861c. 2. Joseph S.f 

Misc. - 

Sarah - b. 1820c - m. Benjamin C. Ervine. 

Ryder. William (w. — ) - C-2. - 

1.? William - m. Mary Briscoe, 1785. 2. Elizabeth - m. Adam . 
Bird, 1798. 3. Richard - m. Agnes Kilpatrick, 1796 - G'brier. 4. 
James - m. Sarah Chestnut, 1798. 5. Sarah - m. Joseph Hutton, 
1807. 6. John - m. — Matheny. 7. Thomas - m. Rebecca Matheny, 
1812 - n. c. 

C-3 of James. - 

1. William J. - m. Susanna Sharp - preacher - 111. 2. Henry - 
m. — Moreland - n. c. - Poca. 3. Thomas - m. — Callahan. 4. 
Mary - m. James Wiley, 1824. 5. Jane - m. Charles S. Callahan, 
1825. 6. Rosa - m. — Sharp. 7. Peter H. - m. Sarah Green. 

C-4 of William J. - 

1. Aaron - b. 1827 - m. Margaret Bird Hickman, 1880. 2. Stew- 
art - m. 1. Mary Lockridge, 2. Elizabeth Hickman - Bath. 3. Mor- 
gan - W. 4. Eldridge - m. in W.* 5. Matilda - m. in III* 6. Mar- 
garet A. - m. Abraham Gum. 7. Elizabeth J. - m. George Bird. 8. 
Sarah - m. Adam L. Gum. 

C-5 of Aaron. - 

George B.f - b. 1855 - m. Ina Ayers, R'bridge. 

C-4 of PETER H. - 

Mary A. (m. John C. Given, III, 1866) - Wilson (m. Matilda 
Hamilton - Poca.) - girl (m. — Herring, Poca.*). 

C-3 of JOHN. - 

1. William C. - m. Jane Callahan, 1819. 2. John W. - m. Sarah 
Bird, 1831. 3. Adam - Harrison. 4. Peachy - W. Va. 

History of Highland County 331 

Misc. - 

1. Richard K. - of William of Richard (2) - m. Frances D. Er- 
vine - C-4. - 

Wilson E. (b. 1853 - m. Alice E. Woods, 1878) - Mary E. (m. 
John W. Gardner, 1888) - John (m. Leah Foster - Bath) - Jackson 
(111.) - Robert (D.). 

2. Jacob M. - m. Susan Rexrode - C.- 
Hugh (b. 1859 - m. Emma Turner, 1882) - Frances E. (m. Charles 

B. Greathouse, Barbour, 1891) - Harvey (b. 1862 - m. Margaret B. 
Harold, 1889) - James (m. Sarah J. M. Palmer, 1889) - George (m. 
Elizabeth Mullenax). 

3. Nancy - sister to Richard K. - m. Thomas Bird. 

4. Mary A. - m. Jonas W. Chew, 1854. 

Samples. John - b. 1783, D. 1874 - m. 1. Nancy Trimble, 1805, 
2. Sarah Zickafoose, 1837 - C-2.* - (by 1.) 

1. Susannah - b. Dec. 22, 1805, D. 1852 - m. — Ruckman, 1840. 
2. Agnes - dy. 3. Elizabeth H. - m. William Trimble. 4. John - 1). 
1812, D. 1852 - m. in Alleg. - Barbour. 5. James T. - m. in Mo.* 
6. William M. - b. 1818 - m. in Alleg.* - 13 C. 7. Harriet - twin to 
Wm. M. - D. 1855 - m. Archibald Sullenberger. 8. Isaac - D. 1847. 
9. Elijah - b. 1823 - m. Harriet Pullin, 1847. 10. Amos - m. Naomi 
Snyder, 1846 - Upshur. 11. Margaret - dy. 

C-3* of Elijah. - 

1. John H.f - b. 1848 - m. 1. Ruhama A. Lough, Pdn., 1873, 2. 
Martha S. Lough, Pdn., 3. Ruhama Siron Simmons McCoy, 1904. 2. 
Samuel P.t - m. Sarah E. Rexrode, 1883. 3. Elijah S. - m. Frances 
N. Kelly, 1889 - D. 4. Sarah E. - m. Benami H. Blagg. 5. James 
H. - m. Anne Gilliland, Bath - Alleg. -4 c. 6. William W.f - m. 
Jessie H. Wilson. 7. Isaac H.t - m. Mary M. Rymer, 1900. 8. 
Thomas J. - dy. 9. Andrew M. - dy. 

C-4* of John H. - (by 1.) 

1. Nancy S. - m. James H. Lamb. 2. Georgia E. - m. Harvey L. 
Taylor, 1904 - Rph. 3. Isaac F. - D. 28. 4. David C. 5. Elijah S. - 
m. in Braxton.* 6. Charles W.t m. Frances Helms, 1910. 7. Edward 
K. 8. Henry T. - m. in Ind.* 9. Grover C. (by 3) 10. Emma G. 

C-4* of SAMUEL P. - 

Clifton - Elmer - Pinckney - Maud (m. Daniel C. Ralston, Jr.) - 
Grace - Amy - Floyd - Edna. 

C-4* of ELIJAH S. - 

Ethel (dy.) - Gertrude E. - John - Edgar. 

C-4* of WILLIAM H. - 

Gladys - Ray - Guy. 

C-4* of ISAAC H. - 

Forrest L. - Ernest H. 

The pioneer may have been grandson to Samuel, who died in 

332 History of Highland County 

Augusta, 1776. He is known to have left a son William, and a 
daughter who married a Reynolds. 

Seybert. Jacob (w. — ) - k. 1758* - C-2. - 

1. Nicholas - b. 1743c, D. 1813 - s. 2. Margaret - m. William 
Janes. 3. Catharine - m. - -. 4. Elizabeth - m.? Henry Janes. 5. 

Henry - m. Rachel D. 1795. 6. George - m. Mary Pickle, Pdn., 


C-3* of Henry. - 

1. Elizabeth - b. 1773 - m. Abraham Gum. 2. Jacob - b. 1776, 
D. 1856 - m. Mary Gum, 1798 - Neb. 3. James - m. Ruth Jones, 1799 - 
W. 4. Rachel - b. 1780 - m. John Jones. 5. Margaret - m. James 
Janes. 6. Anna - b. 1785 - m. — Gum. 7. Henry - m. Sarah Gum, 
1819. 8. Cassander- W. 9. William - b. 1791, D. 1814.* 10. George - 
b. 1794 - m. — Mantz - W. 

C-4 of Jacob. - 

1. Isaac - m. Ruth Wilson, 1822 - Neb. 2. Andrew - m. 1. 
Mary Sullenberger, 1834, 2. Leah Arbogast - D. 1861. 3. Henry - m. 
Lucinda Hiner, 1835. 4. Mary - m. Benjamin Hiner. 5. Jacob - m. 
Catharine Fleisher, 1837. 6. Margaret - m. John Hiner. 7. Hester - 
m. John M. Jones. 8. Anne - m. Isaac McNeal, 1821. 

C-5* of Isaac. - 

1. Elizabeth - m. 1. Harvey Trimble, 2. Thomas Beverage. 2. 
Jacob - m. Margaret Fleisher - D. 3. Eli - m. — Warwick, Poca. - 
Okla. 4. Andrew C. - b. 1840 - m. Susan Fleisher - Neb. 

C-5 of ANDREW. - 

1. John W. - D. 40. 2. Jane - m. Houston F. Gwin. 3. Susan - 
b. 1837 - m. William M. Chew. 

C-5* of HENRY. - 

1. William - b. 1836, k. '64.* 2. Jemima - s. 3. Mary E. - m. 
Jacob F. Shumate. 4. Harmon H.t - b. 1850 - m. Sarah V. Arbogast, 
1880. 5. Margaret H. - m. William A. Jones. 

C-6* of Harmon H. - 

Clara H. (m. Isaac L. Beverage) - Mary M. (m. Don Sullen- 
berger) - Louie (m. Robert Rust, Warren - Leesburg) - Lena E. - 
Bonnie K. - Sarah. 

C-5 of JACOB. - 

1. Mary - d. 15. 2. Sarah M. - m. John W. Hull. 

C-3 of GEORGE. - 

1. Elizabeth - m. Henry Arbogast. 2. Sarah - m. Jacob Wimer. 
3. Leah - m. Christian Rexrode. 4. Catharine - m. James Trimble. 

Jacob (1) is elsewhere mentioned. There were 7 brothers, whose 
descendants are many. One of the second generation was — 

Philip - m. Mrs. Margaret Sims - C-3. - 

John - Mary (m. John Fleisher, 1805) - Rachel (m. Peter Sim- 
mons, 1811). 

History of Highland County 333 

Shumate. Augustus - b. 1804, D. 1892 - m. Elizabeth Pence, 
Rkm. - C-2.* - 

1. Louisa J. - b. 1831 - s. 2. Frances C. - m. William A. New- 
lin, 1859, Rkm.* 3. Margaret A. - m. Calvin B. Seybert. 4. Jacob 
L.t - b. 1839 - m. Mary E. Seybert, 1870. 5. William C. - m. Nancy 
J. Moyers, 1874 - Aug. 6. Elizabeth S. - s. 7. Martha - dy. 8. Al- 
bert A.t - b. 1850 - m. Mary Dice, Pdn. 9. Charles T.f - b. 1854 - m. 
1. Elizabeth A. Cross, Aug., 2. Elizabeth F. Cook, Mo. 

C-3* of Jacob L. - 

William S. (m. Cappie Engleman, Aug.*) - Annie M. (m. Edgar 
Wilson - 111.) - Robert L.t (m. Lena M. Crowley) - Leonidas H. 
(m. Effie S. Pope) - John R. (m. Newlon Shumate - 111.) - Kate J. 
(m. Frank J. Lockridge). 

C-3* of ALBERT A. - 

Frances D. (m. Max Sullenberger) - Kenton F. - Mary E. (d.) - 
Albert H. 

C-3 of CHARLES L. - 

James H. 

Sipe. John E.* - b. 1830, D. 1911 - m. Mary M. Hull - C-2. - 

1. William A. - dy. 2. Alice C. - dy. 3. Anne E. - b. 1861 - m. 
Walter D. Faurote, Ind. 4. Ella R. - dy. 5. Nancy J. - m. James O. 
Hiner. 6. Thomas J.t - b. 1867 - m. Isetta Rexrode. 7. John A. - 
m. Kate Houlihan - Rph. 8. Mary E. F. - dy. 9. Elizabeth F. - m. 
H— H. Pullin. 

C-3 of Thomas J. - 

Blanche - Horace M. - Harry - Clarence. 

William A. - bro. to John E. - D. 1907 - C-2.* - 

1. Margaret - dy. 2. James - s. - postal clerk, Staunton. 3. 
Ursula - m. Thomas H. Slaven. 4. Elizabeth K. - m. John A. White- 
law, 1899. 5. Cora. 6. Mary. 7. Ethel - m. in Md. 

Siple. (A) Joel - m. Mary M. Hiner - went to Pdn. 1862 - C-2. - 

1. George - m. in Poca.* 2. Caroline - m. John Roberson, Pdn. 
3. Jane - m. in Poca. - 111. 4. William - m. Mary Lough, Pdn. - 
k.* '61. 5. Mary - m. Joseph Armstrong. 6. John - m. in 111.* 7. 
Abraham - m. - — Albemarle. 8. Hannah - m. in Pdn. - Rkm. 9. 
Josiah H. - m. Rachel Beaver - Pdn. 10. Samuel - m. Sarah Arm- 
strong, 1858. 11. J. Madison - m. in Poca.* 12-23. twin girls - dy. 
14. Hiram K. - m. Rebecca Siron, 1876. 

Siple. (B) George - m. Mahala Hiner - C-2. - 

1. Joseph - m. Amanda Siron. 2. Magdalena - m. William Kiser, 
Pdn. 3. Conrad - m. Margaret Bodkin. 4. Floyd - m. in O.* 5. 
Lee - m. Delilah Crummett. 

C-3 of Joseph. - 

1. Joseph G.t - m. Nettie G. Crowley, 1901. 2. George F. - b. 

334 History of Highland County 

1864 - m. Jane Whistleman, 1891. 3. Mary - d. 4. William - physi- 
cian - Grant. 5. Radie - m. in Cal* 6. Louie V. - m. Jacob Arm- 
strong. 7. Bertie E. - m. J — H. Armstrong. 

C-3 of LEE. - 

J. Grover - m. Mabel Blagg, 1910. 

C-3 of HIRAM K. - 

J. Boyd - m. Ella V. Quidore, 1902 - Others - dy. 

Siron. John - m. Esther Hiner, 1794 - miller - D. 1838 - C-2. - 

1. Jacob - m. Lavina Calhoun, Pdn. 2. Jonathan - m. 1. Chris- 
tina Yeager, 2. Elizabeth Propst. 3. Joseph - b. 1815, D. 1862 - m. 
1. Jane Wilson, 2. Sarah Eagle. 4. Jehu - d. 5. Elizabeth - m. 1. 
Jacob Jack, 2. — Stone, Upshur.* 6. Magdalena - rh. Thomas Doug- 
las. 7. Esther - m. Samuel Wilson. 8. Ann - m. Jacob Jack. 9. 
Sarah - m. James Anderson, W. Va.* 10. Jane - m. George H. 
Dammeron, 1829 - 111. 11. Jemima - m. Joseph Edmond, 1842. 12. 
John - s. - k. by mill. 13. Valentine (reared) - m. Emily Fleisher, 
1846 - Upshur. 

C-3* of Jacob. - 

1. Esther - b. 1833 - m. Eli Crummett, Pdn. 2. Sarah - twin to 
Esther - m. 1. James Hogshead, Aug., 1854, 2. John Murphy. 3. 
John - k. '62* - m. Julia A. — . 4. Abel C.t - m. Mary Ralston - 
h'stead. 5. Caroline - m. George W. Bodkin. 6. Susan - m. 1. 
Enoch Eagle, 2. James Leach. 7. Martha J. - d. 8. Jacob B.t - m. 
Amanda McCoy. 

C-4* of John. - 

1. Nancy J. - m. James W. Johnson, Rkm. 2. Oliver R. - m. 
Hannah Armstrong - D. 3. Lavina A. - m. J. Pierce Simmons. 4. 
Elizabeth F. - m. Jacob T. Kiser, Pdn. 5. Susan C. - b. 1859 - m. 
John F. Chew. 

C-5* of Oliver R. - 

Drusilla M. (m. Archibald S. Graham, 1898 - D.) - Jesse (m. 
Margaret Lamb) - Cameron (m. Ella C. Keister) - Floyd - Orion - 
Lester - Ella. 

C-4* of ABEL C. - 

1. Lyman - m. Margaret McCoy - C-5 - 4. 2. Jane - m. John 
Simmons. 3. Ruhama - m. 1. Harvey Simmons, 2. John H. Samples. 
4. Luther B. - m. in W.* 5. Olen C.t - m. 1. Lillie O. West, 2. Lu- 
cinda Puffenberger. 6. Josephine - d. 

C-4* of JACOB B. - 

Charles P.t (m. Sylvia A. Findlay) - Lucius (m. in W.*) -Sam- 
uel (d.) - Clarence (d.) - Bernie (d.) - Harry (d.) - Jacob H. (d.) - 
John M. (m. in W.) - Stella D. (m. James Siron). 

C-3* of JONATHAN. - 

1-2. inf. - dy. 3. Sarah M. - b. 1851 - m. James S. Malcolm. 

History of Highland County 335 

4. John M. - m. in W. Va. - Kas. 5. Joel - D. 40c. 6. Arminta - m. 
John Wooddell. 

C-3* of JOSEPH. - 

1. Gilbertf - m. Margaret A. Keister. 2. John A. - s. 3. Joseph 
M.f - m. Anna V. Keister, 1891. 4. Amanda R. - m. Joseph Siple. 

5. Martha J. - m. Abbott L. Armstrong-. 6. Mahulda V. - m. William 
Anderson, Upshur. 7. Rebecca - m. Hiram K. Siple. 8. Mary E. - 
m. John M. Propst. 

C-4* of Gilbert. - 

1. Mary E. - m. John T. Hiner. 2. William R.f - m. Virginia 
Gillespie - physician. 3. Luther D. - m. Dora A. Vandevender, 111. - 
la. 4. G. Price - m. Martha J. Propst, 1891 - 111. 5. Oscar S. - m. 
Annie Richter, 111. - Mo. 6. Harriet G. - m. B — K. Price - Mo. 

7. J. Howard - m. Sarah E. Armstrong. 8. Virginia M. - m. Gilbert 
W. Lowenberg, Penn. - N. J. 9. Edna M. 10. Charles L. - teacher. 

C-4 of JOSEPH M. - 

Margie - Sidney - Mabel - Mildred - Janet - Randolph. 

Daniel - bro. to John (1) - m. Elizabeth Curry, 1813 - R'bridge. 

Slaven. John - m. Elizabeth Stuart, Scotland, 1748c - D. 1781 - 
C-2.* - 

1. Comfort - b. 1751 - m. William Higgins. 2. William - Tenn., 
1816c. 3. Elizabeth - b. 1755 - m. Abraham Ingram - O. 4. Naomi - 
b. 1757 - m. John Galford - Poca. 5. John - b. 1760 - m. 1. Sarah 
Wade, 2. Elizabeth Warwick, Poca.* 6. Isaiah - b. 1761 - m. Martha 
Stuart, 1785 - Ky., 1792. 7. Reuben - b. 1763 - O. 8. Daniel - O. 
9. Stewart - m. Isabella Johnson, 1792 - D. 1832. 10. Sarah - m. 
John Dinwiddie, 1801. 11. Priscilla. 12. Henry - m. Elizabeth Hou- 
chin, 1792 - O. 

C-3* of Stewart. - 

1. Matilda - m. John Wade - D. 1853. 2. Reuben - b. 1795, D. 
1878 - m. Rebecca A. Tallman, 1818. 3. Sarah - m. Alexander Gilmer. 
4. William - b. 1798, D. 1832 - m. 1. Margaret Wooddell, 1819, 2. 
Nancy Kline. 5. Elizabeth - b. 1800, D. 1856 - m. 1. Thomas Camp- 
bell, 2. — Stewart. 6. Jesse - m. — Gibson - Mo. 7. Stewart - Cal. 

8. Rachel - m. William Given. 9. Eleanor - b. 1808 - m. Adam 
Lightner. 10. Margaret - m. Benjamin P. Campbell, 1834. 

C-4* of Reuben. - 

1. James - b. 1820, D. 1871 - m. 1. Mary Warwick Vance, 1855, 2. 
Marietta V. Duncan. 2. Rachel - m. Adam H. Fleisher - D. 1859. 
3. Stewart C. - b. 1824, D. 1907 - m. Sarah J. Fleisher, 1846. 4. Jesse 
B. - b. 1826 - m. 1. Mary P. Slaven, 1852, 2. Mary H. Byrd, 1868. 5. 
Thomas H. - b. 1829, D. 1908 - m. Margaret C Fleisher, 1849. 6. 
Margaret C. - m. Aud L. Lindsay, 1853. 7. Peter H. - b. 1834, D. 
1871 - m. Sarah M. Slaven, 1865. 8. Matilda J. G. - m. Jacob H. 

336 History of Highland County 

Lindsay, Rkm., 1855. 9. Rebecca A. -b. 1838, D. - m. James H. Pat- 
terson, 1856. 10. William B. - b. 1840 - m. Emma Kelly - Tex. 

C-5* of Stewart C. - 

1. Charles H.f - b. 1848 - m. Carrie E. Arbogast, 1876. 2. How- 
ard H. - m. Eleanor Patterson, Poca. 

C-6* of Charles H. - 

Earl - Conway - Caddie - May. 

C-5* of THOMAS H. - 

1. John E. - m. Harriet Barnes, Col.* - D. 2. Emma - m. Lewis 
M. Carichoff. 3. Mary L. - b. 1859 - m. James J. Ogilvie, O., 1875. 
4. Harry F.f - m. Maud V. Siple, Pdn. 5. Ednonia F. - m. A. W. 
Reynolds, Princeton, W. Va.* 6. Thomas H.f - m. Ursula Sipe. 

7. Howard M.t - m. Daisy D. Bussard, 1900. 8. Marion V. 9. Martha 
R. - m. Davis H. Peterson - D. 

C-6* of Harry F. - 

Paul S.t (m. Lillie E. Warwick) - Elsie L. - H. Bruce - Forrest 
L. - John E. 

C-6* of THOMAS H. - 

Raymond - Mary M. 

C-6* of MARY L. OGILVIE - Albemarle. 

Frank E. (m. Sarah Hawkins) - Josephine (m. W. R. Hunn, 
Ky.) - John - James J. - Anson S. - Rachel - Thomas - Ednonia. 

C-5 of JESSE B. - 

1. Annie L. - m. Oscar J. Campbell, 1878. 2. Ernest M. - b. 
1855 - m. Mary L. Johnson, G'brier, 1883. 3. William A. - m. Lucy 
Crowley. 4. Henry A. - b. 1867 - m. 1. Allie E. Gum, 1888, 2. Sarah 
J. Tallman, Poca., 1908. 5. R. Bernard - m. Annie E. Hiner. 6. 
others - dy. 

Snyder. John - son of J— (w. S— ) - b. 1781, D. 1862 - m. 1. 
Barbara Waybright, 2. Elizabeth Halterman - C-2. - (by 1.) 

1. Harmon - Rph. 2. John - G'brier. 3. David - b. 1823, D. 
1896 - m. 1. Hannah Hevener, 2. Mary A. Stone, Pdn., 1863, 3. Caro- 
line V. Brantner, 1868. 4. Barbara - m. William Hevener. 5. Mary - 
m. Ephraim Lantz. (by 2) 6. Adam - G'brier. 7. Josephus - Poca. 

8. Washington C. - b. 1834 - m. Mary C. Brantner, 1866 - Neb. 9. 
James - m. in Ind. - Rph. 10. Eliza - m. Solomon Fleisher. 

C-3* of David. - (by 1.) 

1. Calvin C.f - b. 1848 - m. Louisa A. Simmons, 1869. 2. Martha. 
3. Amanda - dy. 4. Mary E. - m. Jasper Waybright. 5. Virginia F. - 
m. Samuel S. Waybright - D. (by 2) 6. William E.f - b. 1864 - m. 
Ludie M. Colaw, 1888. 7. Ludie C. - m. Jacob N. Stover, Aug.f -6 c. 
8. Hannah F. - b. 1867 - m. James F. McNulty. (by 3) 9. Delia 11. - 
m. James Anderson,! Neb. -9 c. 10. Bertie J. - m. Albert Harper. 
11. Emma F. - b. 1871 - m. Norris Harold. 12. Leonidas S. - m. 
Naomi C. Hevener, 1892. 13. William H. - m. Margaret Armstrong, 

History of Highland County 337 

1896. 14. Hester E. - b. 1876 - m. Harry Hevener. 15. Rumsay G. - 
m. Minnie L. Eagle, 1904. 16. Margaret D. - m. William S. Davis, 
Rkm.* 17. J. Russellf - m. Lena Eagle. 18. Joseph E. - m. in Aug.* 

C-4 of Calvin C. - 

Ollie (dy.) - James C.f (m. Octavia Warner, Pdn.) - Mary L. (b. 
1876 - m. Adam F. Hevener) - 2 boys (dy.) 

Mary - sister to John (1) - m. William Waybright, 1818. 

Stephenson. James - son of David, Penna. - m. Rachel Davis - 
D. 1813 - C-2. - 

1. Aaron. 2. Sarah - m. Robert? Crawford - Rph. 3. James - 
D. 25. 4. Rachel - m. James Gwin, 1799. 5. John - b. 1776, D. 1842 - 
m. Margaret J. Green, 1799. 6. Elizabeth - m. Andrew Crawford - 
Rph. 7. Mary - m. Robert Gwin, 1805. 8. Adam - m. 1. Rachel 
Moore, Poca., 2. Eva C. Campbell, 1806. 9. Esther - m. Joshua Key. 
10. Rebecca. 11. Cynthia - s. 12. Jane - m. Joshua Wood, 1810. 
13. Margaret - m. John McNulty, 1812. 

C-3 of John. - 

1. William - m. 1. Nancy Benson, 2. Eliza Curry - Bath. 2. 
Adam - D. 1889, at his farm, "Glenwood" - m. Sarah C. Wilson, 1838. 
3. David - m. Hester Gwin. 4. Washington - m. Susan E. Wilson. 
5. James - D. 25. 6. Andrew J. - s. 7. Eliza - m. David Gwin. 8. 
Margaret - m. James Ervine. 

C-4 of William. - (by 1.) 

Margaret (m. Abraham Burns, Bath*) - Susan (m. Tyler Wright - 
Aug.) - Emmeline (m. Reuben Hodge, Bath*) - Sarah - Henrietta - 
Arbana (m. Robert H. Griffen, 1897) - 2 inf. (dy.) - (by 2) Cassius 
(m. Sarah Hodge, Bath*) - Elizabeth F. (m. Charles F. Carpenter, 
1877) - J. Mack (m. Margaret A. Hodge, Bath*) - William (m. Alice 
Edmond - Bath) - Ada (m. Perry Ginger, Bath*) - 5 inf. (dy., diph- 

C-4* of ADAM. - 

1. Alexander T. - b. 1838, D. 1900 - m. 1. Georgia E. Shelton, 
Albemarle, 2. Allie Hull, G'brier. 2. Lucius H. - b. 1840, D. 1911 - m. 
Mary L. Campbell, 1871. 3. Georgia E. - m. Col. W. W. Arnett, 
Wheeling. 4. Oscar A. - b. 1845 - m. Margaret Revercomb, Bath. 
5. Susan E. - s. 6. John W. - b. 1850 - m. Eliza J. Warrick, Bath* - 
attorney. 7. James B. - b. 1856 - m. Julia Kramer, Rkm.* - attorney. 

C-5 of Alexander T. - 

Frances M. (m. James E. Lanier, Pittsylvania*) - Louis (d. 21c) - 
Augustus T. (d.) - Sarah J. (m. H. A. Revercomb, Bath*) - Alexan- 
der S. (W. Va.) - Mary V. - Georgia A. (m. - - ) - Emma V. 

C-5 of LUCIUS H. - 

Boy (dy.) - Josephine (m. Charles S. Roller, Aug.*) - Boydf 

338 History of Highland County 

(b. 1879 - attorney - m. Frances L. Hale, Tenn., 1911) - L. Homerf - 
John C. R.t 

C-5 of OSCAR A. - 

Adam (m. Eva Campbell) - William R. (m. Sarah Campbell) - 
Oscar H. - Roscoe B. - George A. - Susan C. (d.) - John H. 

C-5 of JOHN W. - 

Eliza G. (m. George N. Wise - Newport News) - Charlotte W. 
(m. John W. C. Jones - Newport News) - John W. (attorney) - 
Margaret B. - Constance W. 

C-4* of DAVID. - 

1. Roxanna F. - b. 1844 - m. Stephen C. Lindsay, Orange, 1875. 
2. Mahala P.f - m. John W. Reed. 3. Mary D. - m. Rev. Frank 
Davis. 4. Anderson F. - m. 1. Lina Hanna, Aug., 2. Lillie Cleek, 
Bath. 5. John B. - b. 1853 - m. Minnie B. Alexander - n. c. 6. 
Charles C. - m. Mary Lindsay - D. 1911. 

C-5 of Anderson F. - (by 1.) 

John - David - Bayard. 

C-5 of CHARLES C. - 

Charles O. - Annie M. - Hubert T. - Willard L. - Harriet P. - 
Meade W. - Harry A. - Marion M. 

C-4* of WASHINGTON. - 

1. William W.f - b. 1856 - m. Rachel V. Summers, 1886. 2. 
boy - dy. 

C-5* of William W. - 

Amelia W. (teacher) - Susan A. - Rose F. - Hallie S. - Eliza W. - 
Frank - Robert A. (dy.) - Wallace W. (dy.). 

C-3 of ADAM. - 

1. Andrew W. (w. — ) - Wood. 2. James - m. Lucy Benson - 
Harrison 3. John - b. 1826 - m. Laura Woods, 1855. 4. Asgal C. - 
m. Jane Steuart. 5. Amos - m. — Given, 111. 6. Janet - m. David 
Groves - Wood. 7. T ulia - m. — Arnold, Lewis.* 8. Mahala - m. 
John B. B. Wade - Mo. 9. Caroline - d. 

C-4 of Adam. - 

1. Margaret - m. James Ervine. 2. Eliza J. - m. David Gwin. 

C-4 of ASGAL C. - 

William B. - m. Boy - unkn. 

Bros, to James (1) - 

1. David - a major. 

2. Matthew - Tenn. 

3. William - Monroe. 

4. John - a preacher. 

5. Adam - s. 

Steuart. William - b. 1732c, D. 1797 - m. Margaret Usher - C-2. - 
1. James - b. 1757 - (w. — ). 2. Edward - b. 1759 - m. Mary 

History of Highland County 339 

Callahan - Harrison. 3. John - b. 1761, D. 1850 - m. Hannah Hicklin, 
1786. 4. William - m. Virginia Gwin. 5. Usher - s. 6. Mary - m. 
Charles Callahan, 1791. 7. Jane - m. James Hicklin. 

C-3 of James. - 

1. Dorothy - m. Charles Ervine, 1803. 2. Jane - m. William 
Freel, 1814. 3. James - m. Margaret Steuart, 1812. 4. William R. - 
m. 1. Jane Hicklin, 1821, 2. Jane Steuart, 1825, 3. Elizabeth Kincaid, 
4. Margaret Gwin. 5. Mary - m. Peter Hupman, 1821. 6. Sinclair - 
m. Sarah Steuart. 7. Robert - m. 1. Martha Williams, 2. Sarah J. 
Malcomb - n. c. 8. John R. - m. Margaret Malcomb, 1839 - D. 1857. 

C-4* of William R. - (by 1 and 2.) 

1. Silas - m. — Nickel - W. Va. 2. Renick (w. — ) - W. 3. J. 
Morgan - k. '62* - m. Elizabeth J. Steuart. 4. James - m. Clarissa 
Gwin - W. 5. Andrew - dy. 6. Elsie A. - m. John Steuart. 7. Min- 
erva - m. — Nickel, (by 3) 8. William - s. 9. Rachel - s. 10. 
Charles - d. 11. Mary - m. Joseph Whitmore. (by 4) 12. Elizabeth 
L. - b. 1842 - m. Floyd Kincaid. 13. Ferdinand - D.* '61. 

C-5 of J. Morgan. - 

Laura E. - m. William L. C. Benson, 1869. Worthy B.f - m. 
— Payne. Elizabeth - m. Samuel Wilson. John W. - b. 1849 - m. 
Nancy E. W. Benson, 1875. 

C-4 of SINCLAIR. - 

1. Elizabeth J. - m. 1. William Bennett, Upshur, 2. J. Morgan 
Steuart - both k. in Confederate service. 2. John E. - m. Virginia 
Wilson. 3. Robert - m. Sarah J. Donaghan, Aug. - D.* '61. 4. 
James - k. '62.* 5. Sarah M. - d. 6. Hortensia - dy. 7. William 
B.f - m. Margaret Armstrong - C-5 - William A. 8. Mary E. - m. 
John M. Armstrong. 9. Jane - s. 

C-5 of John E. - 

Lula F. (m. Homer N. Sites,! 1893) - Vernor B.t (m. Estelle 
Crickenberger, Bedford). 

C-5 of ROBERT. - 

Melissa E. (m. Robert H. Johns, 1882) - S. Thomas (s.) - Lenora 
(m. James Kiser, Pdn.) - Robert (s.). 

C-4 of JOHN. - (all went to 111.) 

James A. (m. — ■ Armstrong) - Robert E. (m. 1. Almira Propst, 
Pdn., 1874, 2. - - ) - Mary J. A. (b. 1847 - m. Wallace B. Malcomb). 

C-3 of EDWARD. - (all left, especially to Harrison) 

1. Ann - m. Alexander Miller, 1811. 2. William - m.? Jane 
Dixon, 1809. 3. Edward - m. Margaret Steuart. 4. Robert - m. — 
McClung. 5. John - m. Mary Steuart, 1816. 6. Adam - m. Julia 
Douglas. 7. Charles - m. Theresa G. Douglas, 1825. 

C-3 of JOHN. - 

1. John - m. Mary Steuart - Mo. 2. William - m. Jane Hicklin. 
3. Jacob W. - m. Cynthia Bradshaw. 4. Edward - b. 1803, D. 1883 - 

340 History of Highland County 

m. Caroline Douglas. 5. Nancy - m. Thomas McDannald, Bath.* 

6. Jane G. - m. Gerry G. Thompson, 1815. 7. Margaret - m. Edward 
Steuart. 8. Miranda - s. 9. David - s. 

C-4 of William. - 

Peachie H. (m. Mary S. Robertson, 1872). 

C-4 of JACOB W. - (all but 1 D. under 30) 

Jacob W. - Margaret (m. William Thompson) - Rebecca (m. 
John W. Huffman) - Eliza - Mahulda - William - Esteline (m. John 
W. Gladwell, 1861) - John - Harriet - David. 

C-4* of EDWARD. - 

Hannah P. - b. 1836 - m. Adam H. Fleisher. Martin V.f - b. 
1840 - m. Henrietta Gentry, Albemarle. John - D.* '61. Henry - 
k.* '61. Theresa - b. 1851 - m. Robert Kincaid. Thomas G.f - b. 
1856 - m. Nancy G. Thomas, Bath, 1884. 

C-5 of Martin V. - 

Annie (b. 1870, D. 1898 - m. James T. May, Aug. -2 c.)- others 

C-3 of WILLIAM. - 

1. Edward - m. Christina Callahan, 1819. 2. Sarah - m. Sinclair 
Steuart. 3. Jane - m. David Bennett. 4. girl - m. — Dickenson. 5. 
Mary - m. John Steuart, 1816. 6. Margaret - m. Abraham Carper. 

7. girl - m. Rev. - -. 

Strathy. Wilmot - m. Annie J. Bowers - C-2. - 

Wilmotf - m. Rachel Wimer. 

C-3 of Wilmot, Jr. - 

Clyde - Lena (m. Robert Newman) - Harry - Margie J. (m. 
Pinckney M. Mullenax, 1910) - Kate - Esther - Ola - William C. 

Sullenberger. Samuel - b. 1788, D. 1855 - cabinet maker - m. 
Martha Scott, 1807 (cousin to Gen. Winfield S. Scott) - C-2.* - 

1. Asher W. - b. 1808 - m. Hannah Evick, Pdn. 2. Abel G. (w. 
— ) - Ark. 3. Albert - m. in Tenn.* 4. Elizabeth G. - b. 1814, D. 
1849 - m. Andrew Seybert. 5. Archibald R. - m. Harriet Samples, 
1837 - Ala. 6. Ahaz B. - D. 31. 7. Martha R. - b. 1820 - m. James 
W. Seiver. 8. Samuel - b. 1823, D. 1905 - m. 1. Jane Harper, Pdn., 
2. Octavia Northern, Richmond - merchant at New H. 9. Matilda - 
m. William Waybright. 10. Mary M. - b. 1827, D. 1908 - m. Henry 
Arbogast. 11. John R. - b. 1832 - s. 

C-3* of Samuel. - (by 1.) 

1. Jay - E. Va. 2. Phoebe - b. 1857 - m. Caleb Campbell. 3. 
Mary - m. Kenton H. Trimble. 4. Lee - Cal. (by 2) 5. Dont - b. 
1874 - m. M. Madge Seybert, 1903. 6. Lynn - d. 7. Carl. 8. Floydt - 
m. Jennie Swadley, 1903. 9. Max - m. Frances D. Shumate. 

Swecker. Benjamin - m. Elizabeth Wolf, Rkm. - C-2. - 

1. Phoebe - m. John Lucky, 1834. 2. Levi - s. 3. Mary - d. 

History of Highland County 341 

4. Jeremiah - d. 5. Cain - d. 6. David W. - b. 1824, D. 1894 - m. 
Cecilia F. Eagle. 7. Ambrose - b. 1825 - m. Mary Lantz, 1858. 

C-3* of David W. - 

1. Benjamin C. - m. 1. Nebraska D. Jackson, 2. Olivia Rogers, 
Richmond City - Poca. 2. Elizabeth J. - m. David L. Mauzy, 1880. 
3. Martha C. - m. Rev. J. F. A. Loudenslager. 4. George E.f - m. 
Eliza E. Judy. 5. Eldridge D.t - m. Almeda Colaw. 

C-4 of AMBROSE. - 

1. William - s. 2. John C.t - m. Belle Keller, Poca. 3. Amanda 
E. - m. Abraham P. Arbogast, 1888. 

Misc. - 

1. Nathaniel - tithable in 1822 - bro. to Benjamin? 

2. Sarah - sister to Benjamin (1) - b. 1793, D. 1858 - m. Daniel 
Arbogast, 1817. 

Terry. James - b. 1790c, D. 1861c - m. Sarah Lloyd - C-2.* - 
1. William - m. — Patton, O.* 2. James M. - b. 1822, D. 1900 - 
m. Susan Douglas Wiley. 3. Alexander - m. Mary Kincaid. 4. War- 
wick - m. Cassie Gum. 5. Thomas - m. — Patton, O.* 6. Henry M. - 
m. Elizabeth Wilson. 7. Charles - m. in O. - Mont. 8. Margaret - 
m. Henry Sharp, Poca.* 9. Frances - b. 1838 - m. Amos Gum. 10. 
Jane - m. Morgan Gum. 11. Rachel - m. Amos C. Curry. 12. Martha 

5. - m. Samuel M. Curry. 13. Nancy - m. 1. — Zickafoose, 2. - -, 3. 
Samuel Gragg. 

C-3 of James M. - 

Howard H.t - b. 1858 - m. Sarah H. Swadley, 1893. 

C-4* of Howard H. - 

James F. - Hazel G. - Howard H. (dy.) - Susan E. - Julian M. - 
Hallie H. - Edna C. - Carl D. 

C-3* of ALEXANDER. - 

1. David A. G.f - b. 1850 - m. Mary F. Curry, 1870. 2. Thomas 
K.t - m. Jennie Kirkpatrick. 3. James P.f - m. Minnie R. Wade, 
1876. 4. Wasson W.f - b. 1860 - m. Mary B. Folks, 1886. 5. Andrew 
J.t - m. Rena J. Armstrong, 1889. 

C-4* of David A. G. - 

Lula E. (b. 1872 - m. Andrew J. Turner, 1892) - Cornelia P. (m. 
George W. Turner, 1892). 

C-4* of THOMAS K. - 

Bertha A. (b. 1879 - m. W. Harvey Harold) - Nora (m. Oscar 

C-4* of JAMES P. - 

Verdie I. (b. 1878 - m. Edward H. Gilmer, Poca.*) - Elzey (m. 
Lottie Townsend) - Lucy (m. William Wagoner). 

C-4* of WASSON W. - 

Daisy E. - Margaret G. (m. Leonidas Burns, Poca., 1908) - Erva 

342 History of Highland County 

L. (dy.) - Beulah C. (dy.) - Mary E. (dy.) - Lillie E. (dy.) - William 
C. - Richard W. - Eva M. 

C-4* of ANDREW J. - 

John A. (m. Elizabeth Alexander) - Minnie S. - Emma - 2 boys 
(dy.) - Elizabeth - Harper - Flora. 

C-3 of HENRY. - 

1. James B.t - b. 1883 - m. Mary J. Lamb. 2. Russell D. - m. 
Margaret Rexrode, Poca.* 

Townsend. Ezekiel - m. Frances McAvoy - C-2? - 

1. William - m. Sophia Potts, 1814. 2. James - m. Sarah Downey, 
1815. 3. John - m. Mary Ryder. 

C-3 of John. - 

1. George W. - b. 1854 - m. A— Foster, 1879 - D. 2. James B. - 
b. 1857 - m. Ruhama A. Folks - D. 3. Jackson T.f - m. Ettie Vande- 
venter, Poca. 4. Taylor - m. Minnie Gum - n. c. - Poca. 5. Sarah - 
m. Andrew Shinneberger. 6. Jennie - m. — Perry, Aug. - W. Va. 
7. Robert R.f - b. 1873 - m. Lina B. Ryder - 5 C. 

C-4 of Jackson T. - 

Guy (m. Mattie Hiner) - Isa (m. Howard V. Townsend) - Ivy - 

C-4 of GEORGE W. - 

Elizabeth - b. 1882 - m. Michael Gum. 

Misc. - 

1. Taylor - bro. to Ezekiel - m. Elizabeth McAvoy, Bath. 

2. James - bro. to Ezekiel - m. Rosa McAvoy, Bath. 

3. Solomon - bro.? to Ezekiel - D. 1805. 

4. James (w. Elizabeth) - C - Mary E. (b. 1854 - m. Benjamin 
F. Hiner). 

5. Benjamin - m. Sidney Colaw. 

6. John W. (w. Alice) - C - Howard V.f (b. 1891 - m. Isa Town- 

Trimble. James - m. 1. Susanna Shinneberger, 1784, 2. Eliza- 
beth Colaw, 1811 - D. 1824 - C-2.* - 

1. Nancy - b. 1785, D. 1828 - m. John Samples. 2. Sarah - b. 
1787 - m. Joseph Jones. 3. John - b. 1790 - m. Sarah Waybright, 
1812 - W. Va. 4. Susanna - b. 1792 - m. Mathias Benson. 5. James - 
b. 1795 - m. Catharine Seybert. 6. Elizabeth - b. 1797 - m. William 
W. Benson. 7. William. 8. Margaret. (by 2) 9. George A. - b. 
1819. 10. Ezekiel. 11. Mary E. - b. 1823, D. 1905 - m. Elihu Helmick. 

C-3* of James. - 

1. William - b. 1818 - m. 1. Sarah Harper, Pdn., 1843, 2. Mary J. 
Hamilton, 1857. 2. James - b. 1821, D. 1911 - m. Catharine Harper, 
Pdn. 3. Johnf - b. 1823 - m. Hannah Harper, Pdn. 4. George W. - 
k.* '61. 5. Harvey - b. 1826 - m. Elizabeth A. Seybert. 6. Henry I. - 

History of Highland County 343 

b. 1832, D. 1899 - m. Lucinda J. McCoy, 1857. 7. Mary - m. William 
A. Sipe. 

C-4* of William. - (by 1.) 

1. Francis M. - b. 1844 - m. Catharine J. Gwin, 1866. 2. Phoebe - 
m. Frank Swadley. 3. Mary J. - m. James K. Rexrode. (by 2) 4. 
William M.f - m. Minnie Patterson. 5. Mustoe. 6. Esther. 7. Alice 
V. - b. 1872 - m. William A. Bussard, 1897. 8. Martha - d. 

C-4* of JAMES. - 

1. Mary J. - m. Peter E. Hull. 2. Kenton H.f - b. 1859 - m. 
Mary Sullenberger, 1886 - physician. 3. James - s. 

C-4* of JOHN. - 

1. Isaac H. - m. Martha Zirkle, Shen. - physician - Staunton. 

2. Estella - m. George Hevener. 3. Mary K. - b. 1850 - m. Cyrus 
T. Fleisher. 

C-4* of HENRY I. - 

1. Charles W.f - b. 1860 - m. M. Bertie Lunsford, 1896. 2. Henry 
I. - m. — Pritt, Rph. 3. Loretta - m. Emerson W. Armstrong, 1890. 
4. Robert - m. Elsie Swadley. 5. James A.f - m. Mary Helmick. 
6. Oceana - m. George F. Crummett - Poca. 7. Matie - m. Luther S.. 
Dickenson, Aug., 1892. 

C-4* of HARVEY. - 

1. Virginia A. - b. 1853 - m. William A. Beverage, 1871. 2. Ruth 
A. - m. Charles N. Beverage, 1880. 

Vance. Benjamin - m. Hannah Sites, Aug. - C-2. - 

1. Silas - Aug. 2. William - s. 3. George - m. 1. Catharine 
Parsons, Hardy, 2. Jane Stickley, Hardy, 3. Sarah Keiter, Frederick, 
4. Dorcas Homan Jenkins. 4. Wellington - m. Elizabeth Shaver, 
Aug. - k. by lightning. 5. Rebecca - m. Robert C. Pullin. 6. Sarah - 
m. William Heltzel. 7. Margaret - m. Samuel Heltzel. 8. Eliza- 
beth - s. 

C-3 of George. - (by 2.) 

1. James E. - s. (by 4) 2. Georgia B. - m. E. Jesse Maloy. 3. 
Susan V. - m. David E. Lockridge. 


1. William H. - b. 1842 - m. Helen Jenkins. 2. Margaret J. - d. 

3. Eliza - d. 4. Mary - dy. 5. John - m. in Upshur.* 6. Theresa - 
m. in Upshur.* 

C-4 of William H. - 

John W. (m. Ruth Crouch, Rph.) - Virginia (dy.) - Dorcas E. 
(m. Adam Lohr - O.) - Rosa L. (m. Robert Hickson) - Mary (m. 
Harry Henderson - O.) - Lena (O.) - Willa M. (d.). 

Wade. John - b. 1723c, D. Dec. 31, 1815 - m. Sophia Howard, 
Md. (b. 1727, D. 1816) - C-2.* - 

1. Elizabeth - b. 1747 - m. Dennis Callahan. 2. Mary - b. 1749, 
D. 1838 - m. 1. William Wade, 2. — Henderson, 3. Leonard Gum. 

344 History of Highland County 

3. John H. - b. 1750, D. 1821. 4. Cassie - m. — Warren. 5. Sophia - 
b. 1755 - m. 1. William Chestnut, 2. James Burke. 6. Sarah - b. 1757 - 
m. John Slaven. 7. Priscilla - b. 1758, D. 1842 - m. Abraham Gum, 
1785. 8. Leonard - b. 1762 - m. Rosanna Holcomb, 1795. 9. Otho - 
b. 1766, D. 1825 - m. Catharine Callahan. 

C-3* of Otho. - 

1. John - b. 1789, D. 1874 - m. Matilda Slaven, 1811. 2. William - 
b. 1790, D.* 1812. 3. Sarah - b. 1792 - m. Sampson Zickafoose, 1817. 

4. Charles. 5. Otho. 6. Priscilla - b. 1799 - m.? David Ruckman. 
7. Anne - b. 1801, D. 1874 - m. John Matheny. 8. Leonard - b. 1804 - 
m. Sarah Matheny, 1825. 9. Sophia - b. 1806. 10. Abraham - b. 1811 - 
m. 1. Rachel Bird, 1830, 2. Mary C. Burke. 11. Mary - twin to Abra- 
ham. 12. James W. - b. 1814, D. 1897 - m. Sophia H. Briscoe, 1835. 

C-4* of John. - 

1. Henry S. - b. 1812, D. 1875 - m. Frances Arbogast, 1832 - 
Bath. 2. Naomi J. - b. 1814, D. 1854 - m. Osborne Hamilton. 3. 
Sarah A. - b. 1815, D. 1894 - m. David H. Bird. 4. William M. C. - 
b. 1817, D. 1881 - m. Nancy Ruckman, 1837 - Mo. 5. Elizabeth S. - 
b. 1818 - m. John Sharp, Poca.,* 1839. 6. Charles - b. 1820, D. 1908 - 
m. Catharine McNeal, 1845. 7. Matilda M. - b. 1822, D. 1907 - m. 
George H. Bird, 1852. 8. Stewart S. - b. 1823, D. 1904 - m. Susan 
Gum, 1845 - la. 9. John V. B. - b. 1825, D. 1892c - m. Mahala Steph- 
enson, 1856. 10. Reuben A. - D. 24. 11. Anson O. b. 1829, D. 1895 - 
m. S. Ardella Campbell, 1852. 12. Osborne H. - b. 1836, D. 1909 - m. 
Mary Cook, 1861 - Tex. 

C-5* of Charles. - (all but youngest - d.) 

1-4. (Matilda - Newton - Paul - Alexie). 5. Annie M. - b. 1851, 
D. 1879c - m. Samuel G. Dever. 

C-5* of ANSON O. - 

1. Florence E. - b. 1859 - m. James A. Fleisher. 2. Edwin A.f - 
b. 1864 - m. Lucy V. Ruckman, 1886. 3. boy - dy. 4. Harry A. G.t - 
b. 1868 - m. Lillie J. Curry. 

C-4* of ABRAHAM. - (by 1.) 

l.JDtho - b. 1831, k. by log, 1854 - m. Elizabeth Bird. 2, David 
B. - b. 1833, D. 1891 - m. Mahala Bird, 1865. 3. Mary J. - b. 1836 - m. 
Aaron Bird. 4. Stephen S.f - b. 1839 - m. Eliza Nottingham Chest- 
nut, (by 2) 5. Margaret F. - m. Andrew H. Folks, 1860. 

C-5* of David B. - 

1. Gertrude - b. 1865 - m. James E. Gum. 2. M. Cuba - m. Ed- 
ward Matheny. 3. Sydney G.f - b. 1872 - m. Emma O. Vint, 1892 - 
(C-6 - Eulah W. - Lillian A. - Alma E. - Wallace D.) 

C-4* of JAMES W. - 

1. Elizabeth A. - b. 1835 - m. 1. James E. Gum, 2. Andrew Curry. 
2. Emily - b. 1836 - m. Aaron D. Gum, 3. Howard - b. 1840, D. 1901 - 

History of Highland County 345 

m. Mary A. Wiley, 1863. 4. Virginia C. - b. 1844 - m. Otho Gum. 
5. Priscilla A. - b. 1846, D. 1883 - m. Oscar T. Wiley, 1867. 

C-5* of Howard. - 

1. James O.f - b. 1864. 2. Otho E.t - m. Lucy P. Gum, 1889 - 
C-6 - Cecil - Owen H. - Nellie H. 3. Eva S. - m. Joseph C. Chest- 
nut. 4. Nancy E. - m. James H. Wood. 5. Mary L. - m. Frederick 
C. Hiner. 6. Robert H.f - b. 1874 - m. Lillie B. Wiley, 1901 -3 c. 
7. Catharine A. - m. James A. Wade. 8. Cora E. - m. Henry M. 
Hiner. 9. inf. - dy. 10. Grace C. - m. William V. Hiner. 11. Edith 

A. - b. 1883 - m. James A. Chestnut. 

Misc. - 

1. Edmund - 1802. 

2. Thomas J. - b. 1834 - m. Elvira A. Ervine, 1869. 

Wagoner. Christian - D. 1798 - m. Catharine — , who D. 1826 - 
C-2. - 

1. Michael (w. Christina) - D. 1837. 2. Christian. 3. George. 
4. Joseph - m. Catharine Nicholas, 1794. 5? Esther C. - m. John 
Hidy, 1809. 6? Adam - m. Sarah Goings, 1810. 

C-3 of Joseph. - 

1. Henry - m. Barbara Lantz, 1816 - k. by guerillas, 1864. 2. 
Samson - m. Barbara Hevener, 1824 - D. 1862. 3. William - Wood, 
before 1847. 4. Elizabeth - m. Thomas McKeever, 1833 - Hamp- 
shire. 5. Solomon - b. 1805, D. 1887 - m. Eleanor Beverage. 

C-4 of Henry. - 

Solomon - m. Lucinda Mullenax, 1860. 

C-4* of SAMSON. - 

1. Barbara J. - b. 1845 - m. George A. Halterman, 1868. 2. 
Uriaht - b. 1846 - m. Sarah C. Halterman, 1869. 

C-5 of Uriah. - 

1. Barbara E. - m. James P. Eckard, 1887. 2. Mary M. - m. 1. 
Austin Fleisher, 1890, 2. - -, Penna. 3. William W. - m. Lucy M. 
Terry, 1901. 4. Joseph B.t - m. Margaret Bowers, 1906. 5. Robert - 
d. 6. Emma J. - m. Robert L. Halterman, 1905. 7. Delilah C. - m. 
Lloyd C. Bowers, 1905. 

C-4* of SOLOMON. - 

John B. - b. 1829c, D. 1894c - m. 1. Eleanor W. Beverage, 1857, 
2. Eunice McQuain, Pdn., 1871. Isaac S. - b. 1830, D. 1899 - m. Mar- 
garet R. Patterson, Aug. 

C-5 of John B. -(by 1.) 

1. J. Albertt - m. L. Ada Suddarth, 1887. 2. Thomas S.f - m. 
Minnie Simmons. 3. John W.f - m. Effie Fleisher, 1890. 4. Viola 

B. - d. 12. (by 2) 5. Ida A. - m. Andrew Ryder. 6. Isaac M. - m. 
Edna Anderson. 7. Charles B.f - m. Sarah Fleisher, 1902. 8. Lucy 
M. - b. 1878 - m. Boyd Beverage. 9. Walter W.f - m. Emma Bever- 
age. 10. George B. 11. Jesse L. - m. in N. C* 12. Floyd E. 13. 

346 History of Highland County 

Elizabeth L. - m. Jeremiah S. Vandevender. 14. Dennis B. 15. 
inf. - dy. 

C-5* of ISAAC S. - 

1. Charles L.f - m. Sarah E. Newman. 2. John A. - m. Lena K. 
Newman, 1893 - Aug. 3. Luella - dy. 4. Mary A. - m. Casper W. 
Judy. 5. I. Roy - m. Elizabeth Conoway, Albemarle - physician - 
S. C. 6. Matie B. 7. Edward C. - m. 1. Kate Calhoun, 1906, 2. Annie 
Stone - C-6 - Max. 

C-6* of Charles L. - 

J. Gerald - I. S. Conoway - Charles I. 

Waybright. Martin (w. — ) - C-2. - 

1. Catharine - m. Francis Nicholas, 1800. 2. Michael - m. Su- 
sanna McCartney, 1808. 3. Daniel - b. 1791, D. 1879 - m. Rachel 
Arbogast, 1811. 4. Mathias - m. Rebecca Arbogast, 1813 - Pdn. 
5. M m. Thomas Rymer, 1810. 6. Sarah - m. John Trimble, 1812. 

7. William - m. Mary Snyder, 1818. 8. Anna - m. Samuel Life. 9. 

C-3 of Daniel. - 

1. Daniel - m. Martha Mullenax, 1842 - Pdn. 2. Jesse - b. 1817, 
k. '64* - m. 1. Hester Arbogast, 1843, 2. Jane Bland, Pdn.* 3. Miles - 
m. Ann R. Nicholas, 1844. 4. Eli. 5. Martha - m. William Hinkle, 
Pdn.* 6. Elizabeth - m. William Hinkle (second wife). 7. Nathan - 
b. 1833 - m. Leah Ketterman, Pdn., 1867. 

C-3* of WILLIAM. - 

1. John - b. 1818, D. 1888 - m. Mary Wimer, 1837. 2. Abraham - 
m. Sarah Mauzy - Mo. 3. William - m. Matilda Sullenberger - Kas. 
4. Benjamin - s. 5. Washington - m. in Pdn. - Kas. 6. Andrew J. - 
b. 1829 - m. Susan Fleisher, 1871. 7. Joseph - m. in W.* 8. Bar- 
bara - m. Andrew Harold. 9. Sarah - m. Solomon Harold. 10. 
Annie - m. Solomon Harper, Pdn. 11. Martha - s. 12. Peter - m. 
Susan Lantz. 

C-4* of John. - 

1. Phoebe J. - m. Robert Phares, Pdn. 2. Morganf - b. 1844 - 
m. Elizabeth K. Brantner, 1866 - n. c. 3. Susan C. - m. Cornelius 
Wimer. 4. Samuel S.f - b. 1849 - m. H. Virginia Snyder, 1878. 5. 
Peter - dy. 6. Albert - m. in Neb.* 7. Ellen - m. Michael Mauzy. 

8. William - m. in Neb. 9. Robert L.f - m. Lonnie Newman. 10. 
Louisa - dy. 

C-5* of Samuel S. - 

John D. - James R. 

C-5* of ROBERT. - 

Homer N. - Russell L. - Eugene H. - J. Robert - John W. - 
Everett - Morgan. 

C-4 of ANDREW J. - 

Charles S.t - m. Maud Wimer - C-5 - (William - Samuel - Mar- 
guerite - Evelyn.) 

History of Highland County 347 

C-4 of PETER. - 

1. Mary. - m. William C. Rexrode. 2. Irene - m. 1. David Palmer, 2. 
Jacob Hevener. 3. David J. - m. Mary Snyder - E. Va. 

C-3 of MATHIAS. - 

1. Jesse - m. Hester Arbogast, 1843. 2. Morgant - m. Lucinda 
Arbogast. 3. Miles - m. Mahala Rexrode - Pdn. 4. Adam - 111. 
5. m. Emma Wimer. 6. m. Miles Harold. 

Whistleman. George - m. Jane Bodkin, 1831 - C-2. - 

1. Nancy. 2. Martha J. - b. 1836 - m. Daniel Michael. 3. Cath- 
arine. 4. D. Jackson. 5. Harrison. 6. J. William. 7. Margaret - 
m. Jonathan Varner. 8. Johnf - b. 1842 - m. Susan Todd, Pdn. 

C-3 of John. - 

Martha J. (b. 1862) - Mary M. (m. George W. Bodkin, 1884) - 
George A. (d.) - Susan J. (m. George F. Siple, 1891) - Lavina - 
Artella - Joseph - Elizabeth - James H. - Also 5 (dy., 1885). 

White. John (w. — ) - C-2. - 

1. George - m. Elizabeth Halterman, 1812. 2. John - m. Susanna 
Stone, 1815. 3. Henry - m. Mary Jenkins, W.* 

C-3* of George. - 

1. John - m. Margaret Bowers - la. 2. Adam - m. Sarah Long 
Miller - W. 3. Susan - m. Peter Beverage. 4. Harmon - m. Mary 
Puffenberger. 5. Peter - s. 6. Solomon - unkn. 7. George - b. 
1826 - m. 1. Frances Simmons, 1857, 2. Isabella Snyder, 1888. 8. 
Eleanor - m. Benjamin Rexrode. 9. Lucinda - m. Cyrus Colaw, Sr. 
10. Millie - m. Joseph Hevener. 11. Lavina - b. 1836 - m. Wayne 
W. Hevener. 

C-4 of Harmon. - 

1. Andrew J.f - m. A. Augusta Propst, 1896. 2. John M.t - m. 
Mary C. Rexrode, 1891. 3. Jane - m. James Snyder. 4. Emory - m. 
Sophronia Beverage - W. Va. 5. Lucinda - m. Charles Moats. 6. 
Henry P.f - m. Lou B. Moats, 1896. 7. William E. - m. — Slaven. 
8. Isaac H.t - m. Harriet Varner, 1906. 

C-3 of JOHN. - 

1. Solomon - m. Catharine Halterman, 1841. 2. Henry - m. 
Sabina Rexrode. 3. Jacob - b. 1819, D. 1895 - m. Eliza Hevener. 
4. Isaac - s. 5. Mary - m. Adam Fox. 6. Sarah - m. Joshua Miley - 
Pdn. 7. Eleanor - m. William Rexrode. 8. Margaret - m. Peter 
Halterman. 9. Anna - m. Daniel Stone. 

C-4 of Solomon. - 

Isaac H. - b. 1859 - m. Grace J. Arbogast, 1873. 

C-4 of JACOB. - 

Alcinda J. - m. Allen C. Judy. 

Whitelaw. Alexander (w. — ) - D. 1856 - hotel keeper - C-2. - 

1. Nicholas A.t - b. 1832 - m. Lucy A. Jarrett, Greene - dentist. 
2. James - m. 1. Kate Sims,? E. Va., 2. — Paulie, Aug. - n. c. - D. 

348 History of Highland County 

1900. 3. Robert - s. - D. 4. Julia - m. Frederick K. Hull. 5. Mary - 
m. _ Noel, Hid. 

C-3 of Nicholas A. - 

1. John A.t - b. 1869 - m. Lizzie Sipe, 1899 - 3 C-4 - merchant. 
2. Mary - m. Frederick W. Dudley. 3. Ernest - dy. 4. Ernest B.t - 
salesman. 5. Kate - m. Charles Hull. 6. Robert - b. 1885c - m. Lucy 

Wiley. Robert (w. — ) - D. 1812 - C-2. - 

1. Robert - s. 2. James - m. 1. Agnes Crawford, 1802, 2. Nancy 
Gwin. 3. Thomas. 4. William - m. Sarah Benson, 1799. 5. Eliza- 
beth - m. — Gilliam. 6. Rebecca - m. — Bates. 7. Martha - m. 
Samuel Carpenter. 8. Anne - m. John McGlaughlin. 9. Jane - m. 
Hugh McGlaughlin, 1794. 10. Mary - m. — McGlaughlin - D. before 
1812. 11. Nancy - m. — Kirkpatrick - D. before 1812. 

C-3* of James. - (by 1.) 

1. Elizabeth - m. Jacob Potts. 2. Nancy - m. William Mc- 
Glaughlin. 3. John - m. Elizabeth Gillespie - D. 1853. 4. Robert 
H. - b. 1808, D. 1853 - m. Susan Douglas, (by 2) 5. Sarah A. - b. 
1811, D. 1887 - m. 1. Mustoe Hamilton, 2. John McGlaughlin. 6. 
Acie - d. 

C-4* of John. - 

1. Mary A. - m. Lancelot Hickman. 2. Ruhama A. - m. George 
McGlaughlin. 3. Marcellus F.t - s. 4. John T. - dy. 5. Eliza J. - dy. 

C-4* of ROBERT H. - 

1. Sarah D. - b. 1842, D. 1881 - m. James M. Woods. 2. Mary 
A. - m. Howard Wade. 3. James C. - m. Mary E. Kramer - Poca. 
4. Oscar T. - m. Priscilla A. Wade, 1867 - Bath. 5. Robert C. - dy. 
6. Nancy J. - m. John A. Chestnut. 

Misc. - 

1. Alexander - bro. to Robert (1). 

2. Robert - m. Mary Hicklin, 1824. 

3. John - m. Sarah Wiatt, 1796. 

4. James - m. Mary Ryder, 1824. 

5. Nancy - m. William McGlaughlin, 1825. 

6. Elizabeth - m. Jacob Potts, 1822. 

Will. Washington W. - m. Elizabeth Arbogast, 1845 - C-2. - 
1. Susan (m. Josiah Palmer) - 2. Asbury S. (b. 1850 - m. Bar- 
bara E. Harold, 1870) - 3. Swope H. (m. Susan Eckard, 1880) - 4. 
Virginia C. (m. James H. Harold, 1871) - 5. Mary A. (m. Isaac Eck- 
ard, 1882) - 6. William P.t (m. Odie Newman, 1893). 
Misc. - 

1. Catharine - m. Mortimer Johnston, 1837. 

2. John (w. Delilah) - C. - S— J. H. (b. 1832 - m. Sarah A. 
Simmons, 1870). 

Wilson.. (A) Samuel - b. 1730c, k. 1774* - (w. Mary A.) - C-2. - 

History of Highland County 349 

1. Ralph. 2. Elibab - b. 1756, D. 1846 - m. Hannah Hempenstall. 
3. Samson. 4. Ruth. 

C-3 of Elibab. - 

1. Mary - m. John Armstrong, 1812. 2. Samuel - m. Jane Arm- 
strong, 1819 - D. 1834. 3. Elizabeth - m. George Wilson. 4. John. 
5. Abraham. 6. William. 7. Ruth - m. Isaac Seybert, 1822. 8. Han- 
nah - m.? Joseph Malcomb, 1821. 9. Jane. 

C-4 of Samuel. - 

1. Hannah - m. William Kinkead. 2. Ruth - m. Benjamin F. 
Jackson. 3. Hamilton. 4. Samuel - m. Jane Davis. 5. Harrison - s. 

Wilson. (B) William - bro. to Samuel - (w. Mary) - D. 1813 - 
C-2. - 

1. James - m. 1. Elizabeth Hempenstall, 2. Amelia D. 1810. 

2. Samuel. 3. Robert. 4. Jane. 5. Mary. 6. Elizabeth - b. 1752, D. 
1808 - m. William Blagg. 7. Priscilla - m.? William Smith, 1798. 

C-3 of James. - (by 1.) 

1. William I. - b. 1767? - m. 1. Mary Welch, 1805, 2. Margaret J. 
Malcomb Curry Edmond, 1842. (by 2) 2. Elizabeth - m. — Adams. 

3. Martha - m. Jared Armstrong, 1820. 4. Eleanor - m. James Arm- 
strong. 5. Ralph - m. 1. Elizabeth Welch, 2. in W. Va.* 6. Isaac - 
m. Mary McAvoy, Bath - Ind. 7. James - m. Sarah Smallridge. 8. 
George - m. Magdalena Hiner, 1825 - Ind. 9. Samuel - b. 1802 - m. 
Esther Blagg. 10. Eli H. - m. Naomi Blagg, 1829. 11. Martha. 

C-4 of William I. - 

1. James - m. Cynthia A. Hicklin. 2. John E. - m. Mary J. Hille, 
Pdn.* 1842. 3. William - m. Margaret Malcomb, 1842 - W. Va. 4. 
Charles W. - m. Margaret Hiner, 1846. 5. Jared M. - s. 6. Eli - s. 
7. Henry W. - m. Margaret Ralston, 1837 - Mo. 8. George W. - m. 
Elizabeth Wilson, 1841 - Mo. 9. Elizabeth - m. Christmas Malcomb. 
10. Mary A. - m. Abel H. Armstrong. 11. Jane - m. Joseph Siron. 
(by 2) 12. Andrew J. - m. Annis Teter, Pdn.* 13. Harriet D. - d. 
14. Lucinda F. - m. Allen Devericks. 15. Martha E. - m. John S. 

C-5 of Charles W. - 

1. J. Burner - m. Martha V. Price. 2. Mary J. - m. George 

C-4 of RALPH. - 

1. James - b. 1807, D. 1860 - m. Phoebe Hicks, 1830 - n. Pisgah 
Church. 2. George W. - W. 3. Eli - W. 4. Isaac - W. 5. Henry - 
W. 6. Elizabeth - W. 

C-5 of James. - 

1. Martha J. - m. James H. Hull. 2. Osborne - b. 1833 - m. 1. 
Elizabeth F. Whitmore, Rkm., 2. Lucy S. Armstrong, 1875, 3. Mar- 
garet Finlay, Aug., 4. Amy S. Loring, Nelson. 3. William M. - s. - 
miner - Cal. - D. 1909. 4. Frances M. - m. Franklin McNulty. 5. 

350 History of Highland County 

Nancy E. - m. David Alkire, Upshur.* 6. John E. - s. - miner - 
Nev. 7. George W. - m. in Cal. - Ari. 

C-6 of Osborne. - (by 2.) 

Frank (b. 1876 - m. Phoebe D. Jones) - Nora (m. John L. Mc- 
Neal, Poca.*) - Sarah W. - James R. - Mary L. 

C-4 of ELI. - 

1. Matilda - b. 1830 - s. 2. Lydia - m. Bennett Hiner. 3. El- 
dridge V. - b. 1834 - m. Susan A. Jones, 1864. 4. John - s. 5. Mary 
A. - m. Hugh McGlaughlin, Poca. 6. Samuel - D.* '61. 7. Eliza- 
beth - m. Henry Terry. 8. Martha - dy. 9. James C. - m. in W. 
Va. - Ind. 10. Alfred E. - m. Margaret A. Rusmisell, 1877. 11. 
Victoria J. - m. Mustoe H. Corbett. 12. William J. - b. 1852 - s. 
13. Isaac B. - dy. 

C-5 of Eldridge. - 

Rosa (m. in 111.) - Jane (dy.) - Kenny (dy.) - Orton V. (m. in 
111.*) - Emma (m. in 111.*) - Ruth (m. in 111.*) - John E. (m. Emma 
S. Bodkin, 1909) - Ella C. 

C-5 of ALFRED E. - 

Macy - Harmon - Virginia (m. Abner Blagg). 

Benoni - 3d from Samuel or William - b. 1811 - m. Nancy Ral- 
ston, 1833 - C-4. - (by 1.) 

1. Julia A. - m. John Siron. 2. Elizabeth - m. — Johnson, Poca.* 
3. Martha - W. 4. James A. - m. Martha F. Keister, 1864. 5. John 
C. - m. Margaret S. Reynolds, 1877. 6. Hezekiah F. - m. Matilda E. 
McCoy, 1866. 7. Benjamin - m. in Poca. 8. Samuel H. W. - m. Mar- 
garet J. Hupman, 1881. 9. Jonathan - m. — Reynolds. 10. William 
E. - m. Rebecca B. Curry, 1878. (by 2) 11. Jefferson - away. 12. 
Sylvia A. - m. William P. Siron, 1890. 

Wilson. (C) John - b. 1819, D. 1896 - m. Barbara Ervine, 1842 - 
C-2. - 

1. Charles A. - s. 2. John W. - m. Jane Jones. 3. Henry B. - 
dy. 4. Virginia A. - m. John A. Steuart. 5. Ida F. - m. Joseph 
Welborn, Mo.* 6. George F. - m. Ruth Vandiver, Mo.* 7. Lucy N. - 
m. William Bawder, Aug.* 8. Ervine - dy. 9. Reese - dy. 10. 
Mary E. - m. Jacob Wamsley, Rph. - Alleg. 11. Squire W. - m. 
Minnie O. Bradshaw, 1900. 12. Henry H. - m. Jennie Miller, Bath - 

Misc. - 

1. Abraham M. - m. 1. Esther Fleisher, 1834, 2. Ingaby Shirley, 

2. Andrew - 1806 - (w. Elizabeth) - C. - Mary - Elizabeth - 
Jane - James. 

3. Charles W. - m. Margaret Janes, 1815. 

4. Eleanor - m. William Armstrong, 1829. 

History of Highland County 351 

5. Elizabeth - m. William Smith, 1817. 

6. Frances - m. — Malcomb, 1813c. 

7. Hackland - h'd of CP, 1751. 

8. Hannah - m. Joseph Hook, 1820. 

9. Henry W. - m. Margaret Ralston, 1837. 

10. James - m. Sarah Mounts, 1795. 

11. Jane - m. Thomas Devericks, 1820. 

12. Mary J. - m. Thomas Brown, 1838. 

13. Robert - m. Margaret Ervine, 1832. 

14. Samuel - bro. to Robert - m. Asenath Jones, 1829. 

15. Samuel - m. Sarah Morton. 

16. Samuel - m. Elizabeth Armstrong, 1840. 

17. Samuel - m. Caroline — - c. - James E. (m. Elizabeth E. 
Fleisher, 1877). 

18. William - m. Martha E. Devericks, 1846. 
Wooddell. C. of William. - 

1. Esteline E. - m. John Rusmisell. 

C* of JOHN - m. Eliza A. Bodkin. - 

1. Elizabeth S. - b. 1834 - m. 1. John Blagg, 2. Joshua Cupp, Rkm. 

2. Benjamin - d. 3. Caroline - d. 4. Martha - b. 1840 - m. Andrew 
J. Simmons. 5. Rudolph - d. 6. John H. - b. 1849 - m. Christina 
A. Siron. 7. Mary A. - d. 8. Hugh I. - b. 1857 - m. Mary A. Bodkin. 

C* of John H. - 

Austin I. (m. Carrie Hoover - 1 c.) - Jonathan S. - Arley V. 
(m. Dora A. Malcomb -2c.)- Benjamin C. - Grace V. (m. J. Oscar 

C* of HUGH I. - 

Bertha V. (m. Frank J. Pullin) - Chloe E. (m. Norman S. Arm- 
strong, 1900) - Eliza J. - E. Burton - L. Marion - Hanson - Marvin - 
others (dy.). 

Woods. Samuel - m. 1. — Sharp (or Curry?), 2. — Wooddell - 
D. 1846 - C-2.* - 

1. John - m. Mary Bird - D. 1861. 2. Mary - b. 1802, D. 1839. 

3. James - s. 4. Jane - b. 1806, D. 1837. 5. Michael - D. 1841. 6. 
Elizabeth - D. 1845. 7. Samuel - m. Elizabeth Robertson - n. c. 

C-3* of John. - 

1. James M.t - b. 1835 - m. Sarah D. Wiley, 1859. 2. David - 
D.* '61. 3. Amos - k. '61.* 4. Peter B.f - m. Rachel A. Bird, 1868. 

C-4* of James M. - 

Mary S. (d.) - Howard (m. — Armstrong - Ariz.) - John R. 
(m. Elizabeth J. Hamilton, 1892) - Melissa (m. John Mackey) - 
David O. (m. Arminta S. Gum, 1891 - W. Va.) - Edward C. (m. 1. 
Julia E. Gum, 1898, 2. — Hicks - Poca.) - Ann L. (b. 1873 - m. Wil- 
liam H. Hiner). 

352 History of Highland County 

C-4* of PETER B. - 

James H. (b. 1874 - m. Elizabeth Wade, 1898 -2 c.)- Elizabeth 
(m. Robert Wiley) - Martha S. (m. 1. Elliott B. Hiner, 1898, 2. Guy 
Townsend) - John (d.). 

Wright. Thomas - m. Susan Graham - C-2. - 

1. James - b. 1816, D. 1901. 2. Christopher G. - b. 1819, k. by 
horse, 1853 - m. Evelyn Bradshaw. 3. Charles - m. Mrs. M. J. Carr, 
Henrico, 1867 - D. 4. William - s. - D. 5. Sarah - m. — Boder, 
Phila.* 6. Nancy - s. 7. Thomas - m. — Hevener - Lewis. 8. Mar- 
garet R. - m. Daniel C. Hamilton. 

C-3 of Christopher G. - 

Ruth (m. Rev. - -, G'brier). 

C-4 of CHARLES. - 

Ernest (Shen.) - William B. (m. — Gwin) - Charles (Aug.) - 
George (111.) - Erne (m. Harvey Whistleman - D.) - Annie. 

History of Highland County 353 



LJIGHLAND people have married numerously into the pioneer families of 
* *■ the adjoining counties. In several instances important branches of such 
families have come into Highland. This is particularly true of the old fami- 
lies of Pendleton and Bath, owing to the fact that Highland has no natural 
frontiers, north and south, such as it has east and west. In a book devoted 
specially to Highland, it is not to be expected that a full history of such 
families can be given. For such an account of the Pendleton families, the 
reader is referred to the author's history of that county. 

Summary of names, with original spelling where known of the non- 
British names. 

Scotch: Bland, Burns, Calhoun, Corbett, Cunningham, Hamilton, Kin- 
caid, McClintic, McClung, McQuain, Nelson, Patton, Pritt, Skidmore, Vint, 

English: Bland, Byrd, Carpenter, Dyer, Helmick, Masters, Ratliff, 

French: Trumbo (Trombeau). 

Dutch: Vandevender (Van Deventer), Wees (Waas). 

German: Bible (Beibel), Crummett (Kromet), Eckard (Eckhardt), 
Evick (Ewig), Eye (Auge - later, Owe), Ginger (Gindner), Hummer (no 
change), Hedrick, Hinkle (Henkel), Hoover (Huber), Judy (Tschudi), Keister 
(Geyster), Mitchell (Michler), Moats, Moyers (Meyer), Peninger, Pope 
(Paup), Propst (Probst), Puffenberger (Pf aff enberger) , Rexrode (Reicht- 
rodt), Ruleman (Ruhlmann), Simmons (Sieman), Smith (Schmidt), Sponaugle 
(Sponaugen), Stone (Stein), Swadley, Varner (Werner), Waggy (Wagner?), 
Wilfong (Wildfang). 

Danish : Harold. 

Bible. Philip came (probably from Rkm.) to Friend's Run, 1785c. One 
son, George (D. 1839) remained in Pdn. Sons of George. 1. John (m. Mary 
E. Skidmore - D. 1875). 2. George (m. Margaret Currence). 3. Jacob. 
4. Philip. 5. Samuel. 

Bland. Thomas came to NF, 1770c. The Blands now in Pdn. are de- 
rived from his sons Henry (D. 1826) and Enoch. Henry had 14 sons who grew 
to maturity 

J. Albert - son of James B. - m. Alice Nelson - c. - Bessie L. (m. 
Howard D. Colaw, 1898). 

Bowers. Charles? - m. Lucy Mick - Pdn. - C-2 - 

John - b. 1783 - m. Christina Ruleman. 

354 History of Highland County 

Joseph - bro.? to John - m. Barbara Vandevender - C-2 - 

1. William - b. 1818 - m. 1. Margaret S. Sponaugle, 2. Barbara Peck 
1866. 2. John - m. Leah Simmons - Pdn. 3. Hezekiah-m. Ellen Gillam, 
W. Va. 4. Solomon - s. 5. Matilda - m. Jacob Propst. 6. Margaret - 
m. John White. 7. Anna - m. Wilmot Strathy. 8. Mary A. - m. Henry 
Propst. 9. Sarah - m. in W. Va.* 

C-3 of William - (by 1) - 

John E. (m. 1. Almira Peck, 1869, 2. Margaret J. Whitecotton, 1876) - 
Harrison (m. Elizabeth Rexrode) - Joseph (d.) - Alzina (d.) - Amanda (m. 
Thomas Rymer) - Margaret C. (m. Jacob Peck) - Lucy A. (b. 1857 - m. 
Andrew J. Halterman). (By 2) - James (d) - Howard - Lloyd ( m. Lida C. 
Wagoner, 1905) - Dora (d.) - Jane (m. Amos Sponaugle, Jr.) - Ida (m. Charles 

Burns. John (w. Mary) - settled in the Red Holes, Bath - D. 1805 - C-2 - 

Peter (b. 1796 - m. Elizabeth C. Monroe, 1817) - Joseph - John - Mary - 
Eve - Sarah - Margaret. 

C-3 of Peter. - 

1. Elizabeth J. - m. Jonathan Potts - Poca. 2. Margaret M. - 
Upshur. 3. Mary C. - m. J. Morgan Morton. 4. Addison H. - m. 
Emmeline Burns. 5. Dorothy L. - dy. 6. Rebecca A. - m. Thomas 
Morton. 7. Hezekiah M. - m. Louisa Bradshaw, O. 8. Joseph W. - b. 
1832 - m. Martha A. Carpenter. 9. Nancy S. D. - b. 1834 - m. William 
Lockridge. 10. Martha E. - m. American Burns. 11. Christina C. - m. 1. 
John Leach, 2. David Daggy. 

C-4 of Joseph W. - 

1. M. Elizabeth - m. George J. Baldwinf of English parents and came 
1904c from Bath. 2. Peter S. - m. Sabina Folks - G'brier. 3. John D. - 
m. Margaret McAvoy, Bath.* 4. J. Hamilton! - m. Georgia Brown - 
C-5 - Elsie E. - Roscoe - Basil B. 5. Martha A. - twin to J. H. - m. Moses 
B. Gwin. 6. George C. - m. Etta Trainor - Bath. 7. Addison C. - m. 
Nora Riley - Bath. 

Byrd. John - k. by Indians, 1756 - C-2 - 

1. girl - b. 1746 - remained with Indians. 2. John - b. 1748 - m. — 
Hamilton. 3-6. others - lost among Indians. 

C-3 of John. - 

1. William - m. — Allen, Botetourt.* . John - m. Rebecca White, 
Bath - G'brier. 3. Thomas - Mo. 4. Andrew H. - b. 1792c, D. 1862 - m. 
Elizabeth Capito, Pdn. 5. Jane M. -m. Henry Miller, Penna. 1817 - G'brier. 
6. Margaret - m. James Hickman. 7. Alice - m. — McClintic - Mo. 8. 
Elizabeth - m. Thomas Crutchfield, 1816. 

C-4 of Andrew H. - 

Mary A. - m. David Ford, R'bridge. - G'brier. - Nancy H. - m. William 
McClintic, Bath.* - William H. - m. Susan McClintic, ss. to Wm. - Mo. - 
Daniel C. - m. — Walker, G'brier - away - Jacob W. -s. - John Tf - b. 1827 - 
m. Sarah R. McClintic, Bath. 

History of Highland County 355 

C-5 of John T. - 

1. Charles A. - m. Ella Bratton, Bath - n. c. 2. Cornelia F. - m- 
Carroll Garnett, Essex - E. Va. 3. Clifton E. - m. at Monroe, La. - Supt. of 
schools, Shreveport, La. 4. Minnie E. - m. James T. Byrd, g'son of John (3,) 
1881. 5. Anna S. - m. Hugh M. Francisco, Bath, 1880 - Bath. - both 
drowned by going through ice in CP river. 6. Adam M. -s - physician - 
Nashville, Term. 7. H. Houston - m. Ettie McClintic, Bath.* - attorney. 
8. Julian M.f - m. Sarah Ruckman - h'stead - C-6 - Julian M. Jr. - Sarah 
M. - Glenn H. 

C-4 of THOMAS. - 

Valentine - Jolrn^ James - William W. (b. 1822, D. 1889 - m. Margaret 
Bradshaw - came to Hid., 1845c) - girl (m. — Walkup) - girl (m. — Henly) - 
girl (m. — Ervine) - girl (m. — Collison) - Elsie (m. James H. Byrd) - one 

C-5 of William W. - 

Rebecca I. - m. James Bowen, G'brier - Okla. - James F. - m. Minnie 

Byrd, Bath.* - D. - Elizabeth - m. Ruthven Wright, G'brier.* - D. - Harvey 

v M. - Flora Roberts, Ky. - Cal. - Luther B. - m. Sammie McClung, Aug. - 

merchant - McD. (c. - Wallace M.) - Mary M. - m. J. Edwin Miles, W. Va.* - 

William E. - m. Georgia Kinkead, G'brier. 

James H. - b. 1817 - son of William (3) - physician - came, 1856c. - m. 
1. Elsie Byrd, 2. Mary P. Bird, 1858 - lived at Mill Gap. C-4. - 

May - m. Jesse Slaven - Elizabeth J. - m. Jacob C. Matheny - William 
C - b. 1843 - m. Amy R. Bird, 1866 - Ore. 

The Byrds came from Cheshire, England. John, pioneer, was perhaps 
g'grandson to William, who came to Henrico, 1674, and grandson to the only 
brother of Col. William, who D. 1744, aged 70, and was founder of Richmond. 

Calhoun. John came from Aug. to W. Dry Run, Pdn., 1792c, D. 1850. 
All the posterity of the surname are derived from his son William - m. 1 . Eliza- 
beth Mallett, 2. — Zickafoose - D. 1873. 

John W. O. - g'son of Win. - m. Elizabeth Rymer - C-5 - 

Don - Glenn - Walter - Kate (m. Edward Wagoner) - Margaret - Edna - 

Carpenter. Joseph was transported, 1776, served under Capt. David 
Gwin, lived several years on BP, then, 1800c, settled in Little Valley, Bath - 
m. Martha Wiley - C-2 - 

1. John - m. Nancy McGlaughlin, 1810. 2. Nancy - m. James Pritt, 
Bath. 3. Jane - m. Alexander Corbett, 1811. 4. Robert - m. Rebecca 
Monroe, Bath, 1809. 5. Rebecca - m. Jacob Monroe. 6. Mary - m. 
David McGlaughlin, 1823. 7. Elizabeth - m. Daniel Monroe. 8. Martha - 
m. Reuben Lindsay, Bath. 9. William - m. Margaret McGlaughlin. 10. 
Sarah W. - m. John Eakle, Bath, 1825. 11. Margaret - m. Robert Pritt. 
12. Samuel C. - m. Margaret E. McAvoy, Bath. 1». Susan - m. Heze- 
kiah Holcomb. 

C-3 of Robert. - 

Elizabeth (m. James Reed) - Martha S. (s) - Margaret (m. John Hodge,* 


356 History of Highland County 

Bath) - John (m. Jane Hite, Bath*) - Sarah (s) - Jane (s) - Rebecca (m. 
John Carpenter) - Rachel (m. John C. Eakle) - David M. (m. Annis Boone, 
Bath) - Robert (m. Frances Hite, Bath) - Jared M. (m. Martha Robertson) - 
Cynthia (m. Wallace H. Burns). 

C-4 of John. - 

Sarah M. - Jane (m. John Edmond, Bath*) - Susan E. (m. John Gut- 
shall) - Rachel A. (m. William T. Gutshall). 

C-4 of David M. 

A. Taylor (m. Mary A. Hite - W. Va.) - Charles R.t (m. Susan Hite) - 
David W.f (m. Sarah J. Carpenter, 1878) - George E.f (m. Kate Daggy, Bath). 

C-4 of Robert. - 

Daniel M. (m. Mary R. A. Carpenter - Bath) - Malvina (m. Anderson 
H. Folks) - Mary (m. William Donovan, Ireland - Bath) - M. Susan (m. 
William F. Folks) - Melissa A. (m. James F. Doyle) - E. Gay (m. James A. 
Gillespie, Ireland, 1883f) - Sarah D. (m. J. Mustoe Hamilton) - Robert S.t 
(m. Lucy R. Armstrong). 

C-4 of Jared M. - 

Mary R. A. (m. Daniel M. Carpenter) - Sarah J. (m. David W. Car- 
penter) - William R.f (m. Elizabeth W. Bussard) - Frank C.f (m. Elizabeth 
Stephenson) - Joseph W.f (m. Delia Armstrong) - Jefferson (m. Belle Daggy, 
Bath) - Rachel A. (m. George A. Bussard) - Elizabeth (m. David Gwin). 

There was a still earlier Joseph Carpenter in Bath. 

Corbett. John (m. Mary McGlaughlin) settled near John Burns. His 
son Alexander m. Jane Carpenter. A grandson of the latter is Mustoe H.f 
(m. Victoria J. Wilson) - C-5 - 

William B.f (m. Ruby G. Elliott, 111.) - John M.f (m. 1. Rosanna J. 
Gutshall, 1892, 2. Martha B. Pruitt, 1907) - Margaret E. (m. J. Luther 
Gutshall) - David P. (m. Mary Jack, Bath) - Charles A.f (m. Carrie L. 
Kelly, 1898) - James O.f (m. Annie McGlaughlin, Poca.) - Lucy J. (m. James 
Gardner) - Mary F. (m. Benjamin Schouler, Poca., 1907) - Nola E. (m. 
Charles C. Folks) - Sarah J. (dy, 6). 

Charles P.f - bro. to Mustoe H. ( m. Jennie Moore, Poca.) - C-5 - 

Mary V. (b. 1892 - m. David O. Folks) - May (m. Boyd McGlaughlin) - 
Rebecca - Cleveland - Bryan. 

William - another bro. - k.'61.* 

Crummett. Christopher was here in 1779 - located the family homestead 
on Crummett Run, Pdn., 1787 - w. (Ann R. E.) - D. 1816c. The local con- 
nection is derived from his son Frederick - m. Catharine Snyder, Pdn. - C-3 - 

1. Jacob - m. Eleanor Rexrode, 1825 - Pdn. 2. George - b. 1787 - 
m. Margaret Armstrong. 3. Henry - m. Sarah Hiney, Rkm. 4. Daniel - 
m. Sarah Mitchell, Pdn. - W. 5. Susan - m. John Keister. 6. Joseph - 
m. Elizabeth Eye - b. 1799. 

C-4 of Henry. - 

1. John - m. Susan - 2. Delilah - m. Daniel Varner. 3. Eli - b. 
1827 - m. Esther Siron. 4. Daniel - m. Mary J. Bodkin. 5. Henry - 
m. Amanda Dove. 6. Sarah A. -s. 7. Lydia - m. Emanuel Wilfong. 

History of Highland County 357 

C-4 of Joseph. - 

1. Josiah - b. 1843, D. 1910 - m. Susan Shaffer. 2-8. others. 

C-5 of Josiah. - 

1. Henry - dy. 2. William A.f - m. Mary E. Doyle - 5 c. 3. Sarah 
E. - m. James Smith -2 c. 4. Mary J. - m. B. Frank White - W. Va. 5. 
Paul P.j - m. Sarah B. Thomas -2 c. 6. George R.f 7. Elizabeth L. - 
m. Rev. Stephen Puffenberger - Rkm. 8. Emory J. 9. Lillie G. 

Cunningham. John, James, and William located a little below Circle- 
ville, 1753. Agnes, located land in CB, 1761. Robert, a prisoner among the 
Indians, was perhaps her husband, and Catharine (m. Aquila Roby, 1799), 
seems to have been a daughter. Another Cunningham was Mary, (m- 
Sylvester Ward, Rph.), mentioned 1788. James, son of one of the pioneers 
was b. 1741, a captive 1758-60, settled finally in Rph. and made the first deed 
recorded there. A g'grandson is William A.,f a resident since 1853 - m. 1. 
Elizabeth Crigler, 2. Georgia Blagg - C-6 - 

1. John W. - m. in Poca.* - physician - D. 2. Eliza - m. Luther 
Dixon. 3. Frances - m. Samuel Beverage. 

Dyer. Roger came from Penna., to Fort Seybert, 1747 and was leader of 
the first settlement in Pdn. K. by Indians, 1758. For his day he was well- 
to-do. One son-in-law was Frederick Keister, ancester of the Keister connec- 
tion. Another was Matthew Patton, a justice and very active and 
prominent. In 1795 Patton sold his homestead to Col. Peter Hull for $5,000.00, 
and went to Ky. His son Roger m. — Dinwiddie. 

Eckard. Michael seems to have located at mouth of Brushy Fork, Pdn., 
1753. A g'grandson was Job (b. 1845, D. 1910 - m. Ruhama Gwin). 

Evick. Christian was another of the company of German settlers who 
came to the SF, Pdn., in 1753. His widow, Margaret, was buried at Franklin, 
1796. His sons Francis and George located the land where Franklin stands, 
George (m. Eve — ), D. 1800 removed to Straight Creek, 1784. Adam, one of 
his 8 c, was grandfather to Dicef (m. 1. Sarah Few, Rkm., 2. Mary Few, 
Rkm., 3. Mary B. Bennett, Barbour) - C-6 of Dice - (by 1) - 

Walter C. (m. Pearl Carper, Rph. - Fayette) - Russell (m. Myrtle Jones. 
O.*) - Elmer F. (m. Nellie Mason, Rph.*). (by 2) - Mabel (m. Joseph Burke) 
- Myrtle - Lula - Forrest. 

Loran D, was cousin to Dice. 

Eye. Christopher S. (m. Catharine Zorn, 1770c) - came to Pdn. in youth - 
D. 1799 - sons. 1. Christian (m. Elizabeth Propst). 2. Jacob (m. Kate 
Hoover). 3. Frederick (m. Catharine Stone). 4. George (m. Elizabeth 
Snyder). 5. Henry (m. Mary Propst). 

William D. - g'grandson of Christian - m. Elizabeth C. Simmons - C-6 - 

Charles B. - Annie F. (Allie P. Hull, 1909) - William J. - Mary E. 

Ginger. This connection came from Rkm. to Bath, somewhat recently. 

Hamilton. A pioneer name in Bath - C-2 of — 

1. Alexander - b. 1790, D. 1840 - m. Rebecca Graham, 1825 - n. c. 2. 
Mustoe - b. 1806 - m. Sarah A. Wiley. 3. Edward - m. Catharine Capito, 
Pdn. 4. Charles - m. Catharine — , 1817. 

358 History of Highland County 

C-3 of Mustoe. - 

James W. (s) - John G. (m. Mary C. Townsend, 1866) - Esther A. (m. 
John Armstrong) - Mary J. A. (b. 1841 - m. William Trimble). 

C-4 of John G. - 

J. Mustoe (m. Sarah B. Carpenter, 1897) - Elizabeth J. (m. John R. 

C-3 of EDWARD. - 

1. Nancy - m. Sawyers Davis. 2. Daniel C. - b. 1821, D. 1880 - m. 
Margaret C. Wright. 

C-4 of Daniel C. - 

1. Charles A. - m. Martha A. Hiner, 1866 - 111. 2. George D. - k, 
accident. 3. Henry G. - m. in Mo.* 4. John S.f - m. Ruhama Lockridge. 
5. Thomas A.| - m. Annie L. Davis, 1893. 6. James S. - m. in Mo.* 7. 
Rebecca J. - m. John R. Rexrode. 8. Robert G. - m. Elizabeth Graham - 
Aug. 9. William T.| - m. Leota S. Helms, 1896. 10. Stephen G. - m. in 
Mo.* 11. Daniel C. -s. 12. Susan R. - m. George T. Graham. 

C-5 of John S. - 

Annie (m. Benjamin Crum, Aug.*) - Mack (D. 22) - Sarah (m. Newton 
Chrisman, Aug.*) - Harmon (m. in W.*). 

C-5 of Thomas A. - 

Thomas G. - Leo - Julian - Elizabeth - Ruth. 

C-5 of William T. - 

Elsie - Mary E. - Willa - Mason. 

C-3 of CHARLES. - 

1. William I. (w. ) - Tex. 2. Osborne - m. Catharine Hevener - 

Bath. 3. Gawen-m. Madera Wade - BC. 4. ■ Mary - m. William Light- 
ner. 5. Rachel - m. Peter Lightner. 

C-4 of William I. - 

Susan - m. Austin Campbell. 

The family would appear to be of kin to Lt. Col. Gawen Hamilton, 
member of the House of Delegates during the Revolution, and first county 
clerk of Pendleton. 

Hammer. Balsor (m. Elizabeth Simmons), settled n. Cave, Pdn., 1777c. 
Samuel - son of his son George - m. Catharine Moyers - came, 1882c. 

Edward A.f - son of Samuel - m. 1. Ella Ralston, 1883, 2. Rhoda F. 
Bodkin, 1904. 

C-5. - (by 1) - 

Mary - Carrie E. (m. J. Preston Siple) - William - Berlin (m. Grace 
Ralston) - Louie - Roy - Emma - Catharine - Grace - John - Elizabeth - 
Jared - Jones. (By 2) - Glenn - Edward - Henry - Virginia. 

Lutherf (m. Esther Waybright) - g'grandson of George, bro. to Balsor (1). 

Harold. Daniel H. - grandson of John of SF, Pdn. - b. 1830, D. 1901 - 
m. Sarah Hoover, 1852 - came to n. H'town, 1866 - C-4 - 

John C. (m. Ella J. Ervine, 1894) - Mary (m. David Rexrode) - William 
H.f (m. Bertha Terry) - Margaret (m. Harvey Ryder) - Jamesf (m. Jennie 

History of Highland County 359 

Simmons) - Annie (m. Don Snyder) - Peter M. (m. Minnie Varner) - Grace 
(m. Charles Simmons) - Jane (m. Robert Simmons). 

Miles - g'granclson of Michael of East Dry Run, Pdn. - m. Catharine A 
Waybright - merchant - C-5 - 

Loring A. (b. 1862 - m. Hannah Chew, 1885) - Jasper N. (m. Emma P. 
Snyder, 1892) - Dora B. (m. James S. Judy, Pdn.) - Pauline D. (m. A. — T. 

Herold. Christopher - m. Elizabeth Cook, Pdn. - removed from BC to 
Poca. - C-2 - 

Susan (m. Philip Moyers) - Jane (m. John Bussard) - Elizabeth A. (m. 
in Poca.*) - Henry (m. Elizabeth Lockridge) - Peter (m. Catharine Snyder) - 
Benjamin (m. Mary Boone, Bath) - Charles (d) - Christopher (m. Sarah A. 
Hevener) - Andrew (m. Maria Seybert) - Josiah (m. Mary A. Cleek, Bath). 

Hedrick. Charles (m. Barbara Conrad) - D. 1802 - pioneer of Pdn. 
sons. 1. John. 2. Frederick. 3. Charles. 4. Adam. 5. Henry. 

Solomon (m. Martha Armstrong) - son of Charles. 

Robertf - g'grandson of Adam. 

Helmick. Philip - pioneer of NF, Pdn. - his son Jesse came to CB, 1827, 

C-3 of Jesse (b. 1800, D. 1883 - m. 1. Elizabeth Mongold, 2. Nanc 
E. Simmons) - C-4 (by 1) - 

1. Philipf - b. 1826 - m. 1. Malinda Peck, 2. Mahulda Wimer Peck. 

2. George W. - b. 1831, D. 1909 - m. 1. Anne Warlow, Penna, 2. Phoebe J. 
Rexrode, 1901. 3. Mary A. - m. Rufus Hoover - (by 2) 4. Jonathan - m. 
in Aug.* 5. Catharine - m. Jeremiah Simmons. 6. Susanna - b. 1839 - 
m. James Slayton, Poca.* 7. Christina - s. 8. Sarah E. - m. 1. Henry 
Gragg, 1866, 2. Peter Halterman. 9-12. Inf. - dy. 

C-4 of Philip. - (by 1) - 

Adam C. (b. 1859 - m. Amanda Gum, 1881) - William L. (m. Susan F. 
Puffenberger, 1891) - Martha P. (m. Alexander Wimer, W. Va., 1893) - 
Louisa J. (m. Samuel Varner) - Sarah V. - 6 others (dy). (by 2) - George - 
Elizabeth - Phoebe J. 

Hinkle. Justus, son of Rev. Anthony Jacob Henkel of Penna. - came from 
N. C. to NF, Pdn., 1761. Sons. - 1. Jacob. 2. Abraham. 3. Justus. 
4. Isaac. They were people of much thrift and ability. 

Hoover. Sebastian came to SF, Pdn., 1753. k. 1780* His sons appear 
to be these : 

1. Sebastian (w. — ) - D. 1808. 2. Peter (w. Mary) - D. 1807. 3. 
George (w. Anna M.) - D. 1798c. 4. Michael (w. Susanna) - D. 1842. 5. 
Nicholas (W. Margaret). 

C-3 of Sebastian. - 

1. Michael (w. Mary). 2. Thomas (w. — ) - both buried in one grave. 

3. Jacob - m.? Susanna Snyder, 1803c. 4. Sebastian - m.? Susanna Colaw, 
1811. 5. Catharine - m. — Stone - Ky. 6. Peter. 7-8. 2 others. 

C-3 of Peter. - 

1. Jacob. 2. Henry (w.? Elizabeth) - b. 1782c. 3. Peter. 4. Will- 
iam - m. Barbara Propst - Brandwine. 5. John - b. 1789. 6. Samuel - 

360 History of Highland County 

b. 1792 - Hid. 7. George (w.' Martha) - O., before 1813. 8. Catharine - m. 
Isaac Smith, 1809. 9. Barbara - m. John Waggy. 10. Elizabeth - m. 
George Sivey, 1804. 

C-3 of George. - 

1. Paul. 2. Jacob (w. Martha) - Rph. 3. Joseph - Harrison. 4. 
Isaac. 5. George - m.? Hannah Keister, 1810. 6. Susanna - m.? Se- 
bastian Hoover. 7. Mary. 8. Barbara. 

C-3 of Michael. - 

1. Mary. 2. Rachel. 3. John. 4. Sebastian - m. Mary Jones, 
1811. 5. George - b. 1801 - m. Susan Shrader Snyder - Barbour. 6. 
Michael - m.? Mary Bodkin, 1821 - away. 7. Thomas - m. Barbara Sim- 
mons, 1811 - away. 

C-3 of Nicholas. - 

1. Sebastian - b. 1777, D. 1860 - m. Susanna Simmons. 2. Susanna - 
m. in Rkm.* 

Misc. - 

1. J — (w. Nancy) - b. before 1800. 2. Lawrence (w. Eve) - Black- 

Judy. Henry, son of Martin, came from Grant to NF, above Circleville, 
1788. His sons were Henry and Martin. Allen C. is son of Amos of Henry - 
b. 1852 - came 1872 - m. 1. Amanda White, 2. Nancy Varner - C-5 - 

Casper W. (m. Mary A. Wagoner, 1899) - Eliza E. (m. George E. Sweck- 
er) - Swecker. 

Keister. Frederick - m. Hannah Dyer, 1755c - came from Germany to 
SF, Pdn., 1753 - D. 1814c - sons. - 1. James (w. — ). 2. Frederick (m. 
Ann E. Propst, 1791). 3. George - m. 1. Susanna Peck. 2. Mary A. Jor- 
dan. 4-8. daughters, of whom Esther - m. Adam Hull. 

Frederick Jr. was a famous hunter. 

William R. - b. 1837, D. 1885 - m. Martha E. McCoyt - C-2 - 

William H. (m. Virginia Fletcher, Rkm.*) - Henry M. (m. Mrs. Ida 
Beatty, Bath - Cal.) - Anne V. (m. Joseph Siron - Mary E. (d. 16) - Carrie 
V. (d. 14) - Kenny C. (d. 12) - Grace (d. 9) - Beulah (d. 3) - Martha (m. Fred- 
erick Clark, Cal.) - Signora (m. Charles Bradshaw) - Ella C. (m. Cameron 

Martha (m. James Wilson) and Margaret A. (m. Gilbert Siron) - sisters 
to William R. 

Jacob P. - one of the 18 c. of George - b. 1817, D. 1895 - m. Mary G. 
Lockridge - moved from Hid. to Mason - C-4 - 

1. Mary S. G. - m. William A. Tuning, Bath, 1853 - Huntington. 2. 
George R. - b. 1839 - m. Byrd Roberts, Tenn., 1865 - Tex. 3. William J. - 
m. Lavina Cobb, 1865 - W. Va. 4. Joseph A. - d. 15. 5. John D. - m. 
Ella Bennett, 1865 - W. Va. 6. Anthony W. - D. 21. 7. Margaret E. - 
m. Jackson McFann, O.*, 1870. 8. Samuel H. - m. Mary Jordan, Mason*, 

Kincaid. John - m. Elizabeth D. 1813 - C-2 - 

1. Andrew - m. Elizabeth Gwin, 1812. 2. John. 3. Robert. 4. 

History of Highland County 361 

James. 5. Isabel - m. Thomas Kincaid. 6. William (m. 1804, w. — ) 
7. David N. - m. Mary L. Hodge. 8. Ferdinand (w. Margaret). 9. 
Charles L. (w. ) - D. 1858. 

C-3 of William. - 

1. John - Mo. 2. Jordan. 3. boy - unknown since 1846. 4. Wil- 
liam. 5. Cal. 6. Willis - m. Margaret T. Ray, Bath*. 7. Ellen - twin to 
Willis - m. in 111.*. 8. Malinda - m. David Brinkley, Bath*. 9. Charles 
- Bath. 

C-4 of Willis - 

Floydf - b. 1833 - m. Elizabeth L. Steuart, 1862. 

C-5 of Floyd. - 

Adaline H. - m. George H. Lockridge. 

C-3 of DAVID N. - 

Hamilton H. - m. Harriet L. Rogers, 1870 - C-4 - Harriet H. (m. James 
S. Hupman, 1866). 

C-4 of FERDINAND. - 

1. Clarissa - m. in Aug.* 2. Mary - m. John Burns, Bath*. 3. 
Julia A. - m. George M. Rymer- Aug. 4. Elizabeth -b. 1800, D. 1858 - m. 
William Steuart. 5. John D. - m. Sarah L. — . 

C-5 of John D. 

Warwick C. - b. 1841 - m. Mary A. Hupman, 1881. 

C-4 of CHARLES L. - 

1. William - D.* '61 - m. Hettie Benson. 2. Charles L. - m. Amanda 
Benson. 3. Matilda - s. 4. Nancy - m. Samuel Marshall, Bath. 5. 
Margaret - m. George H. Benson. 6. Isabelle - m. — Marshall, Bath. 

C-5 of William. - 

Felix M.f - b. 1856 - m. Mary S. Johns, 1883 - 
C-5 of Charles L. - 

Willard - b. 1857 - m. C— J. Bennett, 1879. 

Misc. - 

1. Samuel (w. Mary - C-2 - Robert A. M. (m. Theresa Steuart, 1872. 

2. W. — C. (w. Mary A.) - C-2 - Mabel (m. J. Wesley Armstrong, 1905). 

3. W. — C. (w. L ) - C-2 - Cora (m. John M. Steuart, 1888). 

Masters. (A) Andrew M. - son of Campbell, of Pdn., and grandson of 
Richard, English immigrant - b. 1826, D. 1911 - m. 1. Sarah Jones, 2. Mar- 
garet A. Floyd Henderson - came 1850c - C-3 - (by 1) 

1. William - m. in W.* 2. Mary A. - b. 1855 - m. Squire J. Blagg. 
3. Joseph - m. in W.* (By 2) - Charles C. - Aug. 

Thomas - cousin to Richard - b. 1772, D. 1875 - came over sea with 11 c, 
losing one on the voyage - settled in Bath. 

Frederick - son of Thos. - b. 1825 - m. Martha A. Kincaid - C-3 - 

William A. - m. Alice F. Stinespring - C-4 . 

Willa E. (m. James H. Pritt, 1890). 

Mary K. - son of Robert C. of Thos. - m. Oscar A. Bird, 1881. 

Mauzy. Michael - b. 1776, D. 1848 - came from Rkm. to Pdn., 1842c - 
m. Grace Laird - C-2 - 

362 History of Highland County 

1. Henry. 2. David L. - b. 1810, D. 1889 - m. Mary Hammer, Pdn., 
1837 - Hid. 3. Richard - m. Eliza Farrar, Bath - Tenn. - n. c. 4. Mar- 
garet 5. Michael - m. in Greene*. 6. James - m. (1.) Malinda Phares, Pdn. 
(2.) Caroline Barkley, Pdn. 7. Thomas - Tenn. 8. Joseph - b. 1817, D. 
1884 -m. Susan Hammer, Pdn., 1850 - Hid. 9. Elizabeth. 10. Sarah - 
m. Abraham Waybright. 11. Charles K. - physician - Tenn. 12. Susanna 
J. - m. George Hammer, Pdn.* 

C-3 of David L. - 

1. Jemima - dy. 2. Grace L. - b. 1839, D. 1868 - m. William P. Kin- 
kead. 3. Mary S. - m. Henry Simmons, Pdn., 1861. 4. Sarah - m. 
James L. Turk, Aug.* 5. George W. -m. Emma J. Seiver, 1872. 6. Mich- 
ael C. - m. Georgianna A. Colaw, 1876 - G'brier. 7. Charles K. - b. 1849 - 
m. Christine Arbogast, Pdn., 1901 - C-4 - William W. - Mary G. - Roscoe. 
8. David L. - b. 1852 - m. Elizabeth J. Swecker, 1880. 9. Whitfield - dy. 

C-4 of George W. - 

Frederick G. (D. 1909) - James C. (dy.) - William W. (dy.) - Clara G. 
(m. Uriah Hevener, 1907) - Mollie M. (teacher) - Martha S. (teacher). 

C-4 of David L. - 

Frederick C. (D. 1907) - Mary O. (dy.) - William R. - Paul L. - Robert 
E. - Hollie K. - Mattie A. 

C-3 of JOSEPH - 

1. Henry - b. 1852 - m. Margaret A. Judy, Pdn., 1877 - Neb. 2. 
Elizabeth - twin to Henry - m. Franklin J. Marshall. 3. Michael - m. Ellen 
Waybright. 4. Myrtie - m. Edward Harper, Pdn. 5. Joseph - m. Frances 
Stone. 6. Annie - m. Ellis Allen. 7. Martha - m. Ira Matheny. 8. 

Michael was grandson to the Rev. Henry Mauzy, a Huguenot refugee, who 
escaped from France soon after 1685, by being concealed in a hogshead in the 
hold of a ship. He brought away his Bible, a silver cup (heirloom), and coat 
of arms. He married in England and came to Stafford Co., Va. His son John 
was father of Henry and grandfather of Michael (1). 

McClintic. William - severely wounded at Guilford, 1781 - Bath - m. 
Nancy Byrd-D. 1801. 

Alexander B. - one of the 13 c. of William of William - m. Mary Wise, 
1865 - D. 1887 - C-4 - 

1. John - m. Josephine Stout, Mo. - Montana. 2. Emma - m. Walter 
P.Campbell. 3. Charles - m. Sarah Summers - Clarksburg. 4. Howard - 
m. Florence Poole, Bath*. 5. Tobias - m. Mary Woodruff -3 c. 6. Edwin 
A.- s. 

William Jr. was delegate to General Assembly, 1846. 

McGuffin. An old name in Bath. Adam G. (m. Elizabeth Orbison) - 
adopted and named by Adam Gwin - C-2 - 

Adam G. (m. Mary V. McGuffin Mackey) - came to Bolar, 1873 - C-3 - 
Robert G. (m. Clara Reed) - Samuel B. 

McQuain. Alexander - came to Blackthorn, Pdn., 1782c - m. Mary 
Bodkin. The connection in this region are derived from his son Duncan - b. 
1783 - m. 1. Martha Rymer, 2. Catharine Fox. 

History of Highland County 363 

Mitchell. The numerous Mitchell connection in the two counties spring 
from George, a son of Rev. Peter Michler, (D. 1812) first resident Lutheran 
minister in Pdn. Sons of George - 1. Jacob. 2. George. 3. Leonard. 
4. Peter. 5. Jonas. 

Moats. Jacob - came to Pdn., 1771. Sons - Jacob - George - Adam - 
John - George (m. Eve Stone, 1792) seems to be the only one who remained in 

James (m. Amanda Simmons) - came 1900c - C-2 - 

1. Pinckney C. - m. Mary B. Snyder, 1898. 2. Dice - m. Effie Puffin- 
berger, 1908. 3. Charles - m. Lucinda White. 4. Lou B. - m. Henry P. 
White. 5. Ada - m. Emory Rexrode. 6. Calvin. 7. Claude - d. 

Moyers. Peter - came to SB, Pdn., 1789 - sons - 

1. George. 2. Martin - m. Sarah Hammer, 1804 - Hid. 3. Philip. 
4. Lewis. 5. Jacob. 

C-3 of Martin. - 

1. Elizabeth - m. Jotham Prine 2. Mary - m. Joseph Layne - b. 
1807, D. 1883. 3. Catharine - m. Jesse P. - Frances - m. Salisbury Trum- 
bo. 4. Margaret. 5. Susan. 6. James - m. Rachel S. 7. Samuel. 

Nelson. John - came to NF, Pdn., 1785c - sons - 

1. Isaac - m. 1. Elizabeth McCartney, Bath, 1799, 2. Kate Pen- 
nington, 1827. 2. Absalom - m. Jane McCartney, Bath. 3. Benham - m. 
Susanna Wilfong. 4. Elijah - m. Mary M. Kincaid. 5. Jonathan - m. 
Hannah Harras, Ky. 4 other sons removed. 

Peninger. Henry settled 1 mile S. of Franklin, 1761 - D. 1820 - C-2 - 

1. John - m. Barbara Propst, 1787 - Fayette. 2. Henry - m. Barbara 

CB. 3. Elizabeth - m. Nicholas Harper, Pdn. 4. Catharine - m_ 

Henry Fleisher. 5. Mary. 6. Barbara - m. Peter Hull. 7. Ann E. - 
m. George Bible. 8. Susanna - m. George Vandevender. 

By will each daughter received 100 pounds ($333.33). 

C-3 of Henry, Jr. - 

1. Catharine - m. Levi Arbogast. 2. Rebecca - m. Jesse Rexrode. 3. 
Caroline - m. Henry Rexrode. 4. — m. Henry Eye. 5. Elizabeth - b. 
1814c - m. Henry Wimer. 6. Matilda - m. John A. Hidy, 1833. 7. 
John. 8. Eunice - b. 1825 - m. George Arbogast. 

Pope. Peter settled in Sweedland, Pdn. His only son was John - b. 
1791 - m. Jemima Randall. Leonard M., a grandson of John came to D Hill, 
1883 - m. Vesta Trumbo, Pdn. - C-5 - Effie S. (m. Leonidas H. Shumate) - 
Minnie M. - Lona D. - Lester T. - Mary G. 

Pritt. An old name in the N. of Bath. 

Propst. John M. settled 3 miles S. of Brandywine, Pdn., 1753 - D. 1785 - 
sons - 1. Daniel. 2. Leonard. 3. Frederick. 4. Michael. 5. Henry - 
decendants very many and not quite easy to trace. 

C-3 of Leonard. - 

1. Barbara - m. John Peninger, 1787. 2. Hester - m. John Jordan. 
3. girl - m. Henry Jordan. 4. Mary - m. Jefferson Coulter. 5. Mary - 

364 History of Highland County 

m. Peter Hevener. 6. Leonard - m. Elizabeth Ward, Pdn., 1797. 7- 
Christian - m. Mary McGlaughlin, 1797 - Upshur. 

C-4 of Leonard. - 

1. Leonard - m. Caroline Hicklin. 2. Ann - m. Eli Keister. 3. 
Sarah - m. Samuel Pullin, 1826. 

C-5 of Leonard. - 

John (m. in Mo.*) - McDowell (m. in Mo.*) - Sarah M. (m. David 
Shafer) - Elizabeth (m. — Propst). 

Joseph of Henry (b. 1792, D. 1872) - lived in Hid. 

Henry - m. 1. Catharine Sinnett, 2. Nancy McQuain - came to S. 
District, 1850c - C-4 - (by 1) - 

1. Jeremiah J. - m. Eliza J. Ralston. 2. Solomon E. - m. Margaret 
Armstrong. 3. James K. P. - m. Sarah J. Douglas. (by 2) - 4. John M.f - 
m. Elizabeth Siron. 5. Almira - m. Robert Steuart. 6. Joseph - dy, 8. 

C-5 of Jeremiah J. - Perley M.f (m. Mary L. Newman, 1899.) Ruth J. 

C-5 of Solomon E. - 

Martha J. (m. Gilbert P. Siron) - Gideon A. - Henry M.f (m. Nancy E. 
Wilson, 1898). 

C-5 of James K. P. - 

Clyde B. (m. in 111.*) - George (m. Frances Simmons) - Annie (m. — 
Sullivan, Aug.*) - Ruby (m. in 111.*) - Rebecca B. - girl - d. - Cleveland - 
D. 22. 

C-5 of John M. - 

Joseph W. - Layman W. 

John - early settler on BC - m. Ann Herring - C - 

John - m. Abigail Ervine - W. - Phoebe - m. Robert Ervine, 1818. - 
Eleanor - m. William Ervine. 

Puffenberger. George came to the vicinity of Sugar Grove, Pdn., 1774 - 
D. 1829 - C-2 - 

Peter - George - Christian - John - Sarah - Henry - Elizabeth - Susanna - 

Adam - son of Peter - came to FW, 1851c - m. Elizabeth Simmons - C-4 - 

1. Mary - m. Harmon White. 2. Martha J. - m. Jonas Rexrode. 3- 
Nancy E. - b. 1851 - m. 1. Andrew Gragg, 2. John Caldwell. 4. Sarah 
A. - m. Andrew Gragg, named above. 5. George - m. Margaret Clayton, O. 
6. Jerome - m. Mary Waybright Helmick - S. Carolina 7. Andrew J.f - 
b. 1856 - m. Elizabeth Eye, 1879. 8. Solomon H.f - m. Mary Whitecotton, 
1879. 9. Williamf-m. 1. Phoebe E. Moats, 2. Phoebe? Rexrode Robert- 
son. 10. Rebecca - m. Henry Simmons. 11. Harmon - m. Sarah Me- 
shantic, O.* 12. Rudolph - d. 13. Ruhama - d. 14. Sarah F. - b. 
1870 - m. William L. Helmick. 15. Louisa - m. Nicholas Simmons. 

C-5 of Andrew J. - 

Benjamin L. (m. Alice Peck) - Louie V. (m. Charles W. Gum) - Mary (m. 
William D. Barkley) - Charles K. (m. Alice Simmons) - 2 inf. (dy.) - James 
R. - Frances M. (m. Bowman Barkley). 

History of Highland County 365 

C-5 of Solomon H. - 

Emory (m. — Crummett) - William (m. in Poca.*) - Cameron - Lu- 
anda (m. ) - Esther - Troy - Elizabeth - Casper. 

C-5 of William. - 

Early (m. Kate Halterman) - Carrie (m. William Rexrode, Poca.*) - 
Erne (m. Dice Moats) - Delia (m. Robert Simmons, Poca.*) - Samuel. 

Job - cousin to Adam - m. Elizabeth Halterman, 1841 - C-4 - 

1. Solomon - m. 1. Sarah E. Hevener, 1867, 2. Sarah E. Colaw Vande- 
vender) - Aug. 2. Jacob - m. Martha E. Mullenax, 1866 - Mo. 3. Chris- 
tian L. - m. Sarah S. Halterman, 1881. 4. Andersonf - b. 1854 - m. 1. 
Grace A. Gum, 1876, 2. Orpah Mullenax Smith. 5-7 girls - dy. 

C-5 of Christian. - 

Albert L.f (m. Lida Fleisher) - Wellington (d.) - Roy - Annie (m. Hubert 
Rexrode) - Almeda - Stella. 

C-5 of Anderson. - 

Percyt (m. Hallie Crummett) - Gertrude F. (m. James A. Eagle, 1902) - 
Henry (m. Grace Beverage) - Charles. 

Ratliff. A Bath family, several members of which have lived in M. Dist. 
and B. Dist. 

Rexrode. Zachariah (w. Catharine) - came from Shen. to Pdn., 1774 - 
D. 1799 - C-2 - 

1. George - b. 1760c, D. 1852 - m. Margaret Hevener, 1791 - Pdn. 
2. Zachariah - b. 1762, D. 1848 - m. Catharine Propst - Pdn. 3. Henry - 

m. Catharine E. D. early. 4. Leonard - m. Elizabeth Caplinger, 1791 - 

Hid. 5. John - m. Margaret Hoover. 6. Mary - m. John Gragg, 1796. 

7. Dorothy A. - m. . 8. Christian - Ritchie, 1830c. 9. Barbara - 

m. Jacob Peninger, 1813. 

C-3 of George - 

1. Joseph - m. Sarah Kiser - Hid. 2. Henry - b. 1806 - m. Mary A. 
Kiser. 3-13. others - Pdn. 

C-4 of Henry. - 

George M.f - m. Josephine Stone, Pdn. - New H., 1868. 

C-5 of George M. - 

1. Charles P.f - m. Margaret Dudley - physician - CB. 2. Carrie 
F. - m. John J. Kinkead. 3-4. boys - dy. 5. Russell. 

C-3 of LEONARD. - 

1. John - m. Eleanor Rymer, 1813. 2. Leonard - m. Barbara Rex- 
rode, 1827. 3. Sarah - m. John Harold. 4. Margaret. 5. Daniel - m. 
Esther Puffenberger, 1830. 6. Christian - m. Leah Seybert. 7. Samuel - 
m. 1. Susanna Waybright, 2. Mrs. — Waggy, 3. Sarah Smalley. 

C-4 of JOHN. - 

1. Andrew - b. 1822, D. 1895 - m. Mary A. Pullin, 1846. 2. John -m. 
Rachel Edmond - Lewis. 3 Nathan - m. Julian Eagle - Lewis. 4. 
Leonard - D.* '61. 5. George - m. Elizabeth Pullin, 1843 - Lewis. 6. 
Thomas - m. Sarah Pullin - Lewis. 7. William - m. Mary J. Curry - 
Lewis. 8. Ella - m. Alexander McQuain, Pdn. 9. Mary H. - m. Thomas 

366 History of Highland County 

C-5 of Andrew. - 

1. Samuel B.f - m. Missouri A. Bird, 1878. 2. Robert - dy. 3. 
Henrietta - m. Dr. Leroy L. Quidore, 1876. 4. Mary F. - m. Henry E. 
Bryantf, Greene, who came 1873. 5. John R.f - m. 1. Rebecca Hamilton, 
2. Annie Pullin. 6. Elizabeth - s. 7. Annie E. - m. John S. Ervine. 
8. Pricie - m. William H. Williams. 

C-6 of Samuel B. - 

Sullenberger B. (m. Sarah J. Rexrode) - Lola (m. Edward Steuart) - 
Elizabeth (m. Arthur Beverage) - Wilda (m. Clarence Matheny) - George - 
Samuel - Mazie - Hoy - Ruth - Esther. 

C-6 of Henrietta Quidore.f - 

Erma G. (d.) - Ida G. (teacher) - William B. (d.) - Harry B. (d.) - Mary 
A. - Ella V. 

C-6 of Mary F. Bryant. - 

Nettie M. - Edward A. (k. at 20, accident) - Frank W. - Margie - 3 boys 
and 1 girl (dy.). 

C-6 of John R. - 

1. Edward C. - m. Bertha von Fentel, of Germany - New York City. 
2. William D. - D. 3. Cornelia - m. Wilbur Ralston. 4. Bertha - (by 

C-4 of DANIEL - 

1. Jonas - m. Martha Puffenberger - Poca. 2. Daniel -s. 3. Martha 
P. - m. 1. Elias Harold, 2. John E. Cross. 4. Annie - m. William Baker. 

C-4 of SAMUEL- (by 1) - 

1. Michael - m. Sarah Varner - Grant. 2. John - m. Sidney Mc- 
Luster. 3. Leonard - m. 1. — Hoover, Pdn., 2. — Zirkle - Grant Co. 
4. Annie - m. Matthew H. Hull. 5. Archibald - m. in Pdn. - Grant. 6. 
Louisa - s. 7. Ellen - m. Valentine Bowers, Pdn. (by 3) 8. Sarah - m. 
David Varner. - 9. Christian. 

C-4 of JOHN. - 

1. Adam - b. 1793, D. 1869 - m. Elizabeth Fox. 2. Solomon - m. 
Eleanor Rymer, 1813. 3. Benjamin - b. 1802c - m. 1. Sarah Hoover, 2. 
Eleanor White, 1865. 4. Elizabeth - m. John Fox, 1819. 5. Barbara - m. 
Leonard Rexrode, 1827. 

C-5 of ADAM. - 

1. William -m. Eleanor White, 1841 -Lewis. 2. Henry - m. in Rkm. - 
Mo. 3. John M. - b. 1820, D. 1890 - m. Catharine Cook, 1847. 4. Han- 
nah - m. — Allen. 5. Phoebe A. - s. 6. Peter - Mo. 7. Margaret - 
m. Joseph Hiner. 8. Susan - m. Amos Snider. 

C-6 of John M. - 

1. Eliza J. (m. Jacob N. Hull). 2. George K. - b. 1851 - (m. Mary J. 
Trimble). 3. William T. (m. Margaret Beverage - Rkm). 4. Lillie B. 
(twin to Wm. T.) - m. William? Matheny, Rkm.*. 

C-5 of SOLOMON. - 

1. Andrew J. (m. Mary A. Varner - Aug.) 2. William C.f (m. Mary 
. Waybright, 1870 - Miller - New H.) 3. Sarah C. (b. 1835 - m. Ander- 

History of Highland County 367 

son M. Nicholas, 1856.) 4. Margaret - m. Philip Wimer. 5. Elizabeth 
- s. 6. Jane - m. Andrew Arbogast. 7. Caroline - m. Samuel H. Eye, 
Pdn., 1870. 8. Eleanor - m. Cyrus Hull. 9. Amanda - m. William Hull. 
10. Martha - m. Kemper Rexrode, Grant. 

C-6 of William C. - 

Nettie (m. Joseph W. Varner, 1895) - Harriet (m. Edward R. Hull) - 
Lottie (m. James W. Hull) - Artie (m. Luther Hull) - William K. - Sarah 
(m. Walter Newman) - Charles C. - Arley B. - Lula M. (m. Hiram L. Sim- 
mons) - Erma L. (m. Keiffer Evick, Pdn.) - Richard R. - Ruth (dy.). 

C-5 of BENJAMIN. - (by 1) - 

1. George A.f - m. Mary A. Folks. 2. Daniel - m. Barbara Simmons. 
3. Sylvester - m. Susanna Jack. 4. Sabina - m. Henry White, (by 2) - 
5. Jeremiah F. - m. Amy Hinkle - Rkm. 

C-6 of George A. - 

Ida (m. William Palmer) - Preston (m. Ida White, Poca.*) - Rosa (m. 
Lee Page) - Etta (m. Henry Hevener) - Harriet - Mary - Arthur - Amanda - 
Jessie - Bertie (dy.). 

C-6 of Daniel - 

Frances ( m. Andrew Rexrode). 

C-6 of Sylvester. - 

David (m. Mary Harold) - Thomasf (m. Bertha Mullenax). 

Misc. - 

We find mention of Joseph (w. Barbara) and George (w. Elizabeth), 
who may have been brothers to Zachariah (1). 

C-2 of Joseph. - 

1. Dorothy - b. 1763 - m. George'Keitz. 2. Margaret - b. 1771, D. 
1855 - s. 

C-2 of George. - 

1. Conrad - b. 1774, D. 1861 - m. Elizabeth — . 2. Peter - D. 1862 - 
m. Lucinda — . 

C-2? of Joseph or George. - 

(A) Zachariah (w. — ) - C-3 - 

1. Barbara - m. Andrew Harold, 1806. 2. Mary - m. Michael Propst, 

1805. 3. Susanna - m. Daniel Stone, 1815. 

(B) Archibald - Grant. 

(C) Mary - m. Lewis Moyers. 

(D) Catharine - b. 1787, D. 1883 - m. Jacob Moyers. 

(E) Conrad - b. 1783c - m. Catharine — . 

(F) Isaac - m. Susanna Jones, 1800. 

(G) Nicholas. 

Ruleman. Jacob came to SF, Pdn., 1753 - D. 1772. His grandson 
Christian - b. 1766, D. 1854 - m. Mary E. Fleisher. Henry, son of the latter, 
lived n. D Hill - b. 1815 - m. Sarah Eye - C-5 - 

William - m. — Ervine - Rkm. - Eliza - m. 1. — Pullin, 2. — Reed - 
Mary - m. — Randall. 

358 History of Highland County 

Rusmisell. John - of Aug. - m. Elizabeth E. Wooddell - C-2 - 

Margaret (m. Eli Wilson) - Martha V. (m. Ambrose Price) - Harrison 
(m. Catharine Malcomb) - Louie (m. William Wooddell) - George (m. Mary- 
Bodkin) - Robert (m. Lydia Malcomb) - Jesse (Bath). 

Simmons. The very numerous connection in Pdn., and Hid., are de- 
rived from Nicholas, who located 1753, n. the mouth of Brushy Fork, and 
Leonard, who located about as early on SB, at the Judy bridge. The former 
connection is the larger, and it is all but impossible to reduce the names to 
system. The sons of Nicholas were John, George, Leonard, Michael, Mark, 
and perhaps others. The sons of Leonard were Henry, William, and George. 

A grandson of Nicholas was John - b. 1786, D. 1864 - w. Margaret - who 
came to CB with a grown family, 1825c - C-4 - 

1. Mark - m. Sarah Smith. 2. David - m. Sarah Grogg - Lewis. 3. 

Joseph - m. , Pdn. 4. Henry - m. in Rph.* 5. Catharine - m. 

Michael Wilfong. 6. Barbara - m. Frederick Snyder, Pdn. 7. Daniel - 
m. Mary Grogg, 1822. 8. George - Pdn. 

C-5 of Mark. - 

1. Naomi - m. William Lunsford. 2. William - m. Rachel Simmons. 
3. Barbara - m. Francis Nicholas. 4. Sarah - m. George Mullenax. 5. 
Frances - m. George White. 6. Mary - s. 7. Amos -s. 8. John W.f 
m. Almira J. Vandevender. 

C-6 of William. - 

Markwood A. (b. 1852, D. 1898 - m. Annie E. Swadley, 1877) - Isaac B.f 
(m. Arbelon Colaw) - William L.f (m. Frances Colaw) - John - Sarah (d.) - 
Margaret (d.) - Mary A. - Louisa (m. Calvin C. Snyder) - Ann R. (m. Albert 
M. Halterman). 

C-6 of John W. - 

William J. (b. 1860 - m. Frances B. Palmer, 1881 - Rkm) - Jacob E. 
(m. 1. Elizabeth J. Simmons, 2. Nebraska Jackson, Poca.*) - Elizabeth C. 
(m. Cornelius Simmons) - Estella F. (m. Samuel E. Arbogast) - Minnie B. 
(m. Thomas Wagoner) - Ida B. - Stewart L.f (m. Lucy Arbogast). 

Skidmore. Joseph came to the SB. below Franklin, 1754. Capt. John ; 
wounded at Point Pleasant and one of the first justices of Pdn., was probably 
his son. He had 13 children and his brother Joseph had 6. The connec- 
v^__^ tion^was once numerous and prominent in Pdn. 

Smith. This well-known name is fairly prominent in the records and ap- 
parently identified with several distinct families, none now being at all nu- 
merously represented. 

John lived on SF, a little beyond the county line - m. Mary S. Simmons, 
1794 - C-2 - 

1. Jacob - m. Barbara Grogg. 2. Christian - b. 1808 - m. Susan Crum- 
mett - Hid. 3. Henry - m. Elizabeth Bowers - Hid. 4. Daniel - m. Mary 
Bowers. 5. Joseph - m. Mary Simmons - Hid. 6. Peter - m. Barbara 
Jordan -Pdn. 7. John - m. Jane Jordan. 8. Sarah - m. James Armstrong. 

Sponaugle. Balsor came 1794c from Loudoun to the "Hunting Ground" 
n. Circleville - Sons. - 

History of Highland County 369 

1. Jacob - m. Elizabeth Arbogast. 2. John - m. Barbara Wimer. 3. 
William - m. Marie Waybright - W. 

The sons of Amos, son of John, settled in Hid. 

Stone. Henry (m. Susanna Zorn) came to the SF, below Sugar Grove, 
1753 - D. 1810 - Sons. 1. Sebastian - m. Catharine Hoover? 2. Henry (w. 
— ). 3. John. Solomon came to Hid., and m. Eleanor Janes. A younger 
Solomon (m. Mary Simmons) came to CB, 1867c - C-5 - 

1. Daniel - Poca. 2. Samuel - m. 1. — Rexrode, 2. Lucinda Sim- 
mons. 3. Miles - s. 4. Amos - m. Eva Nelson, Pdn. 5. Solomon - m- 
— Sponaugle. 6. Edward - m. — Nelson - Poca. 7. Phoebe J. - m. 1* 
George A. Nicholas, 2. Harmon Hinkle, Pdn. 8. boy - d. 

Harrison - nephew to above family - m. Ida Wilfong, 1895. 

Swadley. Mark settled on SF, above Brandywine, 1753 - D. 1774 
The connection in Pdn., and Hid., spring from his son Henry (m. , 1775). 

William - grandson of Henry - m. Margaret Pence, Rkm. - came to n. 
H'town, 1833c - C-5 - 

1. Adam F. - b. 1836 - m. Phoebe C. Trimble, 1866. 2. George C. - 
m. Mary Pollock, Mo. - Col. 3. Elizabeth C. - m. William P. Kinkead. 
4. Mary V. - b. 1842 - m. George W. Beverage. 5. Anna P. - m. Jesse A. 
Bussard, Poca., 1871. 6. John L. - m. 1. Hannah E. Hevener, 1874, 2« 
Mary Burns, Bath.* 7. Lydia F. - m. Adam F. Gum. 8. Sarah A. - m. 
1. William M. Lunsford, 1875, 2. George H. Huffman. 9. Hannah V. - 
m. Mark Simmons. 

C-6 of Adam F. - 

1. Sarah H. (m. Howard H. Terry). 2. Abigail M. (m. Jacob H. Light- 
ner). 3. Charles E.f (m. Rita M. Dickson, 1906). 4. Jennie (m. Lloyd 
Sullenberger). 5. George E.f. 6. William F.f (m. Phoebe Trimble). 7. 

Swope. Jacob came from Penna. to Staunton, 1789, and acquired wealth 
and prominence through the mercantile business. He was elected to Congress 
1809, but declined a second term, and was succeeded by Gen. William McCoy. 
Three sons of Henry (w. Esther) came to S. Dist., 1830 - 

1. George. 2. Peter - b. 1807, D. 1890 - m. Margaret M. Burns. 3. 
John - m. — Kincaid - went W„ 

Peter and George were merchants at D Hill. John was noted for his re- 
markable strength. 

C-2 of Peter. - 

1. John H.t - b. 1846 - m. Nannie J. Williams, 1888. 2. Jane A. - m. 
John C. Graham, 1874. 

C-3 of John H. - 

Ryland - Nola - Elizabeth A. - Willie M. - Susan U. - John M. - Urgie C. 

Trumbo. George - b. 1750c, D. 1830 - came from Rkm. to SF, 1777, and 
owned a large estate there, dividing it among 4 sons and giving money to the 
4 others who went W. Two daughters of his son Andrew m. in Hid., namely: 
1. Malinda (m. Jacob Newman). 2. Sarah A. (m. Lewis Davis). 

370 History of Highland County 

Vance. C-2 of Benjamin of Aug. - 

1. Wellington - m. Elizabeth Shaver - k. by lightning. 2. Rebecca - 
m. Robert C. Pullin. 3. George - m. 1. Jane Stickley, 2. Dorcas Jenkins, 

3. — ■ Lincoln, 4. — Jenkins. 4-8. others not resident here. 

C-3 of Wellington. - 

1. William H. - m. Helen Jenkins. 2. Margaret J. - d. 3. Eliza - d. 

4. Mary - dy. 5. John - m. in Upshur.* 6. Theresa - m. in Upshur.* 
C-3 of George. - (by 1) - 

1. James E. - s. (by 4) - 2. Georgia B. - m. E. Jesse Maloy. 3. 
Susan V. - m. David Lockridge. 

Vandeventer. Jacob (w. Mary) came to Smith Creek, Pdn., 1780c. 
George his son, m. Susanna Peninger, 1792. 

C-3 of George. - 

1. Henry - m. Elizabeth Cowger, Pdn. - Rph. 2. John - m. Margaret 
Halterman, 1836 - Lewis. 3. George - m. Catharine Mullenax - Hid. - D. 
1895. 4. Solomon - m. — Fleisher - 111. 5. Anna - m. Philip Wimer. 6. 
Barbara - m. Joseph Bowers. 7. Elizabeth - m. Andrew Fleisher. 

C-4 of George. - 

1. Almira J. - m. John W. Simmons. 2. Jacob E.f - b. 1844 - m. 
Margaret Colaw, 1869. 

C-5 of Jacob E. - 

Mary E. (m. Thomas J. Rexrode) - Charles E. - George (twin to Jere- 
miah) - Jeremiah (m. Elizabeth L. Wagoner, 1906) - Margaret M. - Sarah C. 

Sarah J. - of John (3) - m. Andrew Halterman, 1857. 

Varner. Adam settled on Brushy Fork a little beyond the county line, 
1785c - C-2 - 

1. Joseph - m. Susan Harold - Poca. 2. Peter - m. Anna Cook - 
Hid. - D. 1858. 3. George - m. Elizabeth Eckard, 1798 - D. 1857. 4. 
Conrad - m. Mary A. Eye, 1792. 5. Jane. 6. John - m. Mary — . 7. 
Catharine - m. Michael Harold, 1805. 8. Abraham - m. Elizabeth — . 9. 
Regina - m. Jacob Wilfong, 1800. 

C-3 of Peter. - 

1. David - m. Sarah Rexrode. 2. Jacob - m. Elizabeth Varner. 3. 
Daniel - m. Margaret Lunsford. 4. Zebulon- m. Mary Snyder. 5. Sarah - 
m. Michael Rexrode. 6. Susan - m. — Whiteman. 

C-4 of David. - 

1. Jacob K. - m. Rebecca Weeks, 1886. 2. Peter - W. 3. Allman - 
W. 4. Benjaminf - m. Martha J. Rexrode. 5. John F. - m. Mary A. Bev- 
erage, 1866. 6. Mary A. - b. 1841 - m. Andrew J. Rexrode. 

C-5 of Benjamin. - 

Elizabeth (m. Harrison Bowers) - Ottie C. (m. John M. White) - Frances. 
M.t (m. Robert J. Varner) - Minor M. - Floyd W.f (m. Mary Wimer). 

C-3 of JACOB -. 

1. George - k. '62.* 3. David - k. '62.* 2-4-5. boys - dy. 6. 
Sarah - d. 7. Samuel t - b. 1859 - m. Louisa J. Helmick. 

History of Highland County 371 

C-4 of SAMUEL. - 

Grace (m. David Hiner). 

C-3 of GEORGE. - 

1. George - b. 1799 - m. Elizabeth Crummett, 1821. 2. Elizabeth - 
m. Jacob Varner. 3. Christian - m. Rachel Simmons - Hid. 4. Solomon - 
m. Catharine E. Wilfong - Alleg. Mtn. 5. Henry - b. 1812 - m. Elizabeth 
Movers - Hid. 6. Jonathan - dy, burned at sugar camp. 7. Philip - m. 
Elizabeth Wilfong. 8. Mary - m. Jacob Moats. 9. Kate - m. Levi 
Propst, Pdn.* 10. Jane - m. Benjamin Hoover, Pdn.* 

C- of — . - 

1. Sarah - m. Michael Rexrode. 2. George W. - b. 1843, D. 1905 - m. 
Sarah Mays, Hardy.* 3. Daniel - b. 1829 - m. Margaret H. Beverage. 
4-11. others. 

Vint. William settled on Blackthorn, Pdn., 1780c - m. Jane Jordan? - 

1. Elizabeth - m. John Bodkin, 1798. 2. William - b. 1786, D. 1861 - 
m. 1. Elizabeth Bodkin, 2. Nancy McQuain Sammonds, Penna. 3. Jane - 
m. James Jones. 4. John - m. Delilah Bodkin. 

C-3 of John. - 

1. William - m. Elizabeth McQuain - Hid. 2. Thomas - 111. 3. 
Joanna - m. Bailey Hiner. 4. Jane - m. Jacob Propst. 5. Margaret - 
m. Thomas McQuain. 6. Cynthia - m. David Johns. 7. Lucinda - m. 1. 
Washington Johns, 2. William Burns. 8. John - m. 1. Susan Michael, 2. 
Martha Bishop. 9. Morgan - m. Sarah Michael - Kas. 

Waggy. An old name in Pdn. Name of pioneer unknown. Harveyt 
(m. Lydia Crummett) is 5th in the line of descent. 

Wallace. Thomas (w. Sarah) came from Del. before 1790 and settled on 
CP, below Williamsville - D. 1799. His son, Matthew (b. 1772, m. Sarah 
Burns, 1801) is ancester of the Wallaces of Bath. 

Wees. This family was in the N. of Pdn., 1790c, but removed to Rph. 
Haman (m. Christina Wilfong) lived on Middle Mn. - C-2 - 

Seybert L. (m. — Propst). 


Draper (d.) - Delpha (m. Adam Waybright) - Alice L. (m. S. Wesley 
Wimer, 1887) - Delia (m. Benjamin Rexrode) - John (m. Susan C. Way- 
bright, 1898) - Jane. 

Whitecotton. James located n. Circleville. His daughter Mary m. Jacob 
Peck. His son William m. Mary Mowrey. 

C-3 of William. - 

1. Solomon - b. 1852 - m. Susan Rexrode, 1884 - Hid. 2. Margaret J. 
m. George A. Bowers. 3. Mary - m. Solomon Puffenberger. 4. William 
E. - m. Alice Peck. 5-8. others. 

Wilfong. Michael was living on Brushy Fork, Pdn., before the Revo- 
lution - 7 children. A grandson, probably son of Jacob, settled on the Alle- 
ghany Mtn., by the S. and P. pike - C-4 - 

1. Jonas -m. Margaret C. Gum, 1866f. 2. Elias - b. 1842 - m. 1. 

372 History of Highland County 

Mary C. Wilfong, 2. Mary A. Trainor - Poca. 3. Samuel - s. 4. Eliza- 
beth - m. Jackson Spencer, Va. - Poca. 5. Kate - m. William Houchin, 
Poca.* 6. Ellen - m. John Sharp, Poca.* 7. Barbara - s. 

C-5 of Jonas. - 

Ella J. (b. 1868 - m. James H. Wilfong, Poca.*) - John E.f (m. Josephine 
Burner, Poca.) - Robert L. (d.) - Ida M. (m. Harrison Stone) - Walter A. 
(d.) - William P. (d.) - Mary A. (m. William B. Ryder, Va.) - W. Howardf 
(m. Martha E. Simmons, Pdn.) - Carrie C. E. (m. Joseph I. Griffen, Poca). 

George A. (m. Sarah A. Wooddell, 1891) - grandson of Henry of Michael. 

Wimer. Philip lived on E. Dry Run - m. Sarah Harper - Sons - 

1. Henry - b. 1793c, D. 1853c - m. 1. Susan Judy, Pdn., 2. Margaret 
Miller, 3. Elizabeth Peninger. 2. Philip - m. Mary A. Hoover of Ger- 
many - Pdn. 3. George - m. 1. Susanna Zickafoose, 2. Anne Rexrode - 

C-3 of Henry. - 

1. Amos - m. Phoebe Lantz, 1841 - Mo. 1850c. 2. Isabel - Emmanuel 
Arbogast - 111., 1850c. 3. Sarah - m. Jesse Hedrick. 4. Eliza - m. Amos 
Miller. 5. Margaret - m. James Harper, W. Va. 6. Philip W. - m. 1. 
Margaret A. Rexrode, 1854, 2. Margaret Calhoun - Mo. 7. Andrewf - 
b. 1833 - m. 1. Christina E. Propst, 1854, 2. Catharine Sponaugle. 8. 
Henry - m. Elizabeth Wimer - Mo. 9. Corneliust - m. Susan C. Waybright. 
10. Nathan -dy. 

C-4 of Cornelius. - 

1. Robert S.f - m. Lucy Colaw. 2. Minnie M. - Charles B. Newman. 
3. Alpha M. - b. 1 869 - m. Robert E. L. Hiner. 4. Charles C. - m. in Neb.* 
5. John F. - m. 1. Estella Wimer, 2. Grace Ralston, Poca.* 6. Cornelius 
T.f - m. Beatrice J. Colaw, 1900. 7. Lelia - m. Arthur C. Beverage. 8. 
Ludie. 9. Mary M. -m. Charles S. Waybright. 10. Lida S. 11. Bonnie 
K. - m. Frank Wimer. 12. William G.f - m. Edna Hidy, 1907. 

C-4 of Ephraim - son of Philip - m. Ellen Harold - 

1. A. Leef - m. Ida Hinkle, Pdn. 2. Emory N.f - m. Nettie Moyers, 
1891. 3. W. Kemperf - m. Dorothy Colaw, 1895. 4. Alice M. - m. J. 
Tremont Colaw. 5. Frank C.f - m. Bonnie K. Wimer, 1906. 

C-3 of Nathan of George (m. 1. Barbara Mullenax, 2. Mrs. Caroline 
Moyerhaver, 3. Catharine Beverage Snyder). 

1. Joseph f - m. Sarah W. Palmer, 1872. 2. Ambyt - m. Susan J. 
Palmer. 3. Edward - dy. 4. Italy - d. 5. Susan - m. in W.* 6. 
Jennie - m. Lee J. Wimer of Philip of Henryf -4 c. 

C-4 of Joseph. - 

William (m. Frances Newlin) - James B.f (m. Frances L. Nicholas) - 
Albert (m. Phoebe Eagle) - Joseph P. (m. Lura Peck, W. Va.*) - Houston - 
Jennie (m. Ervine Rexrode) - Estella (m. John Wimer). 

C-4 of Amby. - 

Charles (dy.) - Ward (m. Mary Burner, Poca.*) - Meade (dy.) - Mervin - 
Reed - Jessie K. (m. Elzy P. Hull) - Edith C. (Myrl C. Kramer) Nina. 

History of Highland County 373 



Anderson. See Snyder. 

Baldwin. See Burns. 

Bishop. (A) Joseph A. - of Albermarle - m. Mary A. Pullin, 1865 - 

1. John P. — O. 2. Samuel H.f (m. Elizabeth G. E. Williams, 1891) - 
C-3 - Magdalena E. (m. D. A. Kiser, Pdn., 1909). 3. Elijah A.f (m. Pansy 
D. Bodkin, 1900). 4. Sarah (m. in Va.*). 5. Willa (m. in W. Va.*). 6. 
Annie H. (m. W — F. Malcomb). 7. Mary J. (m. Robert R. Hiner). 8. 

(B) Virgil B.j - son of John T. (m. Margaret C. Peale) of Binghampton, 
N. Y. - m. Minnie J. Miller, Mason, 1885 - came to Mry, 1883 - C-2 - 

M. Virgil - Bess - Marguerite (dy.) - J. Henderson - Robert (dy.). 

Margaret C. Peale was cousin to Rembrandt Peale, the celebrated painter, 
and niece to Charles W. Peale, also an artist. Sir Robert Peel of England was 
a kinsman. 

Brock. See Hevener. 

Brown. See Gwin. 

Bryant. See Rexrode. 

Carroll. See Beathe. 

Carwell. See Pullin. 

Carrichoff. Lewis A.f - of Aug. - son of George (w. Charlotte Bolinger) - 
b. 1836 - came 1872 - m. 1 Rebecca J. Priest, 2. Emma J. Slaven, 1886 - C-2 - 
(by 1) - Eugene R. (m. Alice Withington, N. Y.*) - Frances L. (m. Dr. W. R. 
Rogers, Aug.) - Idena F. (m. Robert F. Gillett, Bath*) - (by 2) - Lewis A. - 
Stewart S. (dy.). 

Clendenin. Jacob F. - m. Mary P. Byrd - C-2 - 

H. Murrayf - George G. (m. M — E. McGlaughlin, 1897). 

Cobb. See Peck. 

Collins. William H.f (w. Mary — ), H'town. 

Corbin. Asa C. - CB. 

Cross. Charles G.f - Mry. 

Crowley. John M.| - son of Patrick (w. Asenath) of Bath - m. Verona 
Henderson - C-2 - 

Lillie M. - m. John C. Pruitt - Lena M. - twin to Lillie M. - m. Robert L. 
Shumate - Nelia G. - m. J. Gilbert Siple - Bernice A. - m. Angus Webb, Cal.* - 
J. Paul - O. - 

Huggart S.f - b. 1864 - bro. to John M. - m. 1. Virginia Pritt 2. C. A. 

374 History of Highland County 

Dickson. Collingwood A.f - b. 1854 - son of Gen. Sir Collingwood 
Dickson of the British army - came 1875c - m. Mary L. McNett, 1887 - C-2 - 

Rita M. (m. Charles E. Swadley) - William C. - Robert A. - Kenton S. - 
Osborne R. 

Dudley. Edward - m. Luella V. Hull, 1874- C-2 - Frederick W. (b. 
1874, D. 1911 - m. Mary Whitelaw) - Anne L. - Arthur B. - Richard N. - 
Margaret M. (m. Charles P. Rexrode) - George B. - Edward A. - Martha 
J. - Mary A. 

Faurote. William D.f - b. 1858 - came from Ind., 1890c - m. 2. Harriet 
M. Hull, 1899 - C-2 

Lewis G. (m. Lillie Snyder, 1909 - Cecile (m. Samuel G. Dever, 1900). 

Fulton. See Gardner. 

Gibbs. See Bussard. 

Gillespie. See Carpenter. 

Gillett. See Bradshaw. 

Gutshall. John - b. in Rkm, 1826, D. 1893 - son of Gottlieb of Penna. - 
came 1867 - m. Rosanna Lutz, Rkm. - C-2 - 

1. George G.f b. 1854 - m. 1. Semilda A. Bussard, 1876, 2. Martha 
Crummett, Pdn. 2. John H.f - m. Susan E. Carpenter, 1878. 3. William 
T.f - m. Rachel A. Carpenter, 1878. 4. Sarah A. - m. J. Letcher Bussard, 
Aug. 5. Mary E. F. - m. George W. Carroll, 1893. 6. Peter M.f - m. 
Nancy J. Murphy, 1881. 7. J. Lutherf - m. Margaret E. Corbett, 1887 - 
4 c. 8. Goldie J. - m. William W. Wooddell, Bath. 9. Rosanna J. - m. 
1871, D. 1907 - m. John Corbett. 10. David M.f - m. Jerusha A. Hiner, 
1897 -7 c. 

C-3 of George G. - (by 1) - 

1. Walter P.| (m. Ardie A. Carpenter, 1901 - 4 c). 2. Philip B.f 
(m. Harriet E. McGlaughlin, 1903 - 5 a). 3. Ira D.f (m. Sarah E. Mc- 
Glaughlin, 1902 - 5 a). 4. Amy F. (d.). 5. Bertha L. (m. Patrick H. 
Hiner). 6. Clinton R.f (m. Mary C. Hite, 1910). - (by 2) - 4 minor c. 

C-3 of William T. - 

1. Rosa (m. William Ginger, Bath). 2. Martha (m. 1. Edward Kin- 
caid, 2. — Nutter, Bath*). 3. Hollie (m. Carmen E. E. Gwin, Bath*). 
4. Orvie. 5. John. 6. Annie (m. Marcellus Hite). 7. Mary. 8. Lottie. 
9. Jacob. 10. Pricilla (dy.). 

C-3 of John H. - 

Belzora (m. Daniel E. Ginger, Bath*) - Boltonf (m. Eunice Ryder) - 
Ellen - Arthur - Bertie - Alexander. 

C-3 of Peter M. - 

Frances (m. Hawes Ratliff) - Lucretia (m. John R. Griffen, 1897) - 
Walker - Howard - Robert - Wardie - Sylvia. 

Herold. See Gilmer. 

High. See Mullenax. 

Hildebrand. Thomas - b. 1816, D. 1887 -fromPenna. - camel872 - m. 1. 
Sarah J. Stevens, Salem, 2. Margaret A. Newman- C-2 - (by 1) 

1. Mary M. (m. Isaac Goddin, Rph. - D.). 2. Robert M. - m. Mary A. 

History of Highland County 375 

Arbogast (C-3 - Lula (b. 1874 - m. John S. Jack) - Charles G. (m. Carrie 
V. Nicholas, 1901) - Caddie E. (m. William J. Gum, 1907) - Edna L. - Norma 
L. - William S.). 3. William H. (m. Grace Glover, Neb.). 4. Elizabeth M. 
(m. William Brantner, Neb.)- 5. T. Blake (m. Daisy Shaw, Wash.). 6. 
Simpson V. (m. 1. Lida A. Gay, Washington, D. C, 2. Edith Janney, 
Prince William - Loudoun). 7. William S. (m. in Wash.). 8. Philip A. 
(m. in Neb. - Tex.), (by 2) - Lillian M. - Marvin N. 

Hise. Samuelf (w. Ellen V. — ) - C-2 - John P.f - Emma C. (m. Wil- 
liam D. Snyder, 1900) - Jacob W.f 

Hite. See Matheny. 

Johnson. John R. - came from G'brier since 1865 - m. Sarah E. 


Harry S. (m. — Bussard) - Lula (m. Ernest Slaven). 

Kimble. See Hupman. 

Kile. See Gibson. 

Lindsay. See Stephenson. 

Marshall. Samuel - from Aug. - b. 1811, D. 1877 - came 1861 - m. 
Nancy G. Kincaid - C-2 - John L. - Elizabeth A. - Charles H. (m. Mary 
Reynolds) - Mary M. - 

McNett. William H.-b. 1840 - came from O., 1869 - m. Anthea R. 
Thompson, 1871 - C-2 - Mary L. (m. Collingwood A. Dickson) - Emma. 
V. (m. George V. Armstrong) - William F. 

McAllister. John G. - of R'bridge. - m. Kate Ginger, Bath - C-2 — 

John - George A. (m. Rebecca J. Hinegarner - D.) - Thomas S. (m. in 
Bath*) - William (m. in Bath*) - Henryf (m. Mary Hiner) - Elizabeth (m. 
Silas Ratliff) - Magdalena (m. William Ratliff) - Margaret - Sarah (m. William 

C-3 of George A. - 

Elizabeth (m. Thomas M. Folks, 1908) - Mary S. (m. Albert S. Gum), 

Neil. Samuel M.f - m. Jemima Michael - of Monroe Co. - C-2 - 

Peter M.f (m. Effie G. Devericks, 1903). 

Nelson. See Colaw. 

Page. John C.f (w. ) - C-2 -H. Josephf - R. Lee.f 

Palmer. Christian - came from Shen. Val. 1867 - m. Mary Grove - C-2 - 

1. Josiahf (b. 1845 - m. Susan J. Will, 1869 - n. c). 2. David W. (m. 
Irene Waybright - W.). 3. John S. W. (m. Jane Rexrode - E. Va.). 4. 
Susan (m. Amby Wimer). 5. Sarah W. (m. Joseph Wimer). 6. Frances 
B. (m. William Simmons). 7-8 dirls (dy.). 

C-3 of David W. - 

1. Charles K.f (b. 1870 - m. 1. Julia E. Matheny, 1891, 2. Mary A. 
Matheny - 4 C). 2. William (m. Ida Rexrode - Poca.). 3. James (m. 
Elizabeth Snyder - Aug.). 4. David -(Aug.). 5. Leta M. (m. Harden J. 

Patterson. See Campbell. 

Peterson. Charles W. (m. Mary Good) - b. 1831, D. 1899 - came from 
Shen., 1866c - C-2 - 

376 History of Highland County 

1. Florence B. 2. Davis H.f (m. Martha R. Slaven, 1900) - merchant. 

3. C. Stewartj (m. 1. Ella Bradshaw, 2. Bertha Sharp, Poca.) - merchant. 

4. J. Edward (m. in Penna.*). 5. Margaret S. 6. Willa M. 7. Mar- 
tha D. (m. James Moomaw, W. Va.*). 8. Mary K. 

C-3 of C. Stewart - 

Millie B. - Elizabeth B. - Margaret M. (by 2) - Charles - Virginia - 
Martha - Pauline - John W. 

Pruitt. John C.f - b. 1837 - came from Worcester Co., Md., 1866c - m. 
Almira Hiner, 1867 - C-2 - 

1. Rachel A. (m. Hugh A. Jordan - Poca.). 2. John H.f (m. Lillian 
M. Crowley) - C-3 - (Donald (dy.) - Delroy - Juanita - Wallace - Charles K.). 
3. Harriet A. (m. J. Morgan Armstrong). 4. Charlotte S. (dy.). 5. 
Bishop M. (dy.). 6. Martha B. (m. John M. Corbett). 7. Mary V. (m. 
Charles P. Houlihan - D.). 

Quidore. See Rexrode. 

Rogers. (A) Nelson (w. ) - C-2 - 

Mary (m. Huggart M. Pullin) - Henry (m. in Bath*) - Robert M. (m. 
Harriet Cobb, 1878 - Rkm.) - American (m. Maria Pullin - Rkm.) - Nancy 

5. (m. Adam S. Hicklin, 1881). 

(B) George N. - m. Virginia Wilson Hull - - McD. - C-2 - 

Claude - William - Geneva - Mabel - Minnie. 

Shaffier. Henry B. - came from Rkm. - m. Elizabeth J. Shaffer, 1890f - 

Anne E. (m. W. J. Carpenter, Bath., 1908) - Laura B. (m. James H. 
Hodge, 1908). 

Sites. See Steuart. 

Splawn. James - Irish - came since 1865 - m. Mary Carroll - C-2 - 

James (m. Ashby Armstrong) - William (Aug.). 

Sprouse. See Kelly. 

Sterrett. Samuel W. - b. in R'bridge, 1848, D. 1910 - came 1875 - m. 1 . 
Mary I. Burks, Lynchburg, 1869, 2. Ida M. Kinkead, 1878f - C-2 - (by 1) - 

1. James R. (Ky.). 2. Joseph B. (Mo.), (by. 2) - Nannie K. - 
Robert S. - Felix F. - S. Tate. 

Stover. See Snyder. 

Suddarth. Benjamin F. - from Nelson - b. 1834, D. 1907 - m. Susan F. 
Siever, 1867 - C-2 - 

1. L. Ada (m. J. Albert Wagoner). 2. Floyd C. (m. Edie McClintic, 
Bath. - Grafton). 3. Archibald C.f (m. Violet Wadsworth, Harrison). 

Turner. Andrewf - George W.| - Joseph, f 

Weeks. John W.t (m. Belle B. Simmons, 1904). 

Wheeler. Vincent, t 

Wiseman. Thomas J.f (w. Mahala Pritt, Bath.) - C-2 - 

Elizabeth E. (m. Ross C. Burns, 1908) - Charles P.f - R. Edward.t 

Wolf. John H.f 
Daniel, f 

History of Highland County 377 



D ELOW is a sketch of certain families whose surname has become extinct. 
*-* Only such are included as intermarried largely with resident families, or 
otherwise left a noticeable impression on local history. 


Black - S.-Irish - appeared 1746 - BP. 

Brantner - Ger.f 1850c - CB. 

Brown - (A) Italianf - 1815c - mouth of Shaw's F'k. 

Burner - Ger. - before 1774 - n. D Hill. 

Callahan - S.-Irish - before 1789 - n. McDowell (W. T. Alexander's). 

Carlile - S.-Irish - 1746 - BP, 1 mile S. of Clover Creek. 

Church - Eng. - 1850c - CP. 

Dinwiddie - Scotch - 1764 - Meadowdale. 

Duffield - S.-Irish - 1762 - below D Hill. 

Edmond - Eng. - 1800c? - BP, n. mouth of Keister Run. 

Estill - S.-Irish - 1747c - BP (L. M. Clung's). 

Floyd - Welsh - 1840c - Mry. 

Frail - Irish - 1814c - BP Mn. 

Gall - S.-Irish - 1796 - V'pool. 

Given - S.-Irish -1762c - BP (Bodkin h'stead). 

Hardway - S.-Irish - 1800c - n. Hightown. 

Hempenstall - Eng. - 1770c - D Hill. 

Henderson - Eng. - 1850 - BP. 

Herring - Ger. - 1800c? - BC (W. P. Campbell's). 

Hickman - S.-Irish - before 1795 - BC. 

Holcomb - Eng. 1800c - BC. 

Holt - Eng. - recent - D Hill. 

Janes - S.-Irish - 1751 - SC, n. Mry. 

Johnson - S.-Irish - 1783 - JR, n. Meadowdale. 

Karicofe - Ger. n. D Hill. 

Keitz - Ger.f 1785c - SC, n. Mry. 

Knox - S.-Irish - 1746 - CP (Floyd Kincaid's). 

Layne - S. Irish n. McD. 

Lewis - Welsh - 1790c - BP Mn, n. McD. 
Life - Ger. - 1790c - CB, Frank's Run. 
Meadows - Eng. - 1850c - n. McD. 
Middleton - S.-Irish - 1840c - SC. 

378 History of Highland County 

Miller - S-Irish - 1745 - 3 miles below McD. 

Moore BP. 

Morton - Eng. - 1785c - Crab Run - later h'd of CP. 
Naigley - S.-Irish - 1768 - CB, Wimer Run. 

Oakes - Eng. BP, above Clover Creek. 

Peebles - S-Irish - 1774 - BP (McClung farm). 
Pickens - S.-Irish - 1800 c - BP Mn, below pike. 

Porter - Eng. BV. 

Redmond - S.-Irish - 1779 - CP, 2 miles above pike ford. 
Roby - S.-Irish - 1780c - JR, n. Meadowdale. 
Ruckman - Eng. - 1800c - BC. 

Rusmisell - Ger. upper BP. 

Rymer - Eng. - 1792 - SC. 

Seig - Ger. - 1854 - Mry. 

Seiver - Ger. - — - New H. 

Shinneberger - Ger. 1800c - SC. 

Sims - Eng. - 1800c - h'd SF. 

Sitlington - S.-Irish - 1805c - CB. 

Smallridge - S.-Irish - 1795c - BP, n. D Hill. 

Summers (A) 1779 - BP, n. McKendree. 

Summers (B) - Ger.? - 1860c - H'town. 

Taylor - Eng. - 1850? - D Hill. 

Tharp - S.-Irish - before 1810 - CP, above pike. 

Thompson - S.-Irish - 1840c - BP. 

Trainor - Irish - 1840c - Meadowdale. 

Wise - S.-Irish? - 1840 - JR. 

Wood - Eng. - 1785c - h'd CP. 

Zickafoose - Ger. - 1772 - CP, n. High Knob. 


Black. Alexander - at J. H. Byrd's on CP - D. 1764 - C-2 - 
1. William - in G'brier in 1775. 2. Alexander (w. Nancy) - moved to 
Ky, 1797c. 3.? Samuel - b. 1729c, D. 1783 - lived n. Mry. - C-3 - John - 
William (w. Sarah) - Samuel (m. Mary Parker, 1797) - James - Margaret (m. 
John McCreary, 1786) - Mary (m. Jacob Kisling, 1798) - Martha - Nancy - 
Jane (m. John Peebles, 1792). The pioneer was possibly related to the Rev. 
Samuel Black, a Presbyterian minister of Penna, who visited Aug. in 1747. 
Brantner. Samuel - rem. to Neb. 1868 - w. Sarah Orndorff - C-2 - 
Caroline (m. David Snyder) - Mary C. (m. Washington C. Snyder) - 
Ann E. (m. George W. Beverage) - Elizabeth (m. Morgan Waybright) - 
Frances - Alice - Rose - William (m. Elizabeth Hil deb rand) - Straner - James. 
Brown. (A) Thomas - b. in Italy 1774 - D. on lower Shaw's F'k, 1862 - 
came when children were partly grown - m. Elizabeth Dick of Md. (b. 1778, D. 
1851) C-2 - 

1. Franklin (m. Barbara Fitzpatrick, Aug.) - 111. 2. Thomas (m. 1. 

History of Highland County 379 

— Wilson, 2. Mary Jones) - Upshur. 3. James - D. 1852 - m. Margaret 
Campbell. 4. William (m. Margaret Wilson). 5. David (m. — Britton, 
Aug.). 6. Mary (m. William Bodkin, 1842). 7. Elizabeth (m. Boyd 
Dcvericks). 8. Sarah - s. 

C-3 of James - 

1. David N. - m. 1. Louisa Anderson, 111., 2. Ann Marshall, Bath - 
111, 1873. 2. Henrietta - m. in 111. 3. Winfield S - (dy.). 4. Rosella 
F. -m. in 111. 5. Elizabeth A. - m. in 111. 6. Richard H. - (dy.). 

C-3 of William - 

Mary J. (m. Alfred Schilling of Eng, 1867). 

Burner. The pioneer, name unknown, had a hunting cabin n. Brandy- 
wine in Pdn., 1745c, and later settled n. D Hill - C-2 - 

1. John - D. 1848c - s. 2. Magdalena - m. John Hiner. 3. Samuel. 
4. Daniel - constable, 1805. 5. Abraham - b. 1760c - had mill on upper 
JR, 1794 - went to Poca - C-3 - Mary (m. George Graham) - Elizabeth 
(m. John Graham) - George (m. Sarah Warwick, 1821) - Jacob (m. Keziah 
Stump) - Adam (m. Margaret Gillespie) - Henry (m. Eleanor Curry, 1817) - 
Daniel (m. Jane Gillespie). 

Callahan. Charles - (perhaps son of Charles (w. Ann — ), who lived on 
Dry River, Rkm., 1775) - lived 1 mile S. of McD., 1789-1806 - m. Mary 
Steuart, 1791 - C-2 - 

1. Charles S. - m. Jane Ryder, 1825. 2. Edward S. - b. 1795 - m. 
Jane Lockridge, 1815 - 111., 1860c. 

C-3 of Edward S. 

William L. (b. 1816) - Mary J. (m. — Briscoe) - Elizabeth S. - Rebecca - 
Otho W. - Lancelot S. - Margaret (b. 1822 - m. 1. John Matheny, 2. Dyer 
Bird) - Charlotte (m. Peter Bird) - one daughter of E. S. married Thomas 
Ryder and another Thomas Townsend. 

Misc. - 

1. Catharine - sister? to Charles - m. Otho Wade. 2. Dennis - bro. 
to Charles - D. 1819 - m. Elizabeth Wade - C-2 -Priscilla (m. Isaac Briscoe). 
3. William - m. Mary Pickens, 1812. 

Carlile. Robert (w. Nancy) and John (w. Mary E.) were brothers - 
parent seems to have been James (w. Elizabeth) - who D. 1752 - they had a 
bro. James. - Robert D. 1802, John, 1796 - the name remained here till after 

C-2 of Robert. - 

1. George. 2. Elizabeth. 3. James (w. Nancy.) 4. Jean-b. 1750, 
D. 1838 - m. Christopher Graham. 5. Rachel - m. Robert Carlile, 1786. 
6. Robert "the Little" - b. 1755, D. 1821 - m. Elizabeth Jenkins, 1797. 

C-3 of James - 

1. John - m. 1. — McClure, Pdn., 2. — Thompson. 2. Jane. 3. 
Elizabeth - m. George Hicklin. 4. James. 5. Robert - m. — Griffen of 
Conn. - b. 1797c. 6. William. 7. Samuel. 8. Alexander. 9. Nancy. 
All these, except Elizabeth, moved to Ky., 1805c, their father being now D.- 
"Kentucky John" often revisited Hid. 

380 History of Highland County 

C-3 of Robert. - 

1. Robert - m. Margaret Hamilton - went to la., 1850c with grown chil- 
dren: Rachel- Elizabeth - Charles - James. 2. Nancy - m. Andrew Sit- 
lington, 1819. 3. Elizabeth - m. Robert Lockridge. 4. Jane - m. James 
Helms. 5. Rachel - m. — Lockridge. 6. George - s. 7. Margaret - s. 

C-2 of JOHN. - 

1. Samuel - married - D. before 1796. 2. George - m. — Malcomb. 
3. Robert "the Big" - b. before 1737 - (w. Esther). 

C-3 of Samuel. - 

1. John- D. n. Wheeling, 1856 -m. Rachel Graham, 1804. 2. Samuel. 
3. Rachel - m.? Jonathan Moore, 1799. 4. Elizabeth - s. 

C-4 of John. - 

1. Rachel - m. Paschal Davis. 2. Christopher - Mo. 3. Jane - 

Church. C-2 of William and E— of Pdn. - 

1. Hannah - m. Amos Deihl. 2. Joseph -k * 61 - m. Mary Chew, 1859 
3. Ingaby - m. David Palmer, 1861. 

C-3 of Joseph. - 

Mary A. (m. Ephraim Gum) - Sarah J. (m. Frank Halterman). 

Deaver. James - m. Margaret Bird, 1794 - C-2 - 

Margaret (m. Elisha Hudson) - David (w. ) - James - others. 

Dinwiddie. Robert - D. 1796 (w. Elizabeth) - C-2 - 

1. James - k, 1774* - m. . 2. William - D. 1824 - m. Mary 

Given, 1810 - n. c. 3. Elizabeth - m. James Patton. 4. Mary - m. John 
Kinkead, 1785. 5. Jane - m. Stephen Wilson. 6. John - m. Sarah 
Slaven, 1801, O. 

C-3 of James. - 

Robert (m. ) — , Ky. 

The pioneer seems to have had brothers named James, John, and William. 
William of Robert willed his farm to his wife, and after her decease in 1855, it 
fell to the collateral heirs, all in the W. The administrator was slow£in 
settling the estate. The farm sold at $16,000, but the proceeds went into 
Confederate money and were lost. 

Duffield. Robert - went to Kanawha Co., before 1814 - C-2 - 

1. Abraham - m. Hannah Moore, 1799. 2. Isaac - m. Isabella Given, 
1795. 3. Thomas. 4. Robert - m. Jennie Moore, 1798. 

Edmond. Thomas - b. 1780c, D. 1835 - C-2 - 

1. Samuel P. - m. Martha Johns, 1826. 2. Thomas - D. 1857 - m. 
Matilda Armstrong, 1834. 3. Jacob - m. Mahala Armstrong. 4. Sarah - 
m. John Shaver, 1840. 5. Nancy - m. Robert Curry. 6. Mary - m. 
Baker. 7. Joseph - b. 1835 - m. Jemima Siron, 1842 - 111. 8. Jane - m. 
William J. Wilson. 9. ?John W. - b. 1836c - m. R — J. Carpenter. 

C-3 of Thomas J. - 

1. Caroline - b. 1833c - m. in 111.* 2. Jefferson - went W. 

Peter, a T. in 1822 was perhaps father to Thomas. 

History of Highland County 381 

Estill. Wallace - b. in N. J., 1704 - went to Botetourt, before 1772 - m. 
1. Martha Bowde, 2. Mary A. Campbell, 1749c - C-2 - (by 1) - 

1. Benjamin - b. 1735 - m. Kate Moffett Edmondson, Aug. 2. John- 
D. 1781 - m. Rebecca — . 3. 4 others, the youngest b. in Hid., 1747c. (by 
2) 1. James - b. 1750, k. 1782* - m. Rachel Wright. 2. Samuel - b. 1755. 
7 others. 

Floyd. James C. - m. Susan I. Meeks, whose mother was Italian and 
whose parents are buried at Monticello - b. 1810, D. 1894 - nephew to Peter 
Cartright - Mry. - C-2 - 

Margaret A. (m. Henry A. Henderson) - William H. (m. Eliza J. Fauber) - 
Mary (m. Edward Floyd) - Jas. F. (D.* '61) - Martha J. (m. James Michael 
Aug. - Ind. 

Frail. William - m. Jane Steuart, 1814 - C-2 - 

John W. (m. Mary Gwin - 111). 

Gall. George - D. 1812 - C-2 - 

John (m. Margaret Arbogast, 1817) - George. 

Misc. 1. Barbara (m. — Bond) - g'daughter. 2. Elizabeth (m. John 
Clark, 1804). 3. Jacob (m. Margaret McCann, 1809). 4. John (m. Sarah 
Hays, 1812). 

Given. Ancestor was probably Samuel, a yeoman of Aug. (then Orange)- 
who D. 1740, leaving William - John - Samuel - James. His w. was Sarah — . 

Misc. 1. Samuel - BP, 1762 - (w. Martha). 2. William - V'pool Gap - 
D. 1793 - C-2 (1. James - m.? Elizabeth Graham, 1806. 2. John - w. 
(Mary). 3. George. 4. Sarah - b. 1789, D. 1864 - m. Samuel Gibson. 
5. Henry. 6. Ann. 7. Margaret - m. John Gibson, 1813. 8. Samuel - 
m. Elizabeth Gwin, 1802 - n. c. - Monroe Co. 9. Adam. 10. Mary - D. 
1855 - m. William Dinwiddie. 11. Isabel.) 3. Robert - m. Elizabeth 
McCray, 1816. 4. Robert (C-2 - Nancy (m. James McAvoy, 1807). 5. 
John-m. Mary— .-C-2 -Moses - b. 1797, D. 1867). 6. Andrew - m. Julia 
A. Devericks, 1832. 7. Joseph - in Bath, 1788 (w. Mary) - C-2 (John C. - 
b. 1784, D. 1861 - m. Rachel Pickens, 1811). 

Gen. Andrew Lewis - m. a Given. 

Hardway. George - D. 1815 - (w. Susanna) - C-2 - 

George - John (m. Susanna Hays, 1806) - Andrew (m. Margaret Sharrot, 
1809) - Jacob (m. Sarah Hickman, 1821) - Daniel - Sarah - Susanna (m. 
John Bird - D. 1814c.) - Eve - Elizabeth. 

C-3 of John. - 

Susanna (m. Jacob Gum.) 

Hempenstall. Abraham - came from N. J. (w. Mary) C-2 - 

1. Abraham — s. 2. Hannah - m. Eli B. Wilson. 3. Elizabeth - m. 
James Wilson. 4. Jemima - m. Samuel Blagg. 

Henderson. Henry A. - came from Nelson - D. 1866 - m. Margaret A. 
Floyd - C-2 - 

1. Emma S. - m. Robert N. Ervine. 2. Verona - m. John M. Crowley. 
3. William H. - m. Eva Reynolds, Aug. 4. Kenny C. - m. Hannah 
Burns, Aug. 5. Delia F. - m. Henry H. Ervine. 6. James L. - m. Culdie 
F. Fauber. 

382 History of Highland County 

Herring. Leonard - D. 1818 - (w. Abigail) - C-2 - 

1. (m. John Ervine). 2. Sarah. 3. Naomi (m. Robert Ervine) . 

4. Abigail. 5. Esther. One of these (Anna?) - m. John Keith, 1810. 

Hickman. James S. - m. Margaret J. Bird, 1795 - C-2 - 

Jane (m. William Bradshaw) - Martha (m. Stewart Taylor, 1820). 

Holcomb. Pioneer from Conn. - C-2 - 

1. Joseph. 2. Susanna - m. Jacob May, 1814. 3. Timothy - m. 
. 4. Matilda - m. Roger Gum. 5. Hezekiah - m. Susan Carpenter. 

C-3. - of Hezekiah. - 

Sarah J. - Phoebe A. - Martha L. - Mary E. - William H. - Margaret S. - 
Timothy - Samuel - Hezekiah - John C. - Sophia - 2 others. 

Holt. Ferdinand - m. Martha Wilson -2 c. 

John G. - bro. to above - m. his widow -9 c. 

Emma - of Jno. G. - m. Chapman Pitsenberger, Pdn.f 

Janes. William - went to Ky. - m. Margaret Seybert, Sr. - C-2 - 

Margaret (m. Charles Wilson, 1815 - W.) - Henry (D. at SC, 1804). 

Misc. 1. John - m. Catharine Arbogast, 1828. 2. William - m. Mary 
McCartney, 1811. 3. Eleanor - m. Solomon Stone, 1818. 4. Samuel - 
m. Hannah Bell, 1812. 5. James - m. Margaret Seybert, Jr. 6. Edward - 
1810. 7. William, Jr.? 

Johnson. Bartholemew - D. 1796 - C-2? - 

1. Jesse - m. . 2. Eleanor - m. 1. Valentine Bird, 2. Jacob 


C-3 of Jesse. - 

Sarah - m. John Campbell, 1837. 

Karicofe. George M. (w. Margaret H.) - C-2 - 

Martha J. (m. Samuel C. Eagle). 

Keitz. George - m. Dorothy Rexrode - n. c. 

Knox. James - D. 1772 - (w. Jean) - C-2 - 

1. James - D. in Ky., 1822 - m. Anne Montgomery Logan. 2. Robert 

- owned land on CP and BP. 3.? Solomon - m. . C-3 - William - 


Misc. 1. William - m. Sarah Anglen, 1794. 2. John - m. Sarah 
Robinson, 1795. 3. John - m. Hannah Richardson, 1809 - c. - William - 
John - Wilson. 4. Henry - m. Mary Gwin, 1810. 

Layne. Joseph - b. 1808, D. 1879 - came from Buckingham - m. Mary 
Moyers - C-2 - 

1. Susan J. - m. Patrick Maloy. 2. James - m. in Fla.* - D. 3. 
Jesse M. - m. in Tex. - D. 

Lewis. George, living on CP, 1752, was related to Gen. Andrew Lewis. 
He was perhaps ancestor of John, Jonathan, and Joseph, who were on BP Mn., 
n. D Hill, 1790-1800. 

Life. Martin - m. Ann Lantz, Penn. - D. 1797 - C-2 - 

1. Martin - m. Elizabeth Fleisher, 1799 - Lewis, 1810c - D. 1844c. 2. 
Christian - m. Catharine Hidy - Ind. - D. 1854c. 3. Anna - b. 1782, D. 
1856 - m. Jacob Peck. 4. Joseph - rheumatic cripple - D. 25. 5. John - 

History of Highland County 383 

m. Barbara Wimer, 1810 - Lewis, 1816c - D. 1854c. 6. Christina - m. 
Jacob Gross, 1810 - Alleg. - D. 1856c. 7. Abraham -s. - O. - D. 1845. 8. 
Jonathan - m. Sarah Smith - Rkm. - D. 1854. 9. Samuel - b. 1792, D. 1872 
- in. Ann Waybright. 

C-3 of Samuel. - 

1. William - b. 1817, D. 1898c - m. -Susan J. Lamont, N. Y.* 2. 
John - m. Elizabeth Colaw, 1845 - la. - D. 1903. 3. Henry -b. 1822, D. 
1891c -m. Frances S. Crawford, R'bridge - la.. 4. Abraham - b. 1824, D. 
1910 -s. 5. Samuel - m. Margaret M. Truman, Aug.* - D. 1892c. 6. 
George M. - b. 1830, D. 1909 - m. Anne E. Clark, Penna. - Aug. 7. Anna 
-s-b. 1834, D. 1910. 

Meadows. Jacob - m. Nancy Davis Roach - C-2 - 

1. Thomas J. -D. 1862- m. Phoebe J. Johns. 2. Mitchell D. - Minn. 
3. Sarah - m. William Douglass. 

Middleton. Benjamin - m. Elizabeth Rexrode - C-2 - 

1. Mary - m. Emmanuel Propst. 2. Hezekiah - b. 1844 - m. Ella 
Colaw. 3. Benjamin - W. 4. Catharine - m. Benjamin Varner. 5. 
Barbara E. - m. Harmon Lunsford. 6. Rachel V. - m. Israel Rexrode, 
Lewis. 7. Martha J. - m. James H. Snyder. 

C-3 of Hezekiah - 

Howard L. (m. Eva Swank, Pdn.*) - Stephen (m. W.*) - Elizabeth (m. 
Howard Fox) - Ada (m. William Hevener) - Summers W. - Meade - James - 
Frederick - Talma. Those unmarried are in Aug. 

Miller. At an early day this name was prominent in Hid. James was 
on BP, about 3 miles above McD. in 1746. Hugh, John, and William, other 
landholders, were probably his sons. Their names figure in our early annals. 
Patrick bought the Floyd Kincaid farm on CP in 1769, and his descendants 
lived there a long while. Somewhat later we find the Miller name in CB. 

Moore. Joseph and Benjamin were on Crab Run and SC in 1789, and 
David on Bolar Run, 1754. Margaret was probably widow to Joseph. Mary 
daughter of Joseph - m. John Bodkin, 1792. 

C-2 of Margaret. - 

Jennie (m. Robert Duffield, 1798) - Nancy (m. James Steuart, 1794) - 
John (m. Elizabeth McClung, 1793). Margaret, of above John - m. Adam 
Stephenson, 1821. 

Misc. 1. Jonathan - m. Rachel Carlile, 1799. 2. Elizabeth - m. 
Anne Hamilton, 1810. 3. Elizabeth - m. Thomas Hoover, 1821. 

Morton. Edward - older half-brother to James Douglas - b. in Rkm., 
1765, D. in Webster, after 1840 - m. Sarah Johns - C-2 - 

1. Elizabeth - m. Thomas Devericks, 1899. 2. Rachel - m. Jeremiah 
Hodge, 1811. 3. Thomas - m. Eleanor Leach, 1810. 4. James - m. 
Sarah Devericks, 1813. 5. Sarah - m. Samuel Wilson, 1820. 

C-3 of Thomas. - 

Edward (m. Mary A. Bodkin, 1843) - John - Robert (m. Jane Campbell 
1843) - George - Thomas (m. Rebecca A. Burns) - Mary - Elizabeth - 
Margaret (m. John Dodds, 1841) - Sarah. 

384 History of Highland County 

C-3 of James. - 

1. William D. - D. 1845 - (w. Emmeline). 2. Thomas. 3. Jared 
M. - m. Mary C. Burns. 4. David. 5. Edward - k. '63.* 6. John T. - 
D. 1858 - m. Mary A. — , 1847. 7. James - b. 1820, D. 1858 - m. Mary J. 
Devericks. 8. Frances. 9. Sarah. 10. Mary. 

Misc. - 

Bernice - m. James H. Finnegan, Aug. 1866. The connection went to 
Webster, especially during 1845-55. 

Naigley. Palsor came to CB, 1768. George (w. Sarah) and Christian 
were probably sons. A daughter of George was grandmother to the late Dr. 
C. C. Henkle of New Market. 

Oakes. Thomas - b. 1785, in Buckingham, D. 1858 - m. Melinda Blaine - 

1. Rufus -s - k.* '61. 2. Henrietta - m. Samuel Pullin. 

Peebles. John - C-2 - 

Thomas - John (m. Jane Black, 1792) - Robert (m. Rachel Carlile, 1786) - 
Frances (m. Thomas Wilson, 1795) - Jane (m. John Ervine) - Mary (m. John 
Devericks, 1786). The sons went to Ky., 1798. 

Pickens. Alexander - (w. Sarah) - foot of BP Mn., 1 mile S. of McD. - 
his spring being still known by his name - C-2 - 

Alexander (m. Margaret Wiley, 1809) - Rachel (m. John C. Given, 1811) - 
Mary (m. William Callahan, 1812) (m. John Gwin). 

Porter. John P. - m. 1. — McDannell, 2. — Sitlington - C-2 - 

Samuel A. - H'town - m. Lillie Gay. 

C-3 of Samuel A. - 

Russell - Charles - Ernest - John - Lillian. 

Redmond. Samuel - C-2 - 

Samuel (m. Mary Teter, Pdn., 1796) - Henry - Eli - John - Margaret - 
Jane (m. George Harman, Pdn.*). 

Roby. Name of pioneer unknown - D. before 1786 - C-2 - 

1. Aquila - m. 1. Margaret Meeker, 1795, 2. Catharine Cunning- 
ham, 1799. 2. Elkanah (w. Charlotte) - his son John - m. Elizabeth Hart, 
1827. 3. Patrick M. (w. Rebecca). 4. Mary - m. John Smith, 1793. 

Misc. - 

1. Thomas - m. Barbara Nicholas, 1812. 2. Elizabeth - m. George 
Wood, 1820. 

Ruckman. David - b. in N. J., 1747 - m. Susannah Little - C-2 - 

1. Samuel - b. 1783 - m. 1. Nancy Hartman, Poca., 1809, 2. Mar- 
garet Slaven, 1821. 2. David L. - b. 1795, D. 1845 - (w. Priscilla). 3. 

m. Isaac Given. 4. others. 

C-3 of Samuel. - 

1. John H. - b. 1810 - m. 1. Mary Bruffey, Poca, 2. Mary Wooddell, 
Poca. - Ga. 2. Nancy - m. William Wade. 3. Mary - m. Isaac Gum. 
4. Asa - went to O. 5. Janus - D. 1842. 6. Elizabeth - m. John P. 
Ervine. 7. David V. - b. 1835 - m. 1. Annie Herring, Aug, 2. Elizabeth 

History of Highland County 385 

C-4 of David V. - 

1. Kate L. - m. Wise Herold, Poca., 1884. 2. Lucy - m. Edward A. 
Wade. 3. Anna L. - m. William P. Campbell. 4. Samuel H. - d. 15- 
5. David G. - m. Lillian Moore, S. C. - Aug. 6. Margaret - m. Rev. 
Arthur Cocke - 111. 7. Sarah - m. Julian Bird. 

Misc. - 

1. Mack - m. Elizabeth Hicks. 2. Sophia - m. John Gum, 1810. 3. 
Samuel T. - m. Ursula Colaw, 1879. 

Rymer. George - b. in England, 1750 - came to America, 1763 - D. Nov. 
11, 1845 - m. 1. , of England, 2. Delilah Davis, Pdn., 1827 - C-2 - 

(By 1) 1. Martha -m. Duncan McQuain, Pdn., 1818. 2. Margaret - 
m. John Beverage. 3. William - m. Jane Beverage - Gilmer. 4. Thomas - 
miller at forks of SC - m. 1. Annie Waybright, 1810, 2. — Peck. 5- 
Eleanor - m. John Rexrode, 1813. (by 2) 7. Elizabeth - m. Joseph Hal- 
terman. 8. George L. - m. Sarah Halterman - W. Va. 9. Silas - m. 
Sarah Harper - W. Va. 10. James - m. Sarah Beverage - W. Va. 

C-3 of Thomas. - (by 1) - 

1. William - m. Jane Calhoun, Pdn. 2. George W. - m. Margaret 
Harper, 1838 - Pdn. 3. John - m. Margaret Beverage - Lewis. 4. Helena 
- m. Solomon Rexrode. (by 2) - 5. Thomas J. - b. 1837 - m. Amanda 
Bowers, 1865. 6. Mary - m. Andrew Wagoner. 

C-4 of George W. - 

Phoebe A. (b. 1841 - m. Salisbury Newman) - Mary J. (m. S. Clark 
Beverage) - Sarah E. (m. Andrew T. Newman) - Hannah C. (b. 1846 - m 
George W. Hammer, Pdn.*) - Elizabeth (m. John A. Calhoun, Pdn.*) - George 
(D. 24) - William H. (m. Catharine Phares, Pdn.*) - Jacob H. (m. Susan 
Hinkle, Pdn.*). 

C-4 of Thomas J. - 

Elizabeth D. (b. 1863 - m. Markwood Propst) - Mary (m. John H. 
vSamples) - 

John W. - b. 1856 - m. Caroline Fox - son of George L. 

Seig. James M. - m. Frances McClung, 1859 - D. 1876 - attorney and 
judge - C-2 - 

1. Boiling - D. 2. Sully V. - m. Mattie Craig, Charleston - attorney 
Chicago. 3. James M. - m. in Richmond - Presbyterian missionary, Congo 
River, Africa. 

Seiver. James W. - m. Martha K. Sullenberger, 1839 - C-2 - 

1. Margaret C. - m. Rev. Solomon B. Dolly, Pdn., 1858. 2. John A. - 
m. Sarah F. Hidy, 1867. 3. Susan F. - m. Benjamin F. Suddarth. 4. 
Samuel F. - m. in Kas. - Neb. 5. James W. - m. Mattie E. Snyde 
1869. 6. David E. - m. Clara Fleisher - Neb. 7. Lucy E. - m. William 
Rexrode - Okla. 8. Emma J. - m. George W. Mauzy. 9-11 - dy. 12. 
Abigail S. - m. F. P. Brown - Cal. 

Shinneberger. Jacob - D. 1822 - C-2 - 

Catherine (m. David Beverage, 1810 - Charlotte (m. Isaac Gum, 1822) - 
Margaret - Peter (m. Christina Peck, 1829 ) - Jacob (m. Sarah Peck, 1833). 

386 History of Highland County 

Sims. James - m. Mrs. Margaret Seybert - C-2 - 

James - John - William (m. Margaret Gamble, Pdn., 1805) - Joseph - 
Silas (D. 1846c - m. 2. Sarah Crummett, 1843). 

C-3 of Silas. - 

Margaret (m. Joseph Bodkin, 1839) - John (in Poca.) - Silas K. (b. 1844 - 
m. Virginia F. Malcomb, 1867). 

Ida M. (m. Eli Bodkin, Pdn., 1886) - dau. of Silas K. 

Sitlington. John - b. 1781, D. 1869 - m. 1. Barbara A. Hull, 1806, 2. 
Elizabeth Wallace, 1842 - C-2 - 

1. Robert - b. 1807, D. 1890 - m. 1 . Nancy Snyder, 1831, 2. Hen- 
rietta D. Ewing, 1841. 2. Peter H. - D. 1833. 3. Mary A. - b. 1810, D. 
1851 - m. William Guy, 1832. 4. Andrew K. - b. 1813, D. 1893 - m. Mary 
A. Hodge, 1841 - Mo. 5. Susan K. - b. 1815, D. 1843 - m. JohnW. Frazier, 
1834. 6. Thomas O. - b. 1818, D. 1883 - m. 1. Sarah J. Hunter, 2. Mar- 
garet A. Stenitt. 7. Margaret - b. 1819, D. 1844 - m. William Rice. 8- 
Elizabeth W. - b. 1825, D. 1884 - m. G. N. Kinney. 9. John W. b. 1827, 
D. 1900 - m. A— Mann, Aug.*, 1855 - n. c. 10. Barbara H. - b. 1828, 
D. 1858. 

C-3 of Robert. - 

1. Nancy S.-b. 1833, D. 1875- m. 1. Robert Sterrett, Aug.*, 2. John 
W. Alexander. 2. Sarah B. - b. 1846 - m. Henry C. Hidy. 

Smallridge. Samuel - D. 1807 - C-2 - 

1. William - Lewis. 2. Nancy - m. Joseph Propst. 3. Mary - m. 
James Blagg, 1815. 4. Sarah - m. James Wilson, 1823. 5. James - m. 
Sarah Hodge, 1829 - Lewis. 6. Samuel. 7. John. 

Summers. (A) Paul - C-2? - 

1. William - m. Eliza Eagle, 1819 - McKendree. 2. John - m. 
Joanna Davis, 1802. 

(B) William M. - b. in Shen. 1828, D. 1879 - merchant at H'town - m. 
Susan A. McClung, 1861 - C-2 - 

1. Rachel V. - m. William W. Stephenson. 2-3. dy. 4. Sarah S. - m. 
Charles McClintic, 1901. 5. Samuel - m. — Myers - Los Angeles. 6. 
Lena - m. Andrew W. Revercomb. 7. William - W. Va. 

Mary C. - sister to William M. - m. George W. Hevener. 

Taylor. 1. Mary - m. Samuel Armstrong. 2. William (w. Jemima) 
C-2 - Anne D. (m. W. Swope Bodkin, 1893). 3. Elijah - m. Millie Moyers - 
W. - C-2 - Emmanuel (in Md.) - Elizabeth A. (m. William Kemp) - Phoebe 
(m. James Johnson) - Catharine - Lucinda. 

Tharp. Levi - went W. - C-2 - 

Susan (m. Daniel Moore, 1816) - May (m. Mordecai Jones, 1820). 

Amos - b. 1787, D. 1867 -s - bro. to Levi. 

Thompson. Gerry - b. 1814c, D. 1908c - came from Penna. , 1840c - 
physician on BP - m. Jane G. Steuart - C-2 - 

William S. lived at Pinckney - m. Margaret Steuart. 

C-3 of William S. - 

History of Highland County 387 

Flavius (dy, 10) - Ella B. (s - D. 42) - Anthea R. (b. 1852 - m. William 
H. McNett, 1871). 

Trainor. Michael - his mother a Lee - m. Rachel Gum - C-2 - 

1. Ami - m. Emily Bird - Bath. 2. Jehu - m. Elizabeth Hamilton - 
G'brier. 3. Brown - m. — Gum, Poca.* 4. Margaret A. - m. John S. 
Ervine. 5. Sarah - m. John Gum. 

Wilson. (A) William - b. in Ireland - came to Penna. 1725c - to Aug., 
1747 - to mouth of Bolar Run soon afterward - m. Barbara McKane at Dub- 
lin - D. 1794 - C-2 - 

1. Susanna -s. 2. Elizabeth -s - D. 1822. 3. Barbara -s - D. 1825. 
4. Thomas -s - D. 1765c. 5. John - b. 1732, D. 1820 - m. 1. Isabella 
Seawright, 2. Sarah Alexander, 1785. 6. Margaret J. - b. 1781, D. 1853 - 
m. William Green, of Ireland, b. 1755 — c. Jean (m. John Stephenson). 

C-3 of John - 

1. William - b. 1787, D. 1869 - m. Sarah McClung, 1812. 2. Esther - 
D. 1870 - m. John Bollar, Bath., 1808. 3. Margaret - m. David Hannah, 

C-4 of William. - 

1. Sarah - m. Adam Stephenson - D. 1894. 2. Amelia - m. Frederick 
K. Hull. 3. Susan E. - m. Washington Stephenson. 4. Washington - dy. 

(B) Stephen - kinsman and neighbor to William (1)- m. Jane Dinwiddie - 

Thomas - Robert - Charles - James - William - Stephen. 

(C) 1. William - lived on Graham h'stead, 1750-61. 2. Matthew 
(w. Eleanor) - bro. to William. 3. Isaiah - bro.? to 1 and 2 - D. 1758 at 
aforesaid farm. 

Wise. Michael (w. ) - b. in Aug., 1799, D. 1880 - C-2 - 

1. John - D. of wounds, 1865.* 2. Mary (m. Andrew B. McClintic). 

Wood. John (w.? Sarah) - on CP, 1794 - C-2? - 

James (m. Martha Johns, 1811). 

Zickafoose. 1. Peter (w. Catharine) - D . 1814. 2. Elias (w. Sarah E.) - 
D. 1814 - seems to have been a younger bro. 

C-2 of above. - 

1. Susanna - D. 1835c - m. Rudolph Bussard, 1797. 2. George - m. 
Catharine Zickafoose, 1800. 3. Catharine - m. George Zickafoose. 4. 
Isaac. 5. Frances - m. Western Miles, 1811. 6. Elizabeth - m. Moses 
Arbogast, 1819. 7. Henry - m. Barbara Simmons, 1825. 8. Elias. 9. 
Sarah - b. 1794, D. 1871 - m. John Samples, 1837. 10. Sampson - m. 
Sarah Simmons, 1817 - Ritchie. 11. Susanna - m. George Wimer, 1821. 

C-3 of Sampson. - 

1. Catharine (m. — ? Crittenden). 2. Esther (m. — Hanna, Poca.). 
3. Mary (m. Jacob Smith). 4. Phoebe (m. James Mullenax, 1841). 5. 
Malinda (m. — Michael). 6. Martha (m. — Westfall). 7. Otho (m. 
— Drake, W. Va.*). 8. Peter (m. — Hammer). 9. Asbury (m. — Sim- 

388 History of Highland County 


With locality and date of mention. Still other names occur in the lists of [land 
surveys and sales. 

Blankenship, John - h'd JR - 1800. 
Coulter, William - BP Mn. - 1807. 
Daggy, Jacob - BP - 1799. 
Evans, John - CB - 1796. 
Ewing, Henry - BP Mn. - 1772-9. 

Gardner, BC - 1780c. 

Ham, William - BP - 1802-13. 
Harris, William - BP Mn. - 1807. 
Huffman, Christian - CB - 1797. 
Mowrey, George - below D Hill - 1793. 
Pennington, Richard - CB - 1795. 
Parker, Thomas - BP Mn. - 1796. 
Parrot, Joseph - Crab Run - 1803. 
Root, Jacob - CB - 1793. 
Sheets, George - below D Hill - 1799. 
Smalley, Benjamin - SC - 1795. 
Straley, Christian - CB - 1791. 
Sweet, James - Crab Run - 1801. 
Thompson, Hudson - BP - 1815. 
Whiteman, William - SC - 1793. 



History of Highland County 


Pendleton Bath Highland 

1790 2,452 

1800 3,962 5,508 

1810 4,238 4,837 

1820 4,846 5,231 

1830 6,271 4,002 

1840 6,940 4,300 

1850 5,795 3,426 4,227 

1860 6,164 3,676 4,319 

1870 6,455 3,975 4,151 

1880 8,022 4,482 5,164 

1890 8,711 4,587 5,352 

1900 9,167 5,595 5,647 

1910 9,349 6,538 5,317 


Bluegrass Monterey Stonewall 

1880 1,667 1,406 2,091 

1890 1,762 1,571 2,019 

1900 1,765 1,855 2,027 

1910 1,734 1,835 1,748 

In 1900, the towns of Monterey and McDowell had 246 and 136 people 
respectively, and in 1910, the numbers were 240 and 139. 

In 1800, Pendleton had 13 free colored and 124 slaves, while Bath had 17 
free colored and 661 slaves. In 1810, the respective numbers for Pendleton 
were 25 and 262, and for Bath 49 and 882. In 1850, Highland had 26 free 
colored and 364 slaves. In I860, the numbers were 27 and 402. The colored 
population in 1870, was 348. The number for the last census year is 260. 

In 1832, the Bullpasture Valley had about 1,000 people. 

In 1850, Highland contained 651 families, with an average of 6.5 persons 
to the family. In the same year 122 births were reported, or about 29 to 
each 1,000 people. 

Since the registration of marriages, begun in 1852, in the case of persons 
under 40, the average age of grooms is 25 years and of brides, 21 years. 8 per 
cent, of the grooms were above 40, and 8 per cent, were under 20. Of the 
brides, 42 per cent, were under 20, and but 16 per cent, were older than their 
mates. In the case of grooms above 40, 95 per cent, were older than the 
brides, the average age being 45 for the grooms and 33 for the brides. 

Augusta west of Shenandoah Mountain had in 1790, about 5,400 people. 

History of Highland County 



















Grand Total 




It is, of course, impossible to present an accurate list of trie householders 
who were here in 1761, after 15 years of settlement. A few of the names we 
found are probably those of non-residents. On the other hand there were 
people here who did not own land, and of such there is only casual mention in 
the record books. The following is therefore only an approximation to the 
actual fact, the real number being doubtless somewhat larger than here ap- 
pears. Nearly all were living in Stonewall and at the mouth of Bolar Run. 

Anglen, James. 
Ashton, Wallace. 
Black, Alexander. 
Black, Samuel. 
Bodkin, Richard. 
Bodkin, Charles. 
Bodkin, James. 
Bodkin, John. 
Burnside, James. 
Carlile, John. 
Carlile, Robert. 
Clemons, James. 
Cunningham, — . 
Duffield, Robert. 
Estill, Wallace. 
Estill, Boude. 
Ferguson, Samuel. 
Given, Samuel. 

Graham, Robert. 
Hall, James. 
Harper, Matthew. 
Harper, Michael. 
Harper, Hans. 
Hicklin, Thomas. 
Hicklin, Hugh. 
Hicklin, John. 
Holman, William. 
Jackson, William. 
Johnson, William. 
Largent, James. 
Malcomb, Joseph. 
McCandless, William. 
McCreary, John. 
Miller, James. 
Miller, John. 
Miller, William. 

Miller, Hugh. 
Montgomery, John.. 
Moore, David. 
Price, William.. 
Pullin, Loftus. 
Shannon, William. 
Shaw, John. 
Shaw, James. 
Steuart, William. 
Wade, Dawson. 
Wilson, William (1J. 
Wilson, William (2). 
Wilson, William (3). 
Wilson, Samuel. 
Wilson, Stephen. 
Wilson, Hackland. 
Wright, Peter. 


Owing to the impossibility of determining every question of residence, 
this list may include some names belonging north of the present line, and omit 

392 History of Highland County 

some names belonging south of it. A figure following a name shows the 
number of tithables in the home of such person. 

Amiss, George W. 

Arbogast, Adam, Jr. - Andrew - Daniel - George (2) - Hannah - Henry - 
John, Jr. - Jonathan - Joseph - Moses - Peter. 

Armstrong, Amos - George - James - Jared of John - Jared of Wm. - 
John, Jr. - Mary - Thomas - William (4). 

Baldwin, Peter. 

Beath, James. 

Benson, Mathias. 

Beverage, John, Sr. (2) - John, Jr. (3) - Robert. 

Bird, John, Jr. - Valentine. 

I, James - Jane - John. 

Bodkin, John (4) - Margaret. 

Burner, John. 

Bussard, Andrew - Lewis - Lewis, Jr. 

Campbell, James (2) - James. 

Chew, Ezekiel. 

Coberly, Isaac - James. 

Colaw, George - Jacob. 

Curry, Edward - James (3) - James, Jr. 

Davis, James. 

Devericks, John - John Jr. - Thomas. 

Eagle, Christian - George - Philip (2). 

Edmond, Peter - Thomas. 

Ervine, Edward - George - William. 

Fleisher, Andrew - Benjamin - Catharine - George - Henry (3) - John - 
William (2). 

Fox, George - Jacob - John - Michael. 

Gall, John Jr. (2). 

Gibson, Samuel. 

Given, Samuel. 

Graham, Isaac - James. 

Grim, John, Sr. 

Gum, Abraham - Adam - Isaac - Jacob - Jesse - John, Jr. - John of 
Isaac - McBride. 

Halter man, Adam - Charles - Henry - Jacob - John. 

Hardway, Andrew. 

Herring, William. 

Hevener, Jacob - Jacob, Jr. - John - Peter. 

Hidy, Jacob - John (2) - Joel. 

Hiner, Alexander, - Harmon - Jacob - John (2) - Joseph. 

Hodge, Jeremiah - John (2). 

Hook, Joseph - Robert S. 

Houchon, William, Jr. 

History of Highland County 393 

Hull, Adam, - Adam, Jr. - Henry (4) - Jacob - John - Peter - Peter 
of Adam - Samuel B. 

Jack, Jacob - John (exempt). 

Jackson, Robert (2) 

Jenkins, William. 

Jones, Henry - James - James, Jr. - John - Joseph - Samuel. 

Johns, Isaac - James - James, Jr. - James of Jere. - Sarah - William - 
William, Jr. 

Johnson, Jesse. 

Johnston, John - Samuel. 

Jordan, Andrew - James - John (2) - Lettice - William. 

Killingsworth, Richard - Thomas - William. 

Kincaid, Thomas. 

Keitz, George. 

Lamb, John - Michael. 

Lantz, Benjamin - Jonas - Susannah. 

Life, Samuel. 

Malcomb, James, Jr. - John - Joseph - Robert (2) William. 

McCray, Robert. 

Morton, Edward (2) - James - Thomas. 

Mullenax, Abraham - George - Jacob - Samuel - William. 

Nicholas, Francis - William. 

Peck, Jacob - John - Michael. 

Pullen, Loftus. 

Ralston, Samuel. 

Rexrode, Adam - Christian - George - John 

Rymer, George - Thomas - William. 

Samples, John. 

Seybert, George (exempt) - Henry - Jacob (4) - James (3) - William. 

Sharrott, John. 

Sheets, George. 

Shinneberger, Jacob (2). 

Sims, Silas. 

Siron, John. 

Sitlington, John. 

Slaven, Stewart (3). 

Snyder, John (2). 

Stephenson, Adam - Margaret. 

Steuart, Edward - John. 

Sullenberger, Samuel. 

Summers, George - James - John - William (2). 

Sutton, Cornelius. 

Swecker, Benjamin - Nathaniel. 

Tharp, Amos - Levi. 

Towberman, Henry (2) - John. 

Trimble, James - James, Jr. - John. 

394 History of Highland County 

Vandevender, George. 
Wagoner, Henry - Joseph (3) - Michael. 
Waybright, Daniel - Martin - Mathias - Michael - William. 
White, George - John - John, Jr. 

Wilson, Benjamin - Eli - George - Isaac - James - James of Jas. - Mary - 
Samuel - Samuel of Eli - Samuel of Jas. - Thomas - William. 
Wood, Joshua - Thomas. 
Zickafoose, Catharine - Henry - Sampson - Sarah. 



Note: — The directions are always from north to south. 

Brushy Fork: — H. Smith, Abel Stone. 

Shaw's Fork: — T. Killingsworth, Kate McCray. William Hodge, James 
Morton, Hannah Jones, John Devericks, — Johns, William Vint, William 
Johns, Thomas Brown. 

South Fork: — J. Botkin, widow Hoover, — Rexrode, widow Siron, John 
Siron, Samuel Jones, Thomas Jones. 

Cowpasture: — A. J. Jones, Decatur H. Jones, William Morton, Thomas 
Morton, William Ervine, William Botkin, J. D. Ervine (at pike), — Ervine, 
R. S. Steuart, Sinclair Steuart: (below mouth of Shaw's Fork), Robert Gwin, 
William K. Gwin, Moses Gwin, John Gwin, H. Benson, Peter Thompson, 
David Kincaid, Abel Kincaid, J. D. Kincaid, — Douglas, William R. Steuart, 
Widow Miller, A. H. Byrd. 

Bullpasture: — (East side above McDowell) R. T. Gray, widow Hicklin, 
Edward Curry, C. Malcomb: (Below McDowell) John Steuart, W. Vance, 
Jesse Pullin, George Carlile: (West side above McDowell) Henry McCoy, 
Widow Armstrong, O. M. Wilson, William Curry, Henry Ruleman, Robert 
Malcomb, widow Malcomb, J. B. Steuart: (Below McDowell) R. Sitlington, 
C. [Steuart, Joseph Davis, James Davis, John M. Pullin, George Hicklin, 
Henry Pullin, John Carlile, William McClung, Edward Steuart, D. Kyle, 
Thomas Graham, John Graham, Jane Bradshaw, widow Hamilton, Robert 
Lockridge, Jr., Robert Lockridge, Sr. 

Crab Run:— R. Botkin. 

South Branch: — Andrew Fleisher, G. Fleisher, — Kinkead, F. K. Hull, 
Jacob HulLJacob Hevener. 

Straight Creek: — Peter Halterman, George Vandevender, A. Halterman, 
— Whitecotton, — Rymer, Jacob Seybert, James Trimble, B. Fleisher, George 
White, Daniel Varner. 

Jackson's River (above Vanderpool): — S. Bird, A. Campbell, I. Campbell, 
S. Lightner, J. B. Campbell, S. Croushorn, A. H. Campbell, A. Stephenson, 

History of Highland County 395 

B. B. Campbell, J. Woods, J. Hull, R. Slaven: (Below Vanderpool, west side), 

C. Mustoe, William Hicks, John Hiner, John Wiley, William Wilson, David 
Kinkead, Michael Wise, David Gwin, W. Stephenson, Adam Stephenson, Jr.: 
(East side), S. Gibson, James Gum, Michael Doyle, John McGlaughlin, 
Robert Wiley, D. Stephenson. 

Laurel Fork (at head) : — Elias Wilfong, David Wilfong. 

Back Creek: — William Townsend, Leonard Gwin, Matthew Gwin, John 
Steuart, D. H. Bird, A. Dever, A. Gilmor, S. Ruckman, Benjamin Ervine, 
Edward Ervine, widow Ervine, E. Townsend, John Wade, A. Lightner, I. H. 
Rider, J. H. Bird, W. Campbell, William Ervine, J. Campbell. 




Acres Value 

Bluegrass 103,739 $597,556.27 

Monterey 76,194 222,273.86 

Stonewall 111,512 266,794.81 

Total 291,445 $1,086,624.94 

The standing timber, assessed at $343,845.00 brings the total assessed 
valuation to $1,430,469.94. 

The State Tax for Bluegrass was $2,093.14; for Monterey, $914.20; and 
for Stonewall, $934.29: a total of $3941.13. 


County Purposes 

Bluegrass $1,044.48 

Monterey 1,167.60 

Stonewall 863.60 









Total $3,075.68 $768.92 $1,537.84 

Colored Tax .. . 17.12 4.28 8.56 

Grand Total. $3,092.80 $773.20 $1,546.40 

Total for County $5,412.40 

Sinking Fund $386.60 

396 History of Highland County 


Schools Teachers, Etc. 

Bluegrass $391.68 $261.12 

Monterey 291.90 583.80 

Stonewall 431.80 215.90 

Colored Levy 7.41 5.24 

Total $1,122.79 $1,066.06 


White Colored 

Bluegrass $202,366 40 

Monterey 146,949 561 

Stonewall 142,542 2,91 1 

Total $491,857 $3,512 

Grand Total $495,369 

Total of Real Estate and Personal Property, $1,925,838.94. 


Horses and Mules . 






The negroes of Highland own 5 acres of land in Monterey District and 1009 
acres in Stonewall, assessed at $2,814.97. 

MARCH 19, 1847 

much of the counties of Pendleton and Bath as is included within the follow- 
ing boundary lines, to wit: Beginning where the North River gap road crosses 
the Augusta county line, and running thence to the top of Jackson's moun- 
tain so as to leave Jacob Hiner's mansion house in Pendleton county; thence 















History of Highland County 397 

to Andrew Fleisher's, so as to include his mansion house in the new county; 
thence to the highlands between the Dry run and Crab bottom, and thence 
along the top of the main ridge of said highlands, to the top of the High Knob ; 
thence north 65 degrees west to Pocahontas county line; thence along said 
county line to the Plum orchard on the top of the Alleghany mountain; 
thence to Adam Stephenson's mansion house on Jackson's river in Bath 
county, so as to include Thomas Campbell's mansion house on Back creek, 
and also said Adam Stephenson's in the new county; thence to Andrew H. 
Byrd's mansion house on the Cowpasture river, so as to include the same in 
the new county, and so as to leave the dwelling-house of William McClintick, 
Jr., in Bath County; thence south 65 degrees east to the Augusta county line, 
and thence with said line to the beginning, shall form one district and one 
county, which shall be known and called by the name of Highland county. 

2. The governor shall commission as justices of the peace for the said 
new county all of the justices of the peace now in commission in the counties 
of Pendleton and Bath respectively, whose dwelling-houses shall be included 
within the limits of the said new county of Highland a f ter the commencement 
of this act, and they shall be commissioned in point of seniority, according 
to the dates of their present respective commissions, all of whom shall (before 
entering upon the discharge of the duties of said office) take before some 
justice of the peace of any other county in the commonwealth, than the said 
new one, the several oaths required to be taken by justices of the peace, 
and within the time prescribed by law in other cases of justices of the peace 
who have been commissioned. And the justice or justices who may admin- 
ister such oaths shall give a certificate or certificates thereof, to the party or 
parties who may take such oaths, which .certificate or certificates, shall be 
signed and sealed by the justice or justices who may administer the same, 
and shall be by the justice or justices taking the same, delivered to the clerk 
of the county court of Highland county, there to be preserved and recorded: 
Provided, That nothing herein contained shall be so construed as to prevent 
any justice of the peace now in commission for either of the counties of Pen- 
dleton or Bath, and residing within the bounds of the said new county, from 
exercising the duties of his office for and as to said counties of Pendleton 
and Bath respectively, until the organization of the said county of Highland, 
on the Thursday after the third Monday in May next, as hereinafter pre- 

3. A court for said Highland county shall be held by the justices thereof 
on the Thursday after the third Monday in every month, upon the princi- 
ples prescribed by law for holding courts in other counties. 

4. The permanent place for holding all courts for Highland county, 
shall be at Bell's place, on the Staunton and Parkersburg road. And the 
county court of Highland county shall procure a lot of not less than three 
acres of land at said place, to be conveyed to them and their successors in 
office in fee, for the use of said county forever, and shall erect thereon a court- 
house and such other necessary public buildings, as the convenience of the 
county may require, at the charge of said county, to be paid in the mode 
prescribed by law. 

398 History of Highland County 

5. The justices of the peace commissioned and qualified as aforesaid 
for said Highland county, shall meet at the house in which John Cook now 
resides, on said Bell's place, on the Thursday after the third Monday 
in May next. The whole number of said justices commissioned and qual- 
ified as aforesaid having been previously summoned by the sheriff of Pendle- 
ton county to attend on that day, and it is hereby made the duty of the 
said sheriff so to summon them to attend, at least ten days before that time, 
under penalty of being fined a sum not less than fifty dollars, nor more than 
one hundred dollars, for the benefit of the Literary fund, recoverable as other 
fines imposed by law on sheriffs and their deputies. And two-thirds of the 
said justices being present (otherwise those who do attend, may adjourn 
from day to day or from time to time, until two-thirds shall be present,) 
shall proceed to appoint a clerk of the county court, a commissioner of the 
revenue, and a surveyor for said county; and also at the same time, or at 
some early day thereafter, the necessary number of school commissioners 
for said county. They shall also at the same time nominate to the governor 
suitable persons to be commissioned as sheriff and coroner for said county, 
and shall fix upon such place and house in said county as may seem to them 
most convenient for holding courts for said county, until the courthouse 
shall have been erected. The said justices shall cause all of the said appoint- 
ments, orders and proceedings as aforesaid, to be entered of record. 

6. It shall be lawful for the sheriff or other collector of the counties 
of Pendleton or Bath to collect by distress or other lawful mode, any public 
dues and officers' fees which may remain unpaid by such of the inhabitants 
of either of the said counties as may be included within the bounds of the 
said county of Highland, and such sheriff or other collector shall be account- 
able for the same in like manner, and under the same fines, forfeitures, and 
penalties, as if this act had never passed. 

7. The courts for Pendleton and Bath counties shall each have and 
retain jurisdiction of all actions and suits depending before them on the 
Thursday after the third Monday in May next, and shall try and determine 
the same, and award execution therein when necessary, except in cases in 
which both parties reside in the new county; which last mentioned cases 
(together with the papers thereto belonging) shall, after that day, be removed 
to the courts for the county of Highland, and there tried and determined as 
other cases. 

8. Highland county shall be in and attached to the same judicial cir- 
cuit with Bath county, and the circuit superior court of law and chancery 
shall be held on the eighth day of May and the ninth day of October in every 
year; and Highland county shall be in the same militia brigade district with 
Pendleton county, and shall be in the same congressional district, the same 
senatorial district and the same electoral district (for choosing electors for 
president and vice-president of the United States) with Bath county. 

9. The courts of quarterly sessions for said Highland county shall be 
held in the months of March, May, August, and October in every year. 

10. The boundary lines of said county shall be run and marked in the 

History of Highland County 399 

manner prescribed by the act passed on the eleventh day of February in the 
year 1845, entitled "an act for making more effectual provision for running 
and marking the boundaries of new counties." 

11. The treasurer of the school commissioners of each of the counties 
of Pendleton and Bath, shall be and he is hereby authorized and required to 
pay to the treasurer of the school commissioners of Highland county, upon 
the order of the school commissioners of said county, out of the fixed and 
surplus quotas of the school fund of the said counties of Pendleton and Bath 
respectively, for the present fiscal year, such sum as seems to them to be in 
due proportion to the population of the said Highland county, taken from 
Pendleton and Bath counties respectively, including also any balance remain- 
ing unexpended on the first day of June next, as also of the due proportion 
as aforesaid, accruing from such quotas to which Pendleton and Bath coun- 
ties, or either of them, may be entitled for any former year. And it shall 
be the duty of the second auditor to reapportion the fiscal and surplus school 
quotas of the counties of Pendleton and Bath for the next fiscal year and all 
future years between Pendleton, Bath, and Highland counties, agreeably 
to their respective numbers of white tithables which may be returned therein 
by the commissioners of the revenue for the year 1847. 

12. So much of the county of Highland as now forms part of Pendleton 
county, and the county of Pendleton, shall together send one delegate to 
the house of delegates in the general assembly of Virginia, until a reappor- 
tionment of representation shall take place, and so much of Highland county 
as now forms a part of Bath county, and Bath County, shall together send 
one delegate to the house of delegates of Virginia until a reapportionment 
of representation shall take place. It shall be the duty of the county court 
of Highland county, at the first term, or as soon as convenient, to appoint 
as many persons as may be deemed necessary to perform the duties of sheriff 
at the several places of holding separate elections in said Highland county, 
and who shall attend at the courthouses of Pendleton and Bath, to compare 
the polls and perform other duties required by law of sheriffs in similar cases, 
and who shall be subject to the same penalties for failure or refusal to do the 
same; and they shall also appoint superintendents of election required for 
the polls to be taken at the courthouse and other places of voting in said 
county. The persons hereby required to be appointed to attend and compare 
the polls, shall take with them fair copies of all the original polls taken in 
Highland county. 

13. This act shall be in force from and after the first day of May next. 



ORIGINAL REPORT found in the papers of Thomas Campbell deceased, 
and delivered by Austin W. Campbell to Charles P. Jones on the 31st of Jan- 
uary, 1877: 

400 History of Highland County 

"In pursuance of an act of assembly passed the 19th day of March 1847 ) 
establishing the County of Highland out of parts of the Counties of Bath 
& Pendleton, we the undersigned surveyors of said Counties, and as such 
Commissioners agreeably to an act of assembly passed the 11th day of Feb- 
ruary 1845 to run and establish the lines of said County of Highland, pro- 
ceeded to run the same as follows (to wit) Beginning at three chestnut 
oaks and a white oak on the top of Shenandoah mountain where the North 
river gap road crosses the Augusta County line, thence N. 71 W. 446 poles 
to the Brushy fork, a branch of the South fork, continued 258 poles to the 
top of Shaw's ridge, continued 336 poles to the South fork, continued 560 
poles through the lands of John Bodkin below his dwelling house to the 
top of Bull pasture mountain, continued 480 & passing through the land of 
Joseph Hiner & through his barn to Jacob Hiner's mansion house leaving 
the same in Pendleton County, continued 38 poles to the Blackthorn, con- 
tinued 296 poles to the top of the Brushy ridge, continued 54 poles to Doe 
Hill road, continued 493 poles to a point opposite a large white rock five 
poles from said rock and leaving it in Highland County, continued 66 poles 
to four pines and a chestnut oak (all small) on the top of Jackson's mountain 
at the south end of a large ledge of rocks, the whole distance on this course 
is 3027 poles, thence N. 25 W. 844 poles to the South branch of Potomac, 
continued and crossing the same 76 poles to a yellow willow tree near Andrew 
Fleisher's mansion house including said house in Highland County, con- 
tinued 540 poles to the first top of Backbone mountain, continued 176 poles 
to the main top of said mountain, continued 44 poles and passing over a 
large ledge of rocks to four chestnut oaks and a chestnut on the highlands 
between Dry run and Crab-bottom, the whole distance on this course is 1680 
poles, thence along the main ridge of said Highlands N. 37 W. 104 poles to 
a chestnut, N. 18 W. 72 poles passing near George Wimer's barn and house 
leaving the same in Pendleton County, N. 78 W. 35 poles N. 30 W. 10 poles, 
N. 54 W. 68 poles to a sugar tree, N. 28 W. 53 poles, N. 7 E. 28 poles N. 49 
W. 48 poles, N. 63 W. 17 poles, N. 30 W. 220 poles, along said ridge to three 
red oaks, a cherry tree and white thorn on top of the high knob, thence S. 
65 W. 436 poles to a large ledge of rocks on the top of Buzzard's knob con- 
tinued 230 poles to the Straight fork near the upper end of Leoanard Har- 
per's land, continued and crossing said fork and over the end of the Middle 
mountain 494 poles to the Laurel fork continued 992 poles up the Alleghany 
mt. near Colaw's camp to eight hemlocks and three small beeches and a 
small maple on the top of Alleghany mountain in the Pocahontas county 
line, the whole distance on this course is 2152 poles, thence along the main 
top of said mountain with said county line, to the plum orchard we here 
marked one plum tree on the top of said mountain, thence S. 60 E. 722 poles 
through the lower end of Thomas Campbell's land to Back creek, continued 
and crossing said creek 149 poles to the top of the little mountain continued 
325 poles to the top of Back creek mountain, continued 204 poles crossing 
the head of Stony run to the top of the Piney mountain at the south end 
of a large ledge of rocks, continued 465 poles to a point opposite Adam Steph- 

History of Highland County 401 

enson's mansion house including it in Highland county, whole distance on 
this course is 1857 poles; thence S. 79 E. 80 poles to Jackson's river, continued 
and crossing the same 365 poles to Wilson's mill run continued and crossing 
said run- 139 poles to the head of a large warm spring near James Brown's 
dwelling house, continued 82 poles to the wagon road below Robert Gwin's 
dwelling house leaving it in Bath County, continued 282 poles to the top 
of Jackson's mountain by a large ledge of rocks passing through the same 
in a small aperture, continued 240 poles to the mountain road below the 
forks of the same, continued 252 poles to the road leading from the Bull- 
pasture to the Warm Springs, continued 198 poles to the top of the Chestnut 
ridge, continued 228 poles to the White oak draft continued 180 poles to 
John Marshall's dwelling house leaving it in Bath County continued 286 
poles to the Bull-pasture river above Williamsville, continued 106 poles to the 
Cow-pasture road continued 56 poles to a point opposite Andrew H. Byrd's 
house (the course and distance from the south east corner of said house 
to this point is S. 31 J W. 13 poles) the whole distance on this course 
is 2494 poles, thence S. 65 E. 132 poles to the Cow-pasture river, continued 
and crossing the same & crossing several ridges and hollows 818 poles to six 
chestnut oaks two red oaks and two hickory saplings on the top of the Shen- 
andoah mountain, whole distance on this course is 950 poles, thence along 
the main top of said mountain with the Augusta County line to the begin- 
ning, containing 390 square miles. 

Note: We marked the corner trees with four chops and the lines fore 
and aft three chops on the west side. 
Nov. 1st 1847. 




Note 2nd. The course and distance on a right line from the eight hem- 
locks, three small beeches and a small maple on the top of Alleghany moun- 
tain to the plum orchard is S. 19 W. 7250 poles. And from the six chestnut 
oaks, two red oaks and two hickory saplings on the top of Shenandoah moun- 
tain, the course and distance on a right line to the beginning is N. 35 E. 
5770 poles. 

The tops of the Alleghany & the top of the Shenandoah mountains we 
did not run." 


I hereby certify that William Wilson hath officiated as a Ruling Elder 
in this congregation for divers years to desireable satisfaction, was useful in 
his station, regular & exemplary in his ordinary conduct, & that his wife 
hath behaved in an offensive and christian manner, and at his departure, 
I heartily recommend him and his family to the kind protection of Devine 

402 History of Highland County 

Providence, the conduct of Devine grace and a kind reception in Christian 
society, where in Providence his lot may be determined, given under my 
hand on the Forks of Brandy wine this 29th Sept. 1747 

Note. The word "offensive" in the above paper means "active" or 
"energetic." Words often undergo change in meaning from one age to 


1744 — Jackson's River 

Moore, William - 176. 

1 745 — Cowpasture 

Cartmill, James - 300 - P. 1760. 

Coffey, Hugh - 220 - P. 1750. 

Dickinson, Adam - 1080 - P. 1750. 

Donally, John - 277 - P. 1750. 

Hughart, James - 590 - P. 1750. 

Laverty, Ralph - 300 - P. 1750. 

McCoy, James - 250. 

Milroy, Alexander - 300 - P. 1750. 

Stuart, James - 300 - P. 1750. 

Waddell, James - 224 - P. 1750 by Ralph Laverty. 

1 746 — Cowpasture 

Abercrombie, Robert - 425. 

Clendenin, Archibald - 195 and 130. 

Crockett, Robert - 246 - P. 1750. 

Dougharty, William - 285 - P. 1750. 

Gillespie, William - 320 - P. 1760. 

Hall, James -212 -P. 1750. 

Jackson, James - 340 - P. 1750. 

Knox, James - 93. 

Lewis, George - 430 - P. 1752. 

Lewis, William - 390 - P. 1750. 

Lewis, John - 950 - P. 1750 by Charles Lewis. 

Mayse, James - 415 (P. 1759) and 182 (P. 1761). 

"Including the whole lower basin of Jackson's River and the Cowpasture. The figures im- 
mediately following a name refer to the acreage. The date of patent, when known, is 
then given, and is by the settler himself unless otherwise stated. 

History of Highland County 403 

McCreary, John - 520 - P. 1750. 

Muldrough, Andrew - 130 - P. 1761. 
Rainey, Michael - 216. 
Scott, James - 490 - P. 1750. 
Simpson, James - 300. 
Walker, John - 340. 
Wilson, Joseph - 200. 

1746 — Jackson's River 

Carpenter, Joseph - 782 - P. 1750. 

Crockett, Samuel - 283 - P. 1750. 

Dickenson, Adam - 870 - P. 1750. 

Dunlap, Arthur - 270. 

Ewing, James - 254. 

Jackson, William - 1100 - P. 1750. 

Jamison, William - 280 - P. 1760. 

Lewis, John - 304. 

Lewis, Thomas - 489 - P. 1764 by Robert Bratton and Robert Laverty. 

Mayse, James - 234. 

Robinson, Wood, and Lewis: (1) 875. 

(2) 196. 

(3) 94. 

1746 — Back Creek 

Lewis, Thomas - 560. 

Robinson, Wood, and Lewis: (1) 304. 

(2) 210. 

(3) 150. 

(4) 95. 




Bath Pendleton 

Commissioners 10 15 

Common Schools 17 36 

Indigent Pupils 100 400 

Indigent Pupils at School 99 356 

Days Attendance of Indigents 3,901 14,298 

Average Attendance of Indigents, cents .39 .40 

Tuition, cents 3§ 3| 

Average Cost of Tuition per Indigent $1.44 $1.45 

Total Cost of Such Tuition $142.50 $515.43 

404 History of Highland County 

(No Statistics for Colored Pupils are reported for this year.) 

Enrollment, Total 574 

Enrollment Average Monthly 464 

Enrollment, Average Daily 359 

Percentage of School Population Enrolled 38 

Average of Pupils per Teacher 27 

Average Age 11 

Number of Schools 17 

Months Taught 4.94 

Male Teachers 13 

Female Teachers 4 

Monthly Salary of Male Teachers $21.54 

Monthly Salary of Female Teachers 16.75 


State School Appropriation $4,260.32 

County School Fund 1,682.43 

District School Funds 2,361.36 

Tuition 1,259.07 

Other Sources 970.16 

Total $10,533.34 

The above sum is higher than the average for the State. The actual total 
is stated at $12,736.63. 


Teachers $ 7,631.97 

Real Estate and Buildings 2,154.79 

Repairs 133.20 

Furniture 195.30 

Apparatus 9.55 

Fuel and Lights (at Monterey) 28.46 

Commission to County Treasurer 366.60 

District Clerks 115.00 

Division Superintendent 87.69 

Trustees 50.00 

Sundry 187.12 

Total $10,959.68 

History of Highland County 405 

White Children 1,545 

Colored Children 118 

Total Enumeration 1,663 

White Schools 41 

Colored Schools 1 

Average of Pupils per Teacher 27 

Days all Schools were in Session — White 4,100 

Days all Schools were in Session — Colored 80 

Males Enrolled— White 580 

Females Enrolled— White 602 

Males Enrolled — Colored 10 

Females Enrolled — Colored 12 

Total Enrollment 1,204 

Average Daily Attendance — White 837 

Average Daily Attendance — Colored 20 

Enrollment below Age of 10 — White 785 

Enrollment below Age of 10 — Colored !2 

Enrollment above Age of 10 — White 397 

Enrollment above Age of 10 — Colored 10 

Average Age 12 

High School Enrollment 30 

State High School Fund $400.00 

Number Studying Higher Branches 70 

Teachers with Collegiate Certificate 1 

Teachers with First Grade Certificate 23 

Teachers with Second Grade Certificate 4 

Frame Schoolhouses 48 

Log Schoolhouses 1 

Schoolhouses with Suitable Grounds 43 

Schoolhouses with Inclosed Grounds 43 

Schoolhouses with Half-Acre or Less 36 

Schoolhouses with Patent Desks 28 



By an early Virginia Statute every county seat was entitled to a post- 
office. In 1820, the post offices in the Highland area were Hull's Store in the 
Crabbottom, Wilsonville at the mouth of Bolar Run, and Shaw's Ridge in the 
Cowpasture valley. The postage on letters to or from the state capital was 
18^ cents. By 1832, Crab Run had been established, later to be known as 
McDowell. The mails were very light and came only once a week. Postage 
might be paid at the receiving office, and on a letter from Kentucky the rate 
was 25 cents. 

406 History of Highland County 

Ruckmansville (Mill Gap) was added to the list about this time. The 
carrier making a weekly trip from Warm Springs to Huntersville by way of 
Wilson ville and Ruckmansville, was paid $43.50 a quarter, in the form of 
drafts on the postmasters. While decending Back Creek Mountain on his 
way to Ruckmansville, he blew his horn to announce his approach. 

By change of name and the progressive establishment of new offices, the 
list of Highland offices has assumed the following form and extent: 

Bluegrass: Crabbottom, Meadowdale, Mill Gap, Naples, and Valley 

Monterey: Monterey, Pinckney, Trimble, and Vanderpool. 

Stonewall: Clover Creek, Doe Hill, Headwaters, McDowell, Palo Alto, 
Patna, Poverty, and Vilna. 

Nearly all offices have a daily mail. Two rural free delivery routes 
cover the Crabbottom and Straight Creek valleys. But owing to the dis- 
tance to railroad post offices, a response is a little slow in coming from much 
beyond the county confines. 

In 1820, the present Bath area had but two offices, Bath Courthouse and 
Hot Springs. The "Back Alleghany" section, soon to become Pocahontas 
County had also but two; Traveler's Repose and Cackley's (now Academy). 

Extinct offices are Buckeye (lower Back Creek), Hull (between High- 
town and Crabbottom), New Hampden, Straight Creek (at Forks of Waters). 
Waycross (at Cowpasture ford), Wier (in Crabbottom), and Wilsonville. 
Pinckney was at first called Stanley. 


as Guardian of Ann Jean Usher, who afterward married Loftus Pullin. 
This is the first fiduciary bond recorded in Augusta County. 

Know all men by these presents, that We, James Knox, John Brown, and 
Andrew Pickens, are held and firmly bound unto John Lewis, Gent., first 
Justice in Commission of the Peace for the County of Augusta, for and in Be- 
half and to the Sole use and behoof of the Justices of the said County, and their 
Successors in the sum of one hundred Pounds ($333.33) Current Money, to be 
Paid to the said John Lewis, his Exrs. admrs, and Assignees, to the which 
Payment well and truly to be made we bind our selves and Every of us, our 
and every of our heirs, Exrs, and Admrs, Jointly and severally firmly by these 
presents. Sealed with our Seals. Dated this 11th Day of Febr. 1745.* 

*Until after 1752 the legal year in England began March 25. The time between January I 
and March 25 was counted as belonging to the year prior to the true calendar year. The 
year above given would therefore properly be 1746. By the common usage of that day 
it would have been written February 11, 1745-'6. It is also to be remembered that 
the old style Gregorian calendar was in force in England until September, 1752. As it 
was then 11 days behind the true time, the date February 11 is properly February 22. 
And so with all other dates in this book prior to 1752. 

History of Highland County 407 

The Condition of the above obligation is Such that if the above Bound 
James Knox, his Exrs and administrators Shall well and truly pay and De- 
liver or Cause to be paid and Delivered unto Ann Jenney Usher, Orphan of 
Edward Usher Dec'd all such estate or Estates as now or ever hence Shall 
Appear to be Due to the said Orphan when and as soon as she shall attain to 
Lawful age or when thereunto required by the said Justices of the said County 
Court of Augusta, as also keep harmless the above named John Lewis and the 
rest of the said Justices, their and every of their heirs, Exrs, and admrs from 
all Troubles and Damages that shall or may arise about the s'd Estate, then 
this Obligation to be void and of none Effect, or else to remain in full force and 

At a Court Continued and held for Augusta County the 11th of Feb'y. 

Ann Jenny Usher Came into Court and Chose James Knox Her gardain, 
who and with John Brown and Andrew Pickens, his security, ack'd the Within 
Bond Which is Ordered to be recorded. 



The following appraisement of the estate of Jacob "Sivers" is dated Nov- 
8, 1758, signed by Ephraim and Daniel Love and Arthur Johnson, and re- 
corded Nov. 15, of the same year. 

The figures at the right are pounds, shillings, and pence, respectively. 

ton matuk (to one mattock) 10s a parcel of old Iron £1 . . 1 10 
and to pearsel of old coper Is and to a hakel 4s Colter & 

shear 1 10 

Mare & Colt £5, Corael Earlon (sorrel yearling) £1, 5s 

Bay mare & Earlon £6 12 5 

Black Cough and Calf £1, 5s one brindle Cough £1, 10s 

one Bulgh (bull) £1, 5s 4 

one brown Cough £1, 10s one Red Cough & Calf £1, 15s. . 3 5 

one Red Cough with whit face in Calf 1 8 

one black Cough with whit face and Calf 1 15 

one Red Stear with whit face £1, 15s one Pid (pied) 

Coug £1, 10s 3 5 

one Red Stear £1, 10s one Red Cough with whit face and 

Calf £1, 10s 3 

one black Cough with whit face & Calf 1 15 

one black Cough with whit face and Calf 1 10 

one Kittle 12s, 6d to one bason 9d Sorrel mare & Colt £5 . 5 13 3 
To one bay pasing mare three years old £4, 10s to one 

bay Colt £2 6 10 

to six young Chattle 4 10 

total (equivalent to $180.71) 54 4 3 

408 History of Highland County 


THIS INDENTURE Witnesseth that I, T— D— , now of Augusta 
County and Colony of Virginia, for and in consideration of the sum of Twenty 
Pounds ($66.67) Current and lawful money of the county aforesaid payed by 
T — S — of said County, he, the said T — D — hath bound himself and by 
these presents doth bind and put himself a Servant to the said T — S — to 
serve him, his Heirs, Exs, Adms, and Assigns, from the ninth Day of January 
last past for and during to the full end and term of four Years and a half from 
thence next ensuing, during all which term the said Servant, the said T — S — 
his Exs, Adms, or Assigns faithfully shall serve, and that Honestly and Obedi- 
ently in all things as a good and faithful Servant ought to do, and the said 
T — S — , his Exs, Adms, and Assigns, during the said Term shall provide for 
the said Servant sufficient meat, Drink, washing, lodging, and Apparel, and for 
the true performance hereof both the said Parties bind themselves firmly unto 
each other by these Presents. In Witness whereof, they have hereunto inter- 
changeably set their Hands and Seals this Twenty-first Day of March, 1771. 



I, , do Swear (or Affirm) to be true to the united States of America 

and to Serve them honestly and faithfully against all their Enemies or Opposers 
whatsoever, and to Observe and Obey the Orders of the Continental Congress 
and the Orders of the Generals and Officers Set over me by them 

before me the day of March, 1777 


York County 

in Pennsylvania SS. 

I do hereby certify, that William Lightner hath voluntarily subscribed 
the oath of Allegiance and Fidelity as directed by an ACT of GENERAL 
ASSEMBLY of PENNSYLVANIA passed the 13 day of June A. D. 1777. 

Witness my hand and seal the 25 day of July A. D. 1778. 

No. 453. 

History of Highland County 409 



Until near the middle of the last century, the rates charged by ordinaries', 
as houses for public entertainment were then called, were fixed by the county 
court. The astonishing prices for 1781 were in depreciated paper money. 

1746 (Au?usta) 

Cold "diet" $ .08 

Hot "diet" A2}4 

Bed with clean sheets .04 

Stabling and fodder .08 

Rum, per gallon 1.50 

Whiskey, per gallon '. 1.00 

1761 (Augusta) 

Cold "dyet" .08 

Hot "dyet" A2}4 

Lodging with clean sheets .05 

Corn or oats, per gallon ,08'>' ' 

Stabling and fodder, 24 hours .08*i 

Sangaree, per quart .25 

Madeira, per quart .41 

Virginia ale, per quart .05 

Whiskey, per gallon .83 

New England rum, per gallon .25 

French brandy, per gallon .83 

Apple or peach brandy, per gallon .33 

Rum punch with white sugar, per quart .21 

Rum punch with brown sugar, per quart .08 

"Cyder, " bottled or otherwise, per gallon .41 

1763 (Augusta) 

In this year the master is charged 12>^ cents for a warm dinner and the 
servant 10>2 cents. Mention is made as to whether boiled or unboiled cider 
shall be served with meals. 

1773 (Augusta) 

Common hot dinner with beer $ .21 

The same without beer .17 

Lodging with clean sheets and feather bed .08 

Stabling with good hay, 24 hours .17 

The same for 12 hours .10 

Liquors are graded in 21 prices. 

410 History of Highland County 

1781 {Rockingham) 

Cold dinner $ 10.00 

Hot dinner 12.00 

Feather bed and clean sheets 6.00 

Corn or oats, per gallon 6.00 

Stabling and hay, per night 8.00 

Cider, per quart 5.00 

Wine, per gallon 160.00 

Rye Whiskey, per gallon 80.00 

Later in the year rates were advanced as follows: 

Hot dinner $ 30.00 

Strong beer or cider, per quart 12.00 

Pasturage, per night 12.00 

Rye whiskey, per gallon 190.00 

1782 {Rockingham) 

Cold breakfast .11 

Hot breakfast .17 

Bed with clean sheets A2}4 

Stabling and hay, per night .14 

Corn, per gallon .12>£ 

Oats, per gallon .08 

Pasturage, per night .12>£ 


Breakfast or supper $ .22 (in Bath, 25c.) 

Dinner .33 

Lodging .08 

Stabling and hay, one night .25 

Pasturage, one night (Bath) .08 

Liquor, per half pint A2}i 

Cider, per quart .08 

History of Highland County 




Taken from the Day-Book of a 

Flannel, per yd $ 31}4 

Cotton, per yd 07 yi 

Figured Muslin, per yd. . . 1.25 

Irish Linen, per yd 50 

Calico, per yd 09)4 

Ribbon, per yd 10 

Domestic Muslin, per yd.. .25 

Cotton Yarn No. 6 14^' 

Spun Cotton, per lb 16^ 

Silk, per skein 02 

Wool Stockings, per pr . . . .83 
Worsted Stockings, per pr. 1.25 
Cotton Stockings, per pr. . .75 

Thread Sock, per pr 75 

Cravat Hdkf 87^ 

Black Silk Hdkf 87^ 

Small Silk Hdkf 25 

Cambric, per yd 1.00 

Shawl 2.00 

Wool"Hatt" 1.00 

Pumps, per pr 1.75 

Common Shoes, per pr. . . 1.50 

Small Shoes, per pr 56 

Large Shoes, per pr 1.50 

Suspenders, per pr 37 ]A. 

Gloves, per pr \2 X A 

Vest Pattern 1.00 

Pasteboard 12^ 

Buttons, per doz 25 

Buttons (shirt) per doz. . . .75 

Pins, per paper 25 

Knitting Pins, per set 75 

Needles, per doz 02 

Colored Morocco Slippers. 1.50 
Woman's Saddle 13.25 

Comb ny 2 

Ornamental Comb 37 }4 

Looking Glass 25 

Razor .Strop 58 

German Hymn Book 1.25 

Pocket Book .33 

Paper, per quire 50 

GOODS IN 1820 
Merchant of Franklin. 

Sealing Wafers, per box... .12>£ 

Slate Pencil 02 

Dutch Oven 2.25 

Milk Crock 16^ 

Pinfjugg" 10 

Snuffers 37^ 

Half-Pint Tumbler 12^ 

Tin Pan 31)4. 

Butter Plate 04 

Blue Cups and Saucers, 

per set 75 

Teaspoons, per set 25 

Andirons, per pr 3.00 

Butt Hinges, per pr 31 % 

Screws, per doz 16^3 

Latches, per doz 25 

Window Glass, per pane. . .14>£ 

Iron, per lb 08 

Pocket Knife 37^ 

Handsaw 2.00 

File 22 

Gun Lock 1.12# 

Gunpowder, per lb 62 K 

Gunflints, per doz 50 

Lead, per lb 04 

Imperial Tea, per lb 5.00 

Salt, per bu 2.00 

Sugar, per lb 06 

Butter, per lb 03 

Tallow, per lb 02 

Beef, per lb 04 

Pepper, per lb 50 

Allspice, per lb 50 

Ginger, per lb 1.00 

Cloves, per oz 12>£ 

Nutmeg, one \2}4 

Beeswax, per lb 01 

Ginsing, per lb 33 

Madder, per lb 66 

Indigo, per oz \2}4 

Turkey Red, per oz 15 


History of Highland County 


Estate of Jacob Zorn - below Sugar Grove - recorded August 19, 1756. 
Only a partial list given. 

read cow $ 6.67 

plow & plow irons 4.17 

smooth bore gun 1.00 

carpenter tools 2.33 

weeding hoe & Shovel. . . . 1.50 

log chain 1.67 

poals 1.00 

2 chests 3.00 

9 yd. lining (linen) 1.50 

1 Jacob & great coat 3.33 

5 yd. check linning 1.00 

6 baggs 1.62 

shears & looking glass 67 

fether bead 5.83 

spinning wheel 1.67 

2 pares gears (harnes) . 

4 bells 


2 sawes 

2 sickels 

iron pann 

2 pots 1 ceatel (kettle) .... 


augur & chisel 

saddle & bridle 

3 bottles & candlestick 

sow 7 pigies 2 shotes (ap- 














Wolf trap $ 2.50 

Spade 1.17 

Handsaw .67 

7 y 2 yd. homemade cloth. 8.12 

4^ yd. linsey 2.37 

2 chisels 

Money weights. 
2 hair seives . . . 






7 cows, 3 heifers, 4 cal- 
ves, 1 bull, 2 horses, 4 
sheep, and some hogs. 

Bed clothes 


2 spinning wheels. 

2 old saddles 



Negro man $250.00 

Negro girl 141.67 

Ox 15.00 

11 cows and 10 calves. . 90.00 

8 yearlings 20.00 

3 two year old cattle. . . 12.50 

Bull 5.00 

Horse 45.00 

Horse 18.33 

Smith's tools 

Teakettle, teapot, 


Large Bible 


Bed and furnishings . , 
Old "Waggon," etc. . 
3 sows and 18 shotes. 





History of Highland County 





Linen, per yd 






Tobacco, per lb 

1 quarter of mutton 


Leather breeches . . . 


1 day's work. 






1773— ESTATE OF WILLIAM DAVIS (Pendleton) 

Margaret (slave) 

Nan (slave) 

1 pr. silver buttons . . . 
17 brass coat buttons.. 

Otter skin 

Tanned hog skin 

Fine shirt 

Dutch blanket 

Deer skin 

90 bu. corn 











Salt cellar 


Buckskin gloves 


Cotton stockings 


Thread stockings 


White silk handkerchief. 


Spotted linen handker- 





2 bottles 



Horses . 







Tow cloth, per yd 

.$20.00 to $40.00 








Loom and appurte- 
nances 5.00 

Rifle 11.67 

Shovel plow 2.00 

Axe 1.00 

Man's saddle and wa- 

mus 8.33 

"Ruggs" 5.00 


Still $48.00 

Watch 10.00 

2 tables . 
Gun . . . 



9 breakfast plates . 

6 soup plates 

4 dinner plates. . . 
6 silver teaspoons. 
Silver tongs 

.50 Silver watch 

.50 Umbrella 

.21 Folding Table 

5.00 Bedstead and curtains . 

.75 Shotgun 




History of Highland County 


Horses $50.00 to $70.00 

Cows 8.00 to 12.00 

37 sheep 46.25 

11 four year old steers 

and heifers 165.00 

11 two year old steers 

and heifers 88.00 

Bull 25.00 

12 best hogs 10.00 

17 other hogs 5.67 

53 pigs 17.49 

Hay stacks 4.00 to 8.00 

Loom and appurte- 


Wheat, per bu. 
Rye, per bu. . . 




8 horses $200.00 

8 cows and calf 47.00 


Plowing, one day , 
Oats, per bu . . . . 


"Goald" watch $40.00 

Paper, per quire .25 


A COPY of engrossed letter from the President and Faculty of the 
University of Virginia to Charles P. Jones: 

University of Virginia. 
April 13, 1906. 
Hon. Charles Pinckney Jones, 

Monterey, Virginia. 

Dear Sir: 

Eight years ago you were appointed a member of the Board of Visitors of 
this University, and at the first meeting of the new Board your colleagues 
chose you as their Rector. The University was just emerging from the 
supreme ordeal of her corporate life, and the years of your rectorate have been 
the critical period of her history. 

It has been your happy fortune and your distinguished merit so to guide 
the deliberations of the Visitors that dignity and propriety have characterized 
all their acts; so to order the relations between the Board and the Faculty 
that sympathetic co-operation and harmonious effort have marked your period 
of office; so to mold the attitude of the University to the State that this great 
school stands more than ever before firmly rooted in the affections of Vir- 

History of Highland County 


We recall with gratitude to the Providence which governs all the affairs 
of men, that under your administration the University has been blessed with 
a prosperity which has grown and will continue to grow from more to more. 
We shall not forget either your sagacious control of her finances or the generous 
personal support given by you and your colleagues to her monetary credit. 
Nor will the sons of the University fail to remember, that while you were 
Rector, the office of President of the University of Virginia was first created, 
and then worthily and wisely filled. 

On this the natal day of our great Father and Founder* we congratulate 
you on this happy consummation of a long period of public service, unrewarded 
save by the affection and approbation of your fellow citizens. In the name of 
the University, which claims our united love and united service, we thank you 
for your effectual and unselfish labors in her cause, and bid you farewell with 
warm assurances of exalted esteem and abiding confidence and respect. 

Edwin A. Alderman. 

J. M. Page. 

Milton W. Humphreys. 

J. W. Mallet. 

F. P. Dunnington. 

Albert H. Tuttle. 

R. H. Whitehead. 

P. B. Barringer. 

R. H. Dabney. 

Francis H. Smith. 

James A. Harrison. 

William M. Thornton. 
W. A. Lambeth. 
J. S. Davis. 
Albert Lefevre. 
Raleigh C. Minor. 
Thomas Fitzhugh. 
Charles W. Kent. 
William H. Echols. 
Richard H. Wilson. 
Ormond Stone. 
Wm. Harrison Faulkner. 

Wm. M. Fontaine. 
Wm. Minor Lile. 
C. A. Graves. 
Wm. M. Randolph. 
Chas. M. McKergno. 
J. C. Flippin. 
J. L. Newcombe. 
Bruce R. Payne. 
Louis L. Holladay. 
W. H. Heck. 
Noah. K. Davis. 

*Thomas Jefferson, born April 13, 1743. 

A COPY of the Inscription on the Loving Cup presented by the President 
and Faculty of the University of Virginia to Charles P. Jones on his retiring 
from the rectorate: 

"Charles Pinckney Jones 


of the Board of Visitors 


Rector of the University of Virginia, 


The gift of the President and members 

of the Faculty in grateful recognition of 

unselfish and unstinted service to his 

Alma Mater and to the State." 


416 History of Highland County 


The article below is given with some condensation, but without the 
omission of any essential fact. Though it has but a limited bearing on the 
families of Highland, it is inserted in this book to show what has been ac- 
complished by persistent effort on the part of a lady teacher, whose time is of 
ccurse largely devoted to her work. Another purpose is to incite other per- 
sons to do likewise by preserving the fullest possible record of their own con- 
nections. It is a simpler matter for an individual to do this for his own 
relationship than for the author of a county history to attempt to do the same 
for a hundred or more families and in a very limited time. It should not be 
assumed that this or any similar book has said the last word and is therefore 
law and gospel on any given family. It has done what it could in its own way. 
It is for individual family historians to enlarge on the narrative given in the 
county history and to correct such defects as are apparent. Also, which is not 
consistent with the plan of the present book, the history of a family connection 
includes both male and female lines. 

The Hookes of the Valley of Virginia, are of Presbyterian Scotch-Irish 
stock. Robert, the pioneer, secured several patents for land, the earliest bear- 
ing the date 1743. It was for 150 acres on Mill Creek near Cross Keys and 
Port Republic in Rockingham county. Later patents appear to join this early 

That the pioneer was in the Valley at least as early as 1740, appears from 
the baptismal register of the old church at Fort Defiance, where for years the 
early Hookes worshiped, carrying their guns with them. This register re- 
cords the baptisms of the following children of Robert Hooke, Sr: (1) Esther. 
Dec. 23, 1740; (2) Robert, Jr., Jan. 6, 1743; (3) Martha, Jan. 16, 1745- 
(4) George and Jean (twins), Oct. 1, 1746. 

The will of Robert Hooke was probated in the Rockingham court, Sept. 
1804. It is possible, however, that Robert, Jr., is here named. The will 
mentions the following children: Elijah, Mary (married — Murry), Martha, 
William, Esther (Belshey), Robert, Jean (Read), George, James. James 
Murry, a grandson, is also spoken of. 

In 1899, the late Col. William Walker Hooke, then residing at the age of 
82, on the homestead of his grandfather, William Hooke, Sr., \yi miles south 
of Cross Keys, wrote from memory a sketch of his grandfather's family. He 
gave few dates, but named the following brothers of William Hooke: George, 
James, Robert, John, Elisha (Elijah?). All these remained in the Valley ex- 
cept George, who settled in Georgia, although a part of his family came north- 
ward to Tennessee and Kentucky. The other brothers lived on farms ad- 
joining and around their family homestead. 

James, father of Robert (Robin) Hooke of near Port Republic, owned the 
land afterward known as the William Rodeffer and Solomon Beery places. 
His grandchildren, James L. A. Scott and Cynthia Hooke, still live on the old 

History of Highland County 417 

farm, and Mrs. Rebecca Bateman, a granddaughter, lives near. James 
married Mary Lewis in 1798, and died in 1844. 

Robert, Jr., owned the place later known as the Joseph Beery farm. 
Elisha (Elijah?) owned the land afterward known as the Samuel Flory and 
Rodham Kemper places. John owned a large tract two miles N. E. of Mount 
Sidney. He was a bachelor and left his estate to eight maiden nieces. 

James had three sons and three daughters, their names, so far as known, 
being James, Robert, Elizabeth, Mary, and Ann. The children of Robert 
were Mary, Jane, Ann, Catharine, and James Addison. Elisha or Elijah had 
at least three sons; James, Robert, and Samuel. The descendants of these 
families are not fully known to the writer, some of the connection having 
moved away many years ago. But Robert Scott Hooke of Highland was first 
cousin to Capt. Robert Hooke, father of Col. William W. 

William, Jr., married a Miss Campbell (Sarah?). A tracing of this Camp- 
bell line is desired by the writer. Their children were James (died 1844, in his 
7.1st year), Robert, Jennetta, Martha, Ann, Catharine, Rebecca. James 
married Mary, daughter of William B. Lewis of the Shenandoah river and first 
cousin to Gen. Samuel Lewis. After living a while on a farm near Cave 
Station owned by his father, he took his family in 1812 in a covered wagon to 
Greene County, Ohio, in which state their descendants are numerous, some 
still living near Xenia. Mrs. Mary Hooke died in 1861. Catharine, sister of 
James, married James Lyon and also went to Ohio. The other daughters 
never married, but went to their brother James in 1837, when quite old. 

Robert, the younger son, was born Oct. 10, 1776, and died Oct. 9, 1852. 
He was a captain of riflemen in the 58th Regiment, Virginia Militia, in 1812. 
Col. McDowell being the commander. Capt. Hooke was commissioned April 
1, 1811, took service in the aforesaid organization, July 8, 1813, and con- 
tinued therein till Jan. 15, 1814. His wife was Elizabeth, daughter of John 
and Sarah (Connelly) Walker, who was born, June 2, 1792, married May 1, 
1817, and died June 15, 1863. Their children were the following: 

1. William Walter, born Feb. 5, 1818, died Mar. 23, 1904. 

2. Sarah Campbell, born Aug. 28, 1819, died June 20, 1847. 

3. Ann, born Sept. 27, 1821, died Mar. 3, 1899. 

4. Elizabeth Jane, born Sept. 1, 1823, died Aug. 23, 1887. 

5. Rebecca, born Oct. 14, 1825, died Feb. 8, 1900. 

6. Martha C, born May 11, 1828, died July 30, 1907. 

7. John, born April 23, 1830, died July 2, 1854. 

8. Lucy Margaret, born Oct. 19 1835, died Mar. 5, 1905. 

William W., married, Nov. 9, 1837, Maria Jane Dunn, also of Rocking- 
ham, who was born June 12, 1818 and died April 20, 1897. He was promi- 
nent in church and official circles, and was elder of the Union Presbyterian 
church at Cross Keys. In the early 50's he became a colonel of militia. In 
the War of '61, he belonged to the old reserves and was at the battle of New 
Market. His children were these: 

1. Mary Elizabeth, born Aug. 6, 1838, died Jan. 4, 1897, married W. 

418 History of Highland County 

Stewart Slusser and had eight children: Margaret B, Robert, Clara, Cora, 
J. Calvin, Charles, Howard, Mattie (died young). Clara married J. Samuel 
Hough and still lives on Mill Creek. The others went to Indiana. 

2. Robert, born Jan. 7, 1840, died Sept. 13, 1861, was a member of the 
1st Virginia Cavalry (C. S. A.). 

3. Sarah Ann, died when a year old. 

4. William Franklin, born Mar. 22, 1843, died Oct. 11, 1862, of wound 
received at Second Manassas. 

5. Martha J, born Dec. 19, 1844, died Dec. 11, 1890; married M. J. 

6. John Calvin, born Mar. 19, 1847. His first wife was Emma Van 
Lear, whose children were Lena, Hattie, Rifa, and Clyde. His second was 
Mrs. Margaret Corder, whose children by him are Lucy and Walker. He 
now lives at Pomona, Cal. 

7. Rebecca Margaret, born Jan. 8, 1849, died when 5 years old. 

8. Lucy Frances, born Feb. 5, 1851, married William D. Rodgers, who 
died in 1908. She lives at Broadway. 

9. James Walker, born Feb. 5, 1853, and living near Penn Laird, Va. 
He married Margaret Amentrout. His children are William, Robert, and 
Charles Marvin. 

10. Emma Melvena, born Feb. 27, 1855, died at age of 5. 

11. Charles McClurg, born Mar. 6, 1857, died at age of 4. 

12. Harvey Samuel, born May 28, 1860, married Mary Lupton. They 
have one child, Albert Lupton, and live at Roanoke, Va. 

13. Laura Bell, born Nov. 27, 1863, died April 4, 1903. She married 
Arthur L. Kemper. Their children are Audrey Lee, Bertha Hooke (deceased), 
Arthur Walker, Harvey Bibble, Laura Marie. 

Sarah C, daughter of Robert, married James C. Williams. Her children 
were Martha A (died young) and Lucy J, who married John M. Altaffer and 
died without issue. Ann, sister to Sarah C, married Lewis F. Meyerhoeffer. 
Her children were : 

1. Sarah A, married George Begoon. Children: William, Lucy Jane, 
Charles, Margaret, John, Mittie, James, and another that died in infancy. 

2. Elizabeth M, married James Begoon. No issue. 

3. James, married Mary Meyerhoeffer, daughter of M. J. Children: 
Carrier, Jason, Cleveland. 

4. John H., married Margaret Altaffer. Children: Marvin, Annie, 
Wilber, Joseph. A second wife was Mrs. Mattie Frank. No issue. 

5. Robert, married Elizabeth Pirkey. Children: Roy, Nina, Alma, 

6. Thomas C, married in Iowa, lives in Nebraska. 

7. Lucy, married Lewis G. Riddle. He and two of the six children are 

8. Lewis B, married Kate Jordan. Children: Daisy, Etta, Elbert, 

History of Highland County 419 

9. Mattie, married M. Brown Rucbush. Children: Hardin, Anne, 
Belle, Charles. 

10. Ida M., single. 

Elizabeth J, third daughter married Robert K. Wilson of Augusta, who 
lost an arm at Gettysburg in the Confederate service. Children: 

1. William S, died in early life, married, leaving daughters, Lee and 

2. Luc, died single. 

3. Mary, married Davis Altaffer of Iowa. No issue. 
Rebecca, fourth daughter, married Rev. Samuel Filler. Children: 

1. Elizabeth, married John H. Roller, whose only child is Florida V. 

2. Sarah J., married John M. Sauffley, deceased. One child, Charles. 

3. Alice S., married John G. Fulton, deceased. Children: Gertrude, 
Sarah, Givens, Filler. 

4. John R., married Florence Earman. Children: Alice, William. 
Robert, Lucy. 

5. Charles, died young. 

Martha C, fifth daughter, married John L. Meycrhoeffer. Children: 

1. Charles, died young. 

2. John H., married Margaret Whitncr. No issue. 

3. Margaret C, single. 

Lucy M, sixth daughter, married Charles A. G. Van Lear. Children: 

1. John E., married Eliza Burton, deceased. Only child, Victor (de- 

2. William R., married Emma Lauck. No issue. 

3. James W., married Elizabeth Huffman of Augusta. Child, Edith W., 
residence, Harrisonburg. 

4. Charles T. A., married Emma Peterson. Children: Hardin, Adol- 
phus, Floyd, Edna, Dewey. 

5. Arthur W., married Ida Roller. Children: Charles H, Vernie V, 
Bernard M. 

6. Elizabeth M., married Luther Saufley. Children: Charles, Virginia. 

7. Travers B., married Daisy Nichol. No issue. 

8. Ivy, married Albert Bailey, deceased. No issue. 

9. Margie V. L., married John Altaffer, 1909. Residence, Indepen- 
ence, Kas. 

This brief and incomplete sketch is given with the hope that other mem- 
bers of the Hooke family may furnish what information they can, in order that 
the complete history of the connection may be established. I wish to thank 
all who have assisted in this difficult undertaking, and shall be glad to receive 
additional information relating to other branches. 

(Miss) Audrey Lee Kemper, 

Wytheville, Virginia. 
August 11, 1911. 

ArchW ^